The Central Processing Unit (CPU) or the processorIs the portion of a computer system that carries out the instructions of acomputer program, and is the primary element carrying out the computersfunctions. This term has been in use in the computer industry at least sincethe early 1960s . The form, design and implementation of CPUs havechanged dramatically since the earliest examples, but their fundamentaloperation remains much the same.
Discrete transistor and Integrated Circuit CPUs:integrated circuit (IC) allowed a large number of transistors to bemanufactured on a single semiconductor -based die, or "chip." At first onlyvery basic non -specialized digital circuits such as NOR gates wereminiaturized into ICs. CPUs based upon these "building block" ICs aregenerally referred to as "small-scale integration" (SSI) devices. SSI ICs, suchasthe ones used in the Apollo guidance computer
microelectronic technologyadvanced, an increasing number of transistors were placed on ICs, thusdecreasing the quantity of individual ICs needed for a complete CPU.MSI and LSI (medium- and large-scale integration) ICs increased transistorcounts to hundreds, and then thousands
Processor registerIn computer architecture , a processor register (or general purpose register ) is a smallamount of storage available on the CPU whose contents can be accessed more quickly thanstorage available elsewhere. Most, but not all, modern computers adopt the so-called load-store architecture. A common property of computer programs is locality of reference: the same values areoften accessed repeatedly; and holding these frequently used values in registers improvesprogram execution performance.Processor registers are at the top of the memory hierarchy, and provide the fastest way fora CPU to access data. The term is often used to refer only to the group of registers that aredirectly encoded as part of an instruction, as defined by the instruction set.
The table shows the number ofregisters of several mainstream architectures
The Process•Process is a program in execution .a process is morethan the program code which is known sometimes as atext section.•It also includes the current activity, as represented bythe value of the program counter & the contents of theprocessors registers.•Process generally includes the process stack,whichcontains temporary data (such as method parameters,return addresses,local variables),and data section,whichcontains global variables.
The Process•We emphasize that a program by itself is not a process;a program a passive entity, such as the contents of a filestored on disk, whereas a process is an active entity ,with a program counter specifying the next instruction toexecute and a set of associated resources.
Process State•As a process executes ,it changes state .The State of aprocess is defined in part by the current activity of theprocess. Each process may be in one of the followingstates :1 . New : The process is being created.2 . running: Instructions are been executed.3 .waiting: The process is waiting for some event to occur(such asan I/O completion or reception of a signal).4 . Reading: The process is waiting to be assigned to a processor.5 .Terminated: The process has finished execution .
Process Control Block:A Process Control Block (PCB,also called Task ControllingBlock or Task Struct) is a datastructure in the operatingsystem kernel containing theinformation needed to managea particular process. The PCB is"the manifestation of aprocess in an operatingsystem".
Included information :The identifier of the process ( process identifier , or PID )Register values for the process including, notably, the program counter andstack pointer values for the process.The address space for the processPriority (in which higher priority process gets first preference. e.g., nice value onUnix operating systems)Process accounting information, such as when the process was last run, howmuch CPU time it has accumulated, etc.Pointer to the next PCB i.e. pointer to the PCB of the next process to runI/O Information (i.e. I/O devices allocated to this process, list of opened files,etc.)
Location of the PCB Since PCB contains the criticalinformation for the process, itmust be kept in an area ofmemory protected from normaluser access. In some operatingsystems the PCB is placed in thebeginning of the kernel stack ofthe process since that is aconvenient protected location .
Threads: The implementation ofthreads and processes differsfrom one operating systemto another, but in mostcases, a thread is containedinside a process. Multiplethreads can exist within thesame process and shareresources such as memory,while different processes donot share these resources
Process scheduling:Scheduling refers to the wayprocesses are assigned to runon the available CPUs, sincethere are typically manymore processes running thanthere are available CPUs. Thisassignment is carried out bysoft wares known as ascheduler and dispatcher.
Scheduling Queue:Job queue – set of all processesin the system.Ready queue – set of allprocesses residing in mainmemory, ready and waiting toexecute.Device queues – set ofprocesses waiting for an I/Odevice.Process migration between thevarious queues.
Queuing DiagramRepresentation of ProcessScheduling
The history of the ARM processors from their beginnings as the proprietary solution for a particular set of problems in a particular company to their current status as a highly successful, flexible and customizable set of processors available on the open market.Founded in November 1990.Spun out of Acorn Computers.Designs the ARM range of RISC processor cores.Also develop technologies to assist with the design -in of the ARMarchitecture. Software tools, boards, debug hardware, application software, bus architectures, peripherals etc.
16 Bit RAM 32 Bit RAM Interrupt Controller Peripherals I/O nIRQ nFIQ8 Bit ROM ARM Core
High performance for low priceThe original ARM1 device was intended to power an Acorn computer.Short design timeOne of ARM Ltds stated goals is to provide a quick and effective designservice to produce custom processors based on ARM macrocells.High performance for low power consumptionA further advantage of the small size of ARM devices is that they do notconsume as much power as other, larger processors.Easily customized designsThe above factors combine to make the ARM product range extremelyflexible. The small size of the ARM processor means that it can easily becombined with its support chips, cache memory, or custom circuitry to makeself-contained custom chips. All ARM devices are designed as macrocells,building blocks which can be combined within a single chip.
The ARM is a 32-bit architecture.When used in relation to the ARM: Byte means 8 bits Halfword means 16 bits (two bytes) Word means 32 bits (four bytes)Most ARM’s implement two instruction sets 32-bit ARM Instruction Set 16-bit Thumb Instruction SetJazelle cores can also execute Java bytecode
The ARM has seven basic operating modes:User : unprivileged mode under which most tasks runFIQ : entered when a high priority (fast) interrupt is raisedIRQ : entered when a low priority (normal) interrupt is raisedSupervisor : entered on reset and when a Software Interrupt instruction is executedAbort : used to handle memory access violationsUndef : used to handle undefined instructionsSystem : privileged mode using the same registers as user mode
The ARM Register Set Current Visible RegistersAbort Mode r0 r1 r2 r3 r4 Banked out Registers r5 r6 r7 User FIQ IRQ SVC Undef r8 r8 fbffbfb r9 r9 r10 r10 r11 r11 r12 r12 r13(sp) R13(sp) R13(sp) R13(sp) R13(sp) R13(sp) R14(Ir) R14(Ir) R14(Ir) R14(Ir) R14(Ir) R14(Ir) R15(pc) cosr spsr spsr spsr spsr spsr
1 dedicated program counter 1 dedicated current program status register 5 dedicated saved program status registers 30 general purpose registersThe current processor mode governs which of several banks is accessible. Each mode can access a particular set of r0-r12 registersa particular r13 (the stack pointer, sp) and r14 (the link register, lr) the program counter, r15 (pc) the current program status register, cpsr Privileged modes (except System) can also access a particular spsr (saved program status register)
There is two main companies that produces processorsIntel & AMDAt this presentation we will talk about the processorsAnd it’s technology starting from Pentium 1 to core i7That ‘s for the Intel corporation.And from Athlon to atom processors for the AMD corporation.Finally we have made a comparison between the two corporationsillustrating the difference between the functionality of eachprocessor .
The Pentium family (S-processors)The famous world wide processors familyThe Pentium family is conceder as the most word widely processorsAlso called the single-core processor family.The Intel® Pentium® processor delivers great desktop performance andmultitasking.Consisted of :-Pentium® IPentium® IIPentium® IIIPentium® IV
D-processorsCeleron (single core processor):Systems based on the Intel® Celeron® processor are ideal for day-to-daycomputing, whether in the home, classroom, or officeTake basic computing to new levels with dual-core processing. The Intel®Celeron® processor, with 512 KB of shared L2 cache and 800 MHz Front SideBus, has two independent processor cores in one physical package runningat the same frequency, delivering superior energy efficient dual-coreperformance.The Intel® Celeron® processor is also an exceptional value for single-coredesktop computing delivering a balanced level of proven technology
D-processors (cont’d.) Intel® Dual™ Core ProcessorThe first processor in the (D-processors) family.The Intel® Pentium® processor with Intel® dual-core technology deliversgreat desktop performance, low power enhancements, and multitasking foreveryday computing.Product information :From 1.98 GHz and 3.06 GHz core speedsOne processing threads3 MB of Intel® Smart CacheOne channels of DDR2 1333 MHz memory
Features and benefitsFor dual-core and single-core processing:Intel® Wide Dynamic Execution Enables delivery of more instructions per clock cycle to improve execution time and energy efficiency.Intel® Smart Memory Access Improves system performance by optimizing the use of the available data bandwidth.Intel® Advanced Digital Media Boost Accelerates a broad range of multimedia, encryption, scientific and financial applications by significantly improving performance when executing Intel® Streaming SIMD Extension (SSE/SSE2/SSE3) instructions.Intel® 64² An enhancement to Intel’s 32-bit architecture to enable the processor to access larger amounts of memory.Execute Disable Bit³ Provides enhanced virus protection when deployed with a supported operating system.Intel designed thermal solution for boxed Intel boxed processors ship with a thermal solutionprocessors specifically for this processor designed for maximum thermal and acoustic performance.For dual-core processing only:Intel® Advanced Smart Cache The shared L2 cache is dynamically allocated to each processor core based on workload. This increases the probability that each core can access data from fast L2 cache, significantly reducing latency to frequently used data and improving performance.
M-processors( count’ d.) Intel® Core™ Duo ProcessorThe new family of the processors that can handle more than one program at the same time.Due to its multicore processing system it has two cores inside .It has three versions :1- Core™ Duo .2- Core™ 2Duo .3- Core™ 2Duo extreme.Product information:From 1.98 GHz and 3.06 GHz core speedstwo processing threads4 MB of Intel® Smart CacheTwo channels of DDR2 1333 MHz memory
M-processors( count’ d.) Intel ® Centrino ™ ProcessorThe same as Intel® Core™ Duo Processor .But the Centrino is a technology that tells the user that all the chips inthe computer are compatible with the processor .By other words all the chips are Intel smart chips and all are compatible.This helps to keep processor cool and delivers high performance, lowpower consumption and ultimate computing speed.It has anew version called Centrino 2.
M-processors( count’ d.)Intel® Core™ 2 Quad ProcessorThe same as core i7 but the deference is in the core i7 structure Intel® HTtechnology.That support the speed start which called turbo boast.That provides the processor to perform from 0% to 100%.Product information3.06 GHz, 2.93 GHz, and 2.66 GHz core speed8 processing threads8 MB of Intel® Smart Cache3 Channels of DDR3 1066 MHz memory
Intel® Core™ i3 Processor With Intel® HDGraphicsThe Intel® Core™ i3 processor family with Intel® HD Graphics delivers a revolutionary newarchitecture for an unparalleled computing experience.As the first level in Intels new processor family, the Intel Core i3 processor is the perfectentry point for a fast, responsive PC experience.This processor comes equipped with Intel HD Graphics, an advanced video engine thatdelivers smooth, high-quality HD video playback, and advanced 3D capabilities, providingan ideal graphics solution for everyday computing.A smart choice for home and office, the Intel Core i3 processor also features Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology¹, which enables each core of your processor to work on two tasks atthe same time, delivering the performance you need for smart multitasking. Do not let toomany open applications slow you and your PC down. Get smart performance now.Product information3.06 GHz and 2.93 GHz core speedsFour processing threads4 MB of Intel® Smart CacheTwo channels of DDR3 1333 MHz memory
Intel®Core™ vPro™ Processor FamilyPCs powered by the new 2010 Intel® Core™ vPro™ processorfamily adapt to the needs of your business with smart security,cost-saving manageability, and intelligent performance. The IntelCore vPro processor family is designed to keep downtime anddesk-side visits to a minimum, enabling remote monitoring,diagnosis, and repair of PCs—even if they are shut down or the OSis unresponsive.¹Intelligent security and manageability on every chipOffering expanded remote manageability, select laptop anddesktop PCs—powered by the Intel Core vPro processor family—provide new KVM Remote Control capabilities² along withenhanced data and asset security. Including programmabledefense filters that systematically guard against viruses andmalicious attacks, the Intel Core vPro processor family helps toautomatically protect PCs from tampering or disabling of securitysoftware.
Intel® Core™ i5 ProcessorA new level of intelligent performanceUnleash the multimedia multitasker withinWith intelligent performance that accelerates in response to demanding tasks, such asplaying games and editing photos, the Intel® Core™ i5 processor moves faster when youdo.The Intel Core i5 processor automatically allocates processing power where its neededmost.¹ Whether you’re creating HD video, composing digital music, editing photos, orplaying the coolest PC games—with the Intel Core i5 processor you can multitask with easeand be more productive than ever.Product informationIntel® Core™ i5-700 and i5-600 processor series with Intel® Turbo Boost Technology4 processing threadsUp to 8 MB of Intel® Smart CacheIntel® HD Graphics on Intel® Core™ i5-600 processor series2 channels of DDR3 1333 MHz memory
Intel® Core™ i7 ProcessorThe best desktop processor family on the planet¹Brilliantly fastWith faster, intelligent, multi-core technology that applies processing powerwhere its needed most, new Intel® Core™ i7 processors deliver an incrediblebreakthrough in PC performance. They are the best desktop processor family onthe planet.¹Youll multitask applications faster and unleash incredible digital media creation.And youll experience maximum performance for everything you do, thanks tothe combination of Intel® Turbo Boost technology² and Intel® Hyper-Threadingtechnology (Intel® HT technology)³, which maximizes performance to matchyour workload.Product information3.06 GHz, 2.93 GHz, and 2.66 GHz core speed8 processing threads with Intel® HT technology8 MB of Intel® Smart Cache3 Channels of DDR3 1066 MHz memory
Mobile processors family Intel® Core™ i7 mobile processor Extreme EditionHardcore multitaskers rejoice. Fly through everything you do on your PC -from playing intense 3D games to creating and editing digital video, music,and photos. With the high performance platform capabilities of Intel® X58Express Chipset-based motherboards, along with faster, intelligent multi-core technology that applies processing power dynamically when its neededmost, PCs based on the Intel® Core™ i7-980X processor Extreme Editiondeliver incredible performance with a rich feature set.Wield the ultimate gaming weapon for greater performance in 3D gamingapplications. Experience smoother and more realistic gaming made possibleby distributing AI, physics, and rendering across six cores and 12 threads,bringing 3D to life for the ultimate gaming experience. And take digitalcontent creation to a whole new level for photo retouching and photoediting. Unlock your full potential with Intel’s top-of-the-line desktopprocessor and experience total creative freedom that’s limited only by yourimagination.
Mobile processors (count’ d.)Intel® Core™ i7-980X processor Extreme Edition3.33 GHz core speedUp to 3.6 GHz with Intel® Turbo Boost Technology6 cores and 12 processing threads with Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology12 MB Intel® Smart Cache3 Channels DDR3 1066 MHz memory32nm manufacturing process technologyIntel® Core™ i7-975 processor Extreme Edition3.33 GHz core speedUp to 3.6 GHz with Intel® Turbo Boost Technology4 cores and 8 processing threads with Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology8 MB Intel® Smart Cache3 Channels DDR3 1066 MHz memory45nm manufacturing process technology
FinallyNow we compare between theD-Processors & M-Processors
Features and benefitsIntel® dual-core processing Runs two independent processor cores in one physical package at the same frequency. Features up to 2 MB of shared L2 cache and 800 MHz Front Side Bus.Intel® Wide Dynamic Execution Enables delivery of more instructions per clock cycle to improve execution time and energy efficiency.Intel® Smart Memory Access Improves system performance by optimizing the use of the available data bandwidth.Intel® Advanced Smart Cache The shared L2 cache is dynamically allocated to each processor core based on workload. This increases the probability that each core can access data from fast L2 cache, significantly reducing latency to frequently used data and improving performance.Intel® Advanced Digital Media Boost Accelerates a broad range of multimedia, encryption, scientific and financial applications by significantly improving performance when executing Intel® Streaming SIMD Extension (SSE/SSE2/SSE3) instructions.Intel® 64 architecture¹ An enhancement to Intel’s 32-bit architecture to enable the processor to access larger amounts of memory.Execute Disable Bit² Provides enhanced virus protection when deployed with a supported operating system.Intel® designed thermal solution for boxed Intel® boxed processors ship with a thermalprocessors solution specifically for this processor designed for maximum thermal and acoustic performance
AMD ProcessorsAMD processors ignite the next generation ofsolutions for desktops. Whether it’s playinggames, cloud computing or editing home videos,enjoy a better experience with AMD multi-coreprocessors.
Deliver more sophisticated solutions with the leading -edgetechnology of AMD Phenom II™ 900 Series processor. Built fromthe ground up for true quad-core performance, AMD Phenom II940 processor incorporates 6MB of unified high-speed L3 cacheand high-speed DDR2 memory. Speed through complexmultitasking, critical business productivity, advanced visualdesign and modeling and visually stunning digital media andentertainment. Whether its a single solution or an enterprisesystem, AMD Phenom II processors have the power to perform .
Deliver more sophisticated solutions with the leading -edgetechnology of AMD Phenom II 1000 Series processor. Built fromthe ground up for true six core performance, AMDHDT90ZFBGRBOX Phenom II 1090T Black Edition processorincorporates 6MB of unified high-speed L3 cache and high-speedDDR3 memory. Speed through complex multitasking, criticalbusiness productivity, advanced visual design and modeling andvisually stunning digital media and entertainment. Whether its asingle solution or an enterprise system, the AMD Phenom II 1090TBlack Edition processor has the power to perform
AMD Athlon™ X2 dual-core processors put the power of dual -core technologyon the desktop. Dual-core processors contain two processing cores, residingon one chip, that perform calculations on two streams of data to increaseefficiency and speed while running multiple programs and the newgeneration of multi-threaded software. For end-users this means asignificant increase in response and performance when running multipleapplications simultaneously. Productivity in today’s workplace requiressmooth, efficient and seamless multi -tasking. AMD Athlon™ X2 dual-coreprocessors deliver TRUE multi-tasking, allowing users to switch from oneprogram to another without always pausing for the computer to catch up andreducing annoying processing pauses.
Deliver more sophisticated solutions with the leading -edgetechnology of AMD Phenom II™ 900 Series processor. Built fromthe ground up for true quad-core performance, AMD Phenom II965 Black Edition processor incorporates 6MB of unifiedhigh-speed L3 cache and a high-speed DDR2/DDR3 memorycontroller. Speed through complex multitasking, critical businessproductivity, advanced visual design and modeling and visuallystunning digital media and entertainment. Whether its a singlesolution or an enterprise system, AMD Phenom II processors havethe power to perform.
Deliver more sophisticated solutions with the leading-edge technology of AMD Athlon II™ 400 Series processor.Built from the ground up for great performance, the AMDAthlon II X3 440 Triple Core Processor incorporates1.5MB of high-speed L2 cache and high-speed DDR2 orDDR3 memory. Speed through complex multitasking,critical business productivity, advanced visual design andmodeling and visually stunning digital media andentertainment. Whether its a single solution or anenterprise system, AMD Athlon II processors have thepower to perform.
AMD Sempron™ processors for desktops and notebooksoffer affordable performance, compatibility with all theapplications you need, and the reliability of AMD processors.Compatible with leading operating systems and over 60,000of the world’s most popular software applications.Get to fun, faster, with a system that boots and loadsapplications quickly and easily. Enjoy reliable, responsiveperformance on thousands of software applications —including those that let you communicate with family andfriends.