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  • 1. Cells and Tissues Carry out all chemical activities needed to sustain life Cells are the building blocks of all living things Tissues are groups of cells that are similar in structure and functionCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 2. Anatomy of the Cell Cells are not all the same All cells share general structures Cells are organized into three main regions  Nucleus  Cytoplasm  Plasma membrane Figure 3.1aCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 3. The Nucleus Control center of the cell  Contains genetic material (DNA) Three regions  Nuclear membrane  Nucleolus  Chromatin Figure 3.1bCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 4. Nuclear Membrane Barrier of nucleus Consists of a double phospholipid membrane Contain nuclear pores that allow for exchange of material with the rest of the cellCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 5. Nucleoli Nucleus contains one or more nucleoli Sites of ribosome production  Ribosomes then migrate to the cytoplasm through nuclear poresCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 6. Chromatin Composed of DNA and protein Scattered throughout the nucleus Chromatin condenses to form chromosomes when the cell dividesCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 7. Plasma Membrane Barrier for cell contents Double phospholipid layer  Hydrophilic heads  Hydrophobic tails Also contains protein, cholesterol, and glycoproteins PRESS TO PLAY MEMBRANE STRUCTURE ANIMATIONCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 8. Plasma Membrane Figure 3.2Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 9. Plasma Membrane Specializations Microvilli  Finger-like projections that increase surface area for absorption Figure 3.3Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 10. Plasma Membrane Specializations Membrane junctions  Tight junctions  Desmosomes  Gap junctions Figure 3.3Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 11. Cytoplasm Material outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane  Cytosol  Fluid that suspends other elements  Organelles  Metabolic machinery of the cell  Inclusions  Non-functioning unitsCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 12. Cytoplasmic Organelles Figure 3.4Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 13. Cytoplasmic Organelles Ribosomes  Made of protein and RNA  Sites of protein synthesis  Found at two locations  Free in the cytoplasm  Attached to rough endoplasmic reticulumCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 14. Cytoplasmic Organelles Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)  Fluid-filled tubules for carrying substances  Two types of ER  Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum  Studded with ribosomes  Site where building materials of cellular membrane are formed  Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum  Functions in cholesterol synthesis and breakdown, fat metabolism, and detoxification of drugsCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 15. Cytoplasmic Organelles Golgi apparatus  Modifies and packages proteins  Produces different types of packages  Secretory vesicles  Cell membrane components  LysosomesCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 16. Golgi Apparatus Figure 3.6Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 17. Cytoplasmic Organelles Lysosomes  Contain enzymes that digest nonusable materials within the cell Peroxisomes  Membranous sacs of oxidase enzymes  Detoxify harmful substances  Break down free radicals (highly reactive chemicals)  Replicate by pinching in halfCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 18. Cytoplasmic Organelles Mitochondria  “Powerhouses” of the cell  Change shape continuously  Carry out reactions where oxygen is used to break down food  Provides ATP for cellular energyCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 19. Cytoplasmic Organelles Cytoskeleton  Network of protein structures that extend throughout the cytoplasm  Provides the cell with an internal framework Figure 3.7aCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 20. Cytoplasmic Organelles Cytoskeleton  Three different types  Microfilaments  Intermediate filaments  Microtubules Figure 3.7b–dCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 21. Cytoplasmic Organelles Centrioles  Rod-shaped bodies made of microtubules  Direct formation of mitotic spindle during cell divisionCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 22. Cellular Projections Not found in all cells Used for movement  Cilia moves materials across the cell surface  Flagellum propels the cellCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 23. Cell Diversity Figure 3.8a–bCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 24. Cell Diversity Figure 3.8cCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 25. Cell Diversity Figure 3.8d–eCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 26. Cell Diversity Figure 3.8f–gCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings