Chapter 4 Microprocessor CPU


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Chapter 4 Microprocessor CPU

  1. 1. Chapter 4 The Central Processing Unit
  2. 2. MICROPROCESSOR <ul><li>Brain or Engine of a computer is called Processor or Microprocessor or Central Processing Unit (CPU ) which is a very important chip found inside computer. </li></ul><ul><li>is the component in a digital computer capable of executing a program. It is sometimes called a logic chip which carries out many computer functions. </li></ul><ul><li>It interprets computer program instructions and processes data. </li></ul><ul><li>Microprocessor is often abbreviated MPU for Microprocessor Unit or just MP . </li></ul><ul><li>The microprocessor is the heart of any normal computer </li></ul><ul><li>It is the most expensive single component found inside the system. </li></ul><ul><li>Intel is world leader in Microprocessor . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Microprocessors
  4. 4. Microprocessors <ul><li>The most important features to look for in a new processor are: </li></ul><ul><li>The type of processor it is (for example, Pentium III vs. K7) </li></ul><ul><li>The speed at which it operates </li></ul><ul><li>The amount and type of L2 cache (a special type of high-speed memory) it includes </li></ul><ul><li>Any additional processor instructions it supports </li></ul><ul><li>The type of physical connector it uses </li></ul>
  5. 5. MICROPROCESSOR <ul><li>Processors are rated based on several factors that affect performance and the motherboards that can support them. These factors are listed here: </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>There are many components to support the function of microprocessors. </li></ul><ul><li>Properties of this components determine the quality and functionality of the microprocessor. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the components which are used inside processor are: </li></ul><ul><li>Transistor </li></ul><ul><li>Register </li></ul><ul><li>Clock </li></ul>CPU CORE COMPONENTS
  8. 8. <ul><li>The transistor is the fundamental building block of the circuitry that governs the operation of computers, cellular phones, and all other modern electronics. </li></ul><ul><li>Today's microprocessors contain tens of millions of microscopic transistors. </li></ul>TRANSISTOR
  9. 9. Transistor
  10. 10. Transistor <ul><li>The number of transistors available has a huge effect on the performance of a processor. </li></ul><ul><li>With more transistors, much more powerful multipliers capable of single-cycle speeds become possible. </li></ul><ul><li>More transistors also allow a technology called pipelining . </li></ul><ul><li>In a pipelined architecture instruction execution overlaps . </li></ul><ul><li>Pipelining increases the rate at which instructions are completed, with the result that a program's overall execution time is lowered . </li></ul><ul><li>Pipelining allows the processor to complete more instructions in a given period of time. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Vacuum tube <ul><li>Prior to the invention of transistors , digital circuits were </li></ul><ul><li>composed of vacuum tubes , which had many disadvantages. </li></ul><ul><li>They were much larger , required more energy , produce more heat prone to failures. </li></ul><ul><li>It's safe to say that without the invention of transistors, computing as we know it today would not be possible. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Register <ul><li>Register is a small amount of very fast computer memory which is found inside the microprocessor. </li></ul><ul><li>CPU registers are very special memory locations. They are not part of main memory; the CPU implements them on-chip </li></ul><ul><li>It is used to speed the execution of computer programs and provide the fastest way for a CPU to access data </li></ul><ul><li>Modern computer work on the principle of moving data from main memory into faster registers, carrying out operation on the data, and then moving the result back into main memory. </li></ul><ul><li>This phenomenon is called as load-store architecture . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Register
  14. 14. Register <ul><li>There are many categories of registers found inside </li></ul><ul><li>microprocessor to help it to carry out its function </li></ul><ul><li>properly. Name and function of some registers are </li></ul><ul><li>mentioned below: </li></ul>
  15. 15. Clock <ul><li>Clock speed or clock rate , is the speed at which a microprocessor executes instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>Every computer contains an internal clock that regulates the rate at which instructions are executed and synchronizes all the various computer components. </li></ul><ul><li>The CPU requires a fixed number of clock ticks (or clock cycles) to execute each instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>The faster the clock, the more instructions the CPU can execute per second. </li></ul>
  16. 16. How microprocessors works <ul><li>The clock signals are generated by small shiny component called crystal. </li></ul><ul><li>Clock speeds are expressed in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz). </li></ul>
  17. 17. HOW MICROPROCESSOR WORKS? <ul><li>A microprocessor is designed to perform arithmetic and logic operations that make use of small number-holding areas called registers . </li></ul><ul><li>Typical microprocessor operations include adding, subtracting , comparing two numbers , and fetching numbers from one area to another. </li></ul><ul><li>These operations are the result of a set of instructions that are part of the microprocessor design. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>A processor contains three basic components: an input/output (I/O) unit , a control unit , and one or more arithmetic logic unit (ALUs). </li></ul><ul><li>The I/O unit manages data and instructions entering and leaving the processor. </li></ul><ul><li>The control unit manages all activities inside the processor. </li></ul><ul><li>The ALU does all calculations and comparisons. </li></ul>HOW MICROPROCESSOR WORKS?
  19. 19. <ul><li>The CPU performs four steps in executing an instruction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The control unit gets the instruction from memory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The control unit decides what the instruction means and directs the necessary data to be moved from the memory to the arithmetic logic unit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The arithmetic logic unit performs the actual operation on the data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The result of the operation is stored in memory or a register. </li></ul></ul>HOW MICROPROCESSOR WORKS?
  20. 21. <ul><li>A microprocessor executes a collection of machine instructions that tell the processor what to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the instructions, a microprocessor does three basic things : </li></ul><ul><li>Using its Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU), a microprocessor can perform mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Modern microprocessors contain complete floating point processors that can perform extremely sophisticated operations on large floating point numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>A microprocessor can move data from one memory location to another </li></ul><ul><li>A microprocessor can make decisions and jump to a new set of instructions based on those decisions. </li></ul>HOW MICROPROCESSOR WORKS?
  22. 23. HOW MICROPROCESSOR WORKS? <ul><li>It may seems that microprocessor does very sophisticated things, but those are its three basic activities . The Figure above shows an extremely simple microprocessor capable of doing those three things. This microprocessor has: </li></ul><ul><li>An address bus (that may be 8, 16 or 32 bits wide) that sends an address to memory </li></ul><ul><li>A data bus (that may be 8, 16 or 32 bits wide) that can send data to memory or receive data from memory </li></ul><ul><li>A RD (Read) and WR (Write) line to tell the memory whether it wants to set or get the addressed location </li></ul><ul><li>A clock line that lets a clock pulse sequence the processor </li></ul><ul><li>A reset line that resets the program counter to zero (or whatever) and restarts execution. </li></ul>
  23. 24. PROCESSOR PACKAGES <ul><li>The processor housing is called the processor package which can be thin and lay flat in a processor socket or can be a thicker cartridge type package such as the one shown in below figure </li></ul>
  24. 25. History of Processor <ul><li>There are many variations of both kinds of packages used for </li></ul><ul><li>desktop PCs and high- end workstations. Most processor </li></ul><ul><li>packages are flat and thin and can be rectangular or square. </li></ul><ul><li>The connectors on the bottom of the package can be pins </li></ul><ul><li>or lands . </li></ul>
  25. 26. History of Processor
  26. 27. History of Processor
  27. 28. History of Processor
  28. 29. History of Processor
  29. 30. History of Processor
  30. 31. History of Processor
  31. 32. History of Processor
  32. 33. History of Processor
  33. 34. Modern processor-INTEL PENTIUM 4 <ul><li>Intel Pentium 4 microprocessors were based on completely new NetBurst micro architecture, which differed significantly from P6 micro-architecture used in Pentium II/Pentium III microprocessor families. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pentium 4 processor runs at up to 3.8 GHz and has undergone several improvements since it was first introduced in 2000 . </li></ul><ul><li>One of key features of Pentium 4 processor was Hyper-Pipelined Technology - 20-stage pipeline, which was two times longer than in previous generation of Pentium processors. While longer pipelines are less efficient than shorter ones, they allow the CPU to reach higher frequencies, and thus increase CPU performance. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Modern processor-INTEL DUAL-CORE PROCESSOR <ul><li>In April of 2005 , Intel announced the Intel Pentium processor Extreme Edition , featuring an Intel dual-core processor , which can provide immediate advantages for people looking to buy systems that boost multitasking computing power and improve the throughput of multithreaded applications. </li></ul><ul><li>An Intel dual-core processor consists of two complete execution cores in one physical processor , both running at the same frequency. Both cores share the same packaging and the same interface with the chipset/memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Overall, an Intel dual-core processor offers a way of delivering more capabilities while balancing energy-efficient performance, and is the first step in the multi-core processor future. </li></ul><ul><li>Intel Core Duo processor is available in Intel's premium laptop platform , Intel Centrino Duo mobile technology. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Modern processor-INTEL DUAL-CORE PROCESSOR
  36. 37. Modern processor-INTEL DUAL-CORE PROCESSOR
  37. 38. Modern processor-INTEL CORE 2 QUAD PROCESSOR <ul><li>The Intel Core 2 Quad processor is the latest in cutting edge processor technology for the desktop PC. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the new Intel Core micro-architecture , the Intel Core 2 Quad processor delivers four complete execution cores within a single processor , delivering unprecedented performance and responsiveness in multi-threaded and multi-tasking business and home use environments. </li></ul>
  38. 39. Modern processor-INTEL CORE 2 QUAD PROCESSOR
  39. 40. Modern processor-AMD ATHLON 64 X2 DUAL-CORE <ul><li>The AMD Athlon 64 X2 Dual-Core processor is built for powerful desktop, enabling it for high performance. </li></ul><ul><li>It is essentially a processor consisting of two Athlon 64 cores joined together on one die with additional control logic. </li></ul><ul><li>Dual-core processors contain two processing cores, residing on one chip, that perform calculations on two streams of data, thereby increasing efficiency and speed while running multiple programs and the new generation of multi-threaded software. AMD officially started shipping the Athlon 64 X2 at in June 2005 . AMD also designed processor for notebooks include the Turion 64 Mobile , Mobile Athlon 64 , Athlon 64 for notebooks, Mobile Athlon XP-M and mobile Sempron. </li></ul>
  40. 41. Modern processor-AMD ATHLON 64 X2 DUAL-CORE
  41. 42. INSTALL OR UPGRADE NEW PROCESSOR <ul><li>Before installing a new processor, identify the processor slot on the motherboard. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the processors have specific slot in which it can fits. Great thing about personal computer (PC) is that you can upgrade its CPU to make computer operate faster but at the end there is limitation on motherboard up to what extent it can support CPU upgrade. </li></ul>
  42. 43. Steps to install new processor <ul><li>Lift up the lever on the side of the socket. </li></ul><ul><li>Match up the pins on the bottom of the new processor with the holes in the socket and then gently insert the processor into the socket. </li></ul><ul><li>Press down on the lever on the side of the socket. </li></ul>
  43. 44. Steps to install new processor
  44. 45. Steps to install new processor
  45. 46. Steps to install heat sink Every processor has heat sink attached on top it to make it cool. Processor normally becomes hot while it is in operation; therefore heat sink with fan is attached on top of processor. Note: Make sure you have the correct heat sink/fan for your type of CPU (it will specify which type of CPU it is for).
  46. 47. Step 1 <ul><li>If you have a new heat sink and there is a plastic strip on the bottom of the new heat sink, </li></ul><ul><li>remove it. </li></ul><ul><li>- OR - </li></ul><ul><li>If you have an old heat sink and a silicon-covered thermal pad came with the replacement processor kit, scrape the old thermal pad off and clean the heat sink with isopropyl alcohol. Then place the new thermal pad in the centre of the old heat sink. </li></ul>
  47. 49. Step 2 <ul><li>Place the heat sink on top of the processor. </li></ul>
  48. 50. Step 3 <ul><li>Your heat sink may have one of the </li></ul><ul><li>following retention mechanisms. Follow the </li></ul><ul><li>instructions that most closely resemble your heat </li></ul><ul><li>sink. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat sink with removable retention clips. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat sink with captive retention clips. </li></ul><ul><li>Passive heat sink with removable retention clip. </li></ul>
  49. 51. Step 3-Heat sink with removable retention clips.
  50. 52. Step 3-Heat sink with removable retention clips.
  51. 53. Step 3-Heat sink with captive retention clips.
  52. 54. Step 3-Passive heat sink with removable retention clip.
  53. 55. Step 4 <ul><li>If the processor you are replacing has an active heat sink with </li></ul><ul><li>a fan power cable that connects to the system board, connect </li></ul><ul><li>the fan power cable to the fan power cable connector on the </li></ul><ul><li>system board. </li></ul>
  54. 56. Step 4
  55. 57. Step 5 <ul><li>Close the computer case cover and start your computer. </li></ul>