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Processors and its Types


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Processors and its Types

  1. 1. TOPIC: Processors and its Types prepared By: Nimrah Shahbaz Superior University
  2. 2.  A Processor is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic Instructions that drive a computer.  The Processor or central processing unit (CPU) , is the brain of computer . The more powerful the processor is the faster your PC will run. The speed of a Processor that is the number of instructions per second that it can carry out . It is measured in gigahertz ( GHz ).
  3. 3. TYPES OF PROCESSOR  Budget Processor  AMD Sempron  Intel Celeron  Main Stream Processors  AMD Athlon 64  Intel Pentium 4  Dual Core Processors  AMD Athlon 64 X 2  Intel Pentium D  Here , we discuss about only Pentium , Dual Core and Core 2.
  4. 4. PENTIUM  Pentium comes from the Greek word “Pente”. Intel produced the 8086 series of chips in its most common form , Pentium processor is a consumer – level product that Intel rates as “two stars” , meaning that it is above the low – end Atom and Celecon products but below the faster core i3 , i5 and i7 lines as well as the high – end Xeon processor.
  5. 5. PENTIUM
  6. 6. HISTORY OF PENTIUM  Pentium is basically outcome of a research conducted by an Indian Engineer. Popularly known as “ Father Of the Pentium Chip” the creator of computer chip is “ Vinod Dham”.
  7. 7. PENTIUM  The Pentium is widely – used personal computer microprocessor from the Intel Corporation. First offered in 1993, the Pentium quickly replaced Intel’s 486 microprocessor as the microchip of – choice in manufacturing a “ Personal Computer ” . The original Pentium model includes two microprocessor on one chip that contains 3.1 million transistors.
  8. 8. PENTIUM FEATURES  Introduced in 1993, with clock frequency ranging from 60 to 66 MHz.  The primary changes in Pentium Processor are :  Superscalar Architecture  Dynamic Branch prediction  Pipelined Floating – point unit  Seperate 8k code and data caches  Writeback MESI protocol in the data cache  64 – Bit Data Bus  Bus Cycle pipelining
  9. 9. PENTIUM ARCHITECTURE  It has data bus of 64 bit and address bus of 32 bit.  There are two “ Seperate 8KB caches – one for code and one for data.”  Each cache has a seperate address translation TLB which translate linear addresses to physical.  Code Caches: . 2 way set associative cache . 256 lines between Cache and prefetch buffer , permitting prefetching of 32 bytes ( 256 / 8) of instructions.
  10. 10. PENTIUM DUAL CORE  A Dual Core processor is a cpu with two seperate cores on the same die , each with its own cache. Its the equivalent of getting two microprocessors in one.
  11. 11. PENTIUM DUAL CORE  Dual Core refers to a CPU that includes two complete execution cores per physical processor. It has combined two Processors and their caches.
  12. 12. PENTIUM DUAL CORE  A Dual Core processor is a CPU with two seperate cores on the same die each with its own cache. It’s the equivalent of getting two micro processors in one.  Dual core chip is that tasks can be carried out in parallel streams , decreasing processing time. This is referred to as thread-level parallelism (TLP).
  13. 13. PENTIUM DUAL CORE  TLP is also possible on motherboards that can accommodate two seperate CPU dies. When TLP is accomplished in a single CPU through dual core technology, it is called Chip- Level Multiprocessing ( CLM ).  In Dual core CPUs , each microprocessor generally has its own on-board cache , known as Level 1 (L1) cache. L1 cache significantly improves system performance, becuase it is much faster to access on chip cache then to use Random Access Memory(RAM). L1 cache is accessed at microprocessor speeds.
  14. 14. DUAL CORE  Dual Core chips also commonly feature secondary shared cache on the CPU, known as Level 2 ( L2 ) cache. Motherboards may also have a cache chip designated as Level 3 (L3 ) cache. While faster than RAM , L3 cache is slower than cache built into the dual core chip.
  15. 15. HISTORY OF DUAL CORE  In the October 1989 issue of IEEE Spectrum, an article titled “Microprocessors Circa 2000” predicted that multicore processors could come to market soon after the turn of the century. The paper was the work of four Intel Corporation technologists, including Pat Gelsinger, vice president and general manager of the Digital Enterprise Group, who envisioned the future through the lens of Moore’s Law.
  16. 16. HISTORY  Fifteen years later, their predictions are proving to be true and multicore processor capability development has become one of the top business and product initiates for Intel.  In April of 2005, Intel announced the Intel Pentium processor Extreme Edition, featuring an Intel dualcore processor, which can provide immediate advantages for people looking to buy systems that boost multitasking computing power and improve the throughput of multi threaded applications.
  17. 17. SPECIFICATIONS OF DUAL CORE o Available in 1.60 GHz – 2.4 frequency range. o 64 bit processor. o Binary compatible with applications running on previous members of the Intel microprocessor line. o Enhanced branch prediction. o Supports Execute Disable bit capability . o Intel 64 Architecture. o Instruction Set : MMX , SSE , SSE2 , SSE3 , SSSE3 , X86-64. o frequency at 800 MHz.
  18. 18. SPECIFICATIONS o Optimized for 32 – bit applications running on advanced 32-bit operating systems. o Two 32-KB Level 1 data Caches. o 1MB Advanced Smart Cache. o Enhanced floating point and multimedia unit for enhanced video, audio , encryption , and performance. o Multiple low-power states o Improved cache hit rate on load / store operations. 775-land package.
  19. 19. DUAL CORE ARCHITECTURE  A Dual Core processor has two cores , but these two share facilities such as the bus cache.  Cache : Cache is divided into levels. Each core includes its own local “ Level One ” ( L1) cache, but they share Level two ( L2 ) cache.  Hyperthreading : When executing programs , Hyperthreading portions off part of the core specifically for that programs use the entire core.
  20. 20. CORE 2  The Core 2 brand was introduced on 21 July 2006, comprising the Solo (single- core), Duo (dual-core), Quad (quad- core), and in 2007, the Extreme (dual- or quad-core CPUs for enthusiasts) subbrands. Intel Core 2 processors with Pro technology (designed for businesses) include the dual-core and quad-core branches.
  21. 21. CORE 2
  22. 22. CORE 2
  23. 23. SPECIFICATIONS o x86 Architecture : The Intel Core 2 Duo uses the x86 instruction set, whch was introduced in 1978 with the 8086 / 8088 processor. Further more it supports the multimedia extension MMX , SSE2 , SSE3 , and SSE4. o Dual Core Technology : Two processor cores run with the same frequency in the same processor building block and share the level 2 cache as well as the front side bus ( FSB ). o Execute Disable Bit : Prevents security problems through buffer overflows , if the operation system supports it and if it is activated. o Wide Dynamic Execution : Every core can execute four complete commands simultaneously. o Smart- Memory- Access : Shorter idle times, improved data transfer and faster out-of-order command execution lead to better usage of the pipeline and as a result to higher performance.
  24. 24. SPECIFICATIONS o Advanced – Smart – Cache : Like the Core Due , the Core 2 Duo has shared level 2 cache and each core receives the same amount of cache. Intel doubled the bandwidth to the level 1 cache though. o Advanced – Digital – Media – Boost : One 128 – Bit SSE command is now output per clock cycle. o Virtualization Technology ( VT) : The Intel VT offers hardware support for virtual systems on one computer ( use of several isolated operation systems at the same time e.g. through Xen or VM Ware).Beware, not all models support VT (especially te cheaper ones don’t.) o 64 bit support : Support of 64 bit wide words in the CPU. This means the processor can handle 64 bit data packets. The Intel Core 2 Duo supports the AMD 64 extension ( liscensed) , through which 32 and 64 bit programs can run on the CPU ( if a 64 bit operation system is used).