Processors and its Types
A Processor is the logic circuitry that responds to and
processes the basic Instructions that drive a computer.
The Processor or central processing unit (CPU) , is the
brain of computer . The more powerful the processor is the faster
your PC will run. The speed of a Processor that is the number of
instructions per second that it can carry out . It is measured
in gigahertz ( GHz ).
TYPES OF PROCESSOR
Main Stream Processors
AMD Athlon 64
Intel Pentium 4
Dual Core Processors
AMD Athlon 64 X 2
Intel Pentium D
Here , we discuss about only Pentium , Dual Core and Core
Pentium comes from the Greek word
“Pente”. Intel produced the 8086 series of
chips in its most common form , Pentium
processor is a consumer – level product
that Intel rates as “two stars” , meaning that
it is above the low – end Atom and
Celecon products but below the faster core
i3 , i5 and i7 lines as well as the high – end
HISTORY OF PENTIUM
Pentium is basically outcome
of a research conducted by
an Indian Engineer. Popularly
“ Father Of the Pentium Chip”
the creator of computer chip is
“ Vinod Dham”.
The Pentium is widely – used personal
computer microprocessor from the Intel
Corporation. First offered in 1993, the
Pentium quickly replaced Intel’s 486
microprocessor as the microchip of – choice
in manufacturing a “ Personal Computer
” . The original Pentium model includes two
microprocessor on one chip that contains
3.1 million transistors.
Introduced in 1993, with clock frequency ranging
from 60 to 66 MHz.
The primary changes in Pentium Processor are :
Dynamic Branch prediction
Pipelined Floating – point unit
Seperate 8k code and data caches
Writeback MESI protocol in the data cache
64 – Bit Data Bus
Bus Cycle pipelining
It has data bus of 64 bit and address bus of 32 bit.
There are two “ Seperate 8KB caches – one for code
and one for data.”
Each cache has a seperate address translation TLB
which translate linear addresses to physical.
. 2 way set associative cache
. 256 lines between Cache and prefetch buffer ,
permitting prefetching of 32 bytes ( 256 / 8) of
PENTIUM DUAL CORE
A Dual Core processor is a cpu with two
seperate cores on the same die , each with
its own cache. Its the equivalent of getting
two microprocessors in one.
PENTIUM DUAL CORE
Dual Core refers to a CPU that includes two
complete execution cores per physical
processor. It has combined two Processors
and their caches.
PENTIUM DUAL CORE
A Dual Core processor is a CPU with two
seperate cores on the same die each with its
own cache. It’s the equivalent of getting two
micro processors in one.
Dual core chip is that tasks can be carried
out in parallel streams , decreasing
processing time. This is referred to as
thread-level parallelism (TLP).
PENTIUM DUAL CORE
TLP is also possible on motherboards that can
accommodate two seperate CPU dies. When TLP
is accomplished in a single CPU through dual core
technology, it is called Chip- Level
Multiprocessing ( CLM ).
In Dual core CPUs , each microprocessor
generally has its own on-board cache , known as
Level 1 (L1) cache. L1 cache significantly improves
system performance, becuase it is much faster to
access on chip cache then to use Random Access
Memory(RAM). L1 cache is accessed at
Dual Core chips also commonly
feature secondary shared cache
on the CPU, known as Level 2 ( L2 )
cache. Motherboards may also have
a cache chip designated as Level 3
(L3 ) cache. While faster than RAM ,
L3 cache is slower than cache built
into the dual core chip.
HISTORY OF DUAL CORE
In the October 1989 issue of IEEE Spectrum,
an article titled “Microprocessors Circa 2000”
predicted that multicore processors could come to
market soon after the turn of the century. The
paper was the work of four Intel Corporation
technologists, including Pat Gelsinger, vice
president and general manager of the Digital
Enterprise Group, who envisioned the future
through the lens of Moore’s Law.
Fifteen years later, their predictions are
proving to be true and multicore processor
capability development has become one of the
top business and product initiates for Intel.
In April of 2005, Intel announced the Intel
Pentium processor Extreme Edition, featuring
an Intel dualcore processor, which can
provide immediate advantages for people
looking to buy systems that boost multitasking
computing power and improve the throughput
of multi threaded applications.
SPECIFICATIONS OF DUAL CORE
o Available in 1.60 GHz – 2.4 frequency range.
o 64 bit processor.
o Binary compatible with applications running on
previous members of the Intel microprocessor line.
o Enhanced branch prediction.
o Supports Execute Disable bit capability .
o Intel 64 Architecture.
o Instruction Set :
MMX , SSE , SSE2 , SSE3 , SSSE3 , X86-64.
o frequency at 800 MHz.
o Optimized for 32 – bit applications running on advanced
32-bit operating systems.
o Two 32-KB Level 1 data Caches.
o 1MB Advanced Smart Cache.
o Enhanced floating point and
multimedia unit for enhanced
video, audio , encryption , and
o Multiple low-power states
o Improved cache hit rate on
load / store operations.
DUAL CORE ARCHITECTURE
A Dual Core processor has two cores , but these two share
facilities such as the bus cache.
Cache is divided into levels.
Each core includes its own local “ Level One ” ( L1) cache, but they
share Level two ( L2 ) cache.
When executing programs , Hyperthreading portions off part of
the core specifically for that programs use the entire core.
The Core 2 brand was introduced on 21
July 2006, comprising the Solo (single-
core), Duo (dual-core), Quad (quad-
core), and in 2007, the Extreme (dual- or
quad-core CPUs for enthusiasts)
subbrands. Intel Core 2 processors with Pro
technology (designed for businesses) include
the dual-core and quad-core branches.
o x86 Architecture :
The Intel Core 2 Duo uses the x86 instruction set, whch was
introduced in 1978 with the 8086 / 8088 processor. Further more it
supports the multimedia extension MMX , SSE2 , SSE3 , and SSE4.
o Dual Core Technology :
Two processor cores run with the same frequency in the same
processor building block and share the level 2 cache as well as the front
side bus ( FSB ).
o Execute Disable Bit :
Prevents security problems through buffer overflows , if the
operation system supports it and if it is activated.
o Wide Dynamic Execution :
Every core can execute four complete commands simultaneously.
o Smart- Memory- Access :
Shorter idle times, improved data transfer and faster out-of-order
command execution lead to better usage of the pipeline and as a result
to higher performance.
o Advanced – Smart – Cache :
Like the Core Due , the Core 2 Duo has shared level 2 cache and each
core receives the same amount of cache. Intel doubled the bandwidth to
the level 1 cache though.
o Advanced – Digital – Media – Boost :
One 128 – Bit SSE command is now output per clock cycle.
o Virtualization Technology ( VT) :
The Intel VT offers hardware support for virtual systems on one
computer ( use of several isolated operation systems at the same time
e.g. through Xen or VM Ware).Beware, not all models support VT
(especially te cheaper ones don’t.)
o 64 bit support :
Support of 64 bit wide words in the CPU. This means the processor
can handle 64 bit data packets. The Intel Core 2 Duo supports the
AMD 64 extension ( liscensed) , through which 32 and 64 bit
programs can run on the CPU ( if a 64 bit operation system is used).