computer processors intel and amd


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computer processors intel and amd

  2. 2. COMPUTERS ( I.T.)<br />Topic – Processors<br />Prof. – SheetalVyas<br />
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS<br />&quot;Computer&quot; is a collection of devices that function as a unit. <br /><ul><li> The most basic collection includes a Computer CPU, a Monitor, a Keyboard, and a Mouse.</li></li></ul><li>Processors (CPU)<br />A Central Processing Unit (CPU) or processor is an electronic circuit that can execute computer programs<br />A processor is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drives a computer.<br />It handles the central management functions of a high-powered PC.<br />
  4. 4. Computer Processor: What is it?<br />A computer processor analyzes data and controls data flow in a computer.<br />Its speed is measured in gigahertz (GHz), with common speeds ranging from 2.6 to 3.66 GHz.<br />It comes in a small microchip and fits into a socket on the motherboard.<br />
  5. 5. Graphics<br />A graphics processing unit or GPU<br /> is a specialized processor that offloads 3D graphics rendering from the microprocessor. <br />In a personal computer, a GPU can be present on a video card, or it can be on the motherboard.<br />
  6. 6. Functioning of Processors<br />MAINLY 3 Functions<br />MACHINE CYCLE TIME<br />CLOCK SPEED<br />WORD LENTH<br />BUS SPEED<br />
  7. 7. Machine cycle time :-An instruction cycle&apos; <br /> is the time period during which a computer processes a machine language instruction from its memory or the sequence of actions that the central processing unit (CPU) performs to execute each machine code instruction in a program.<br />Clock Speed :-Clock speed is a measure of how quickly a computer completes basic computations and operations. a clock speed of 800MHz is running 800,000,000 cycles per second, while a 2.4GHz computer is running 2,400,000,000 cycles per second.<br />Word length :- The word length is the number of bits the CPU can process per second. Early CPUs were 4 bits /sec, but now we have 8, 16 and 32 , 64 bit machines.<br />Bus speed :Data is transferred from CPU to other systems components via the Bus lines <br />The number of bits a bus line can transfer at any one time is known as bus line width.<br />
  8. 8. Two Types of Processing<br />MULTIPROCESSING - When two or more computers are used, they are tied together with a high-speed channel and share the general workload between them<br />PARALLEL PROCESSING - The simultaneous use of more than one CPU or processor core to execute a program or multiple computational threads<br />
  10. 10. Processors Components<br />Execution unit - the core of the CPU, the execution unit processes instructions.Branch predictor- he branch predictor attempts to guess where the program will jump <br />Floating point unit- The floating point unit (FPU) is a specialized logic unit optimized to perform non integer calculations much faster than the general purpose logic unit can perform them Primary cache - also called Level 1 or L1 cache, primary cache is a small amount of very fast memory that allows the CPU to retrieve data immediately <br />Bus interfaces - Bus interfaces are the pathways that connect the processor to memory and other components. <br />
  11. 11. Processor Speed-The processor clock coordinates all CPU and memory operations by periodically generating a time reference signal called a clock cycle or tick <br />Processor Architecture Clock speeds increase every year, but the laws of physics limit how fast CPUs can run <br />Wider data busses and registersFor a given clock speed, the amount of work done depends on the amount of data processed in one operation<br />FPUs All CPUs work well with integers, but processing floating-point numbers to high precision on a general-purpose CPU requires a huge number of operations <br />
  12. 12. KINDS OF PROCESSOR<br />
  13. 13. AMD PROCESSORS<br />AMD - Advanced Micro Devices<br />popular models are AMD Athlon™ XP and AMD Athlon™ 64<br />Best for gaming and softwares<br />
  14. 14. History of AMD<br />Began operation in 1969. <br />The company has specialized in developing products such as computer processors, microprocessors and motherboard chipsets<br />AMD, founded by Jerry Sanders and Edwin Turney has grown to become the second largest global supplier of microprocessors and the third largest supplier of the world’s graphics processing units. <br />
  15. 15. AMD chipsets<br />Before the launch of Athlon 64 processors in 2003, AMD designed chipsets for their processors spanning the K6 and K7 processor generations<br />The chipsets include the AMD-640, AMD-751 and the AMD-761 chipsets.<br />
  16. 16. Embedded systems<br />AMD has been introducing 64-bit processors into its embedded product line starting with the AMD Opteron processor<br />
  17. 17. AMD Flash technology<br />While less visible to the general public than its CPU business, AMD is also a global leader in flash memory<br />AMD established a 50-50 partnership with Fujitsu called FASL, and merged into a new company called FASL LLC in 2003<br />
  18. 18. AMD Mobile platforms<br />AMD started a platform in 2003 aimed at mobile computing, but, with fewer advertisements and promotional schemes, very little was known about the platform. The platform used mobile Sempron processors.<br />
  19. 19. The Future<br />After 32 bit and 64 bit chips new chip 128 bit with 4.5 GHZ<br />Name - dual-core POWER6 <br />
  20. 20. PRODUCT LAUNCH<br />
  21. 21. ICC V2 DUAL CORE XTREME<br />
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