Construcció nacional


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Com es construeix un sistema educatiu nacional? Una visió comparativa internacional sobre el paper de l'educació en els processos de construcció nacional

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  • I am going to present evidence on separate issues in turn, but it is their interdependence that is key to understanding the nature of the policy and implementation challenges. If you simply raise entrance standards for teachers, you will choke off supply unless compensation and working conditions are aligned. Raising pay and changing working conditions alone won’t automatically translate into improvements in teacher quality unless standards are raised. Teacher evaluation systems have limited impact where they only relate to compensation but not professional development and career advancement. Giving teachers more autonomy can be counterproductive if the quality and education of the teachers are inadequate.Education is ultimately about student learning outcomes……and these Learning outcomes are the result of what happens in the classroom.Instructional policies and practices, in turn, are shaped by people - teachers, principles and families. And that’s why the quality of an education system cannot exceed the quality of its teachers.But it works the other way round too: The quality of teachers cannot exceed the quality of work organization, the quality of teacher selection and education, teacher careers and teacher evaluation.And it is those processes that we can shape with policy tools. And success depends on the design and implementation of effective policies.
  • I want to conclude with what we have learned about successful reform trajectories In the past when you only needed a small slice of well-educated people it was efficient for governments to invest a large sum in a small elite to lead the country. But the social and economic cost of low educational performance has risen substantially and all young people now need to leave school with strong foundation skills.When you could still assume that what you learn in school will last for a lifetime, teaching content and routine cognitive skills was at the centre of education. Today, where you can access content on Google, where routine cognitive skills are being digitised or outsourced, and where jobs are changing rapidly, the focus is on enabling people to become lifelong learners, to manage complex ways of thinking and complex ways of working that computers cannot take over easily.In the past, teachers had sometimes only a few years more education than the students they taught. When teacher quality is so low, governments tend to tell their teachers exactly what to do and exactly how they want it done and they tend to use Tayloristic methods of administrative control and accountability to get the results they want. Today the challenge is to make teaching a profession of high-level knowledge workers. But such people will not work in schools organised as Tayloristic workplaces using administrative forms of accountability and bureaucratic command and control systems to direct their work. To attract the people they need, successful education systems have transformed the form of work organisation in their schools to a professional form of work organisation in which professional norms of control complement bureaucratic and administrative forms of control.
  • Construcció nacional

    1. 1. Com es construeix un sistema educatiu nacional? COM ES CONSTRUEIX UN SISTEMA EDUCATIU NACIONAL? Una visió comparativa internacional sobre el paper de leducació en els processos de construcció nacionalUna visió comparativa internacional sobre el paper de leducació en els processos de construcció nacional
    2. 2. L’agenda de Lisboa– Escolaritzar a almenys el 95% dels alumnes amb edats compreses entre els 4 anys dedat i linici de lescolaritat obligatòria.– La taxa dabandonament escolar ha de reduir-se fins a menys del 10%.– El percentatge dalumnes de 15 anys dedat amb resultades pobres en lectura, matemàtiques i ciències ha de ser inferior al 15%.– Un mínim del 40% de la població dentre 30 i 34 anys dedat ha de comptar amb estudis superiors.– Un mínim del 15% de la població adulta ha de prendre part en activitats deducació permanent.
    3. 3. Eines Estàndards Processos Curricula Selecció Persones Tecnologia Avaluacions Docents Preparació Pràctiques Personal suport Sistemes de dades Ensenyament Contractació/inducció Disseny, implementació i Aprenentatge Famílies Intervencions estudiants aliniament de les polítiques Organització treball Sistemes de suportDesenvolupament carrera Supervisió Retenció
    4. 4. Educació 2050L’antic sistema burocràtic Inclusió El sistema modernAlguns estudiants aprenen molt Tots els estudiants aprenen al màxim Curriculum, aprenentatgeRutines cognitives bàsiques Aprendre a aprendre, noves formes de treball Qualitat docentFormació post-secundària Treballadors del coneixement d’alta qualificació Organització del treballTaylorista, jeràrquica Plana, col.legial AccountabilityBàsicament vers les autoritats Bàsicament als iguals i a la comunitat d’actors
    5. 5. PISA Briefing of Council OECD Programme forInternational Student Assessment 14 November 2007 16 16
    6. 6. PISA Briefing of Council OECD Programme forInternational Student Assessment 14 November 2007 17 17
    7. 7. PISA Briefing of Council OECD Programme forInternational Student Assessment 14 November 2007 18 18