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Cells and Tissues Carry out all chemical activities needed to  sustain life Cells are the building blocks of all living ...
Anatomy of the Cell Cells are not all the same All cells share general structures Cells are organized into three main r...
The Nucleus Control center of the  cell        Contains genetic         material (DNA) Three regions        Nuclear   ...
Nuclear Membrane Barrier of nucleus Consists of a double phospholipid membrane Contain nuclear pores that allow for exc...
Nucleoli Nucleus contains one or more nucleoli Sites of ribosome production        Ribosomes then migrate to the cytopl...
Chromatin Composed of DNA and protein Scattered throughout the nucleus Chromatin condenses to form chromosomes  when th...
Plasma Membrane Barrier for cell contents Double phospholipid layer        Hydrophilic heads        Hydrophobic tails...
Plasma Membrane                                                                            Figure 3.2Copyright © 2006 Pear...
Plasma Membrane Specializations Microvilli        Finger-like         projections that         increase surface         ...
Plasma Membrane Specializations Membrane junctions        Tight junctions        Desmosomes        Gap junctions      ...
Cytoplasm Material outside the nucleus and inside the  plasma membrane        Cytosol                Fluid that suspend...
Cytoplasmic Organelles                                                                            Figure 3.4Copyright © 20...
Cytoplasmic Organelles Ribosomes        Made of protein and RNA        Sites of protein synthesis        Found at two ...
Cytoplasmic Organelles Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)        Fluid-filled tubules for carrying substances        Two types ...
Cytoplasmic Organelles Golgi apparatus        Modifies and packages proteins        Produces different types of package...
Golgi Apparatus                                                                            Figure 3.6Copyright © 2006 Pear...
Cytoplasmic Organelles Lysosomes        Contain enzymes that digest nonusable         materials within the cell Peroxis...
Cytoplasmic Organelles Mitochondria        “Powerhouses” of the cell        Change shape continuously        Carry out...
Cytoplasmic Organelles Cytoskeleton        Network of protein structures that extend         throughout the cytoplasm   ...
Cytoplasmic Organelles Cytoskeleton        Three different         types                Microfilaments                ...
Cytoplasmic Organelles Centrioles        Rod-shaped bodies made of microtubules        Direct formation of mitotic spin...
Cellular Projections Not found in all cells Used for movement        Cilia moves materials across the cell         surf...
Cell Diversity                                                                            Figure 3.8a–bCopyright © 2006 Pe...
Cell Diversity                                                                            Figure 3.8cCopyright © 2006 Pear...
Cell Diversity                                                                            Figure 3.8d–eCopyright © 2006 Pe...
Cell Diversity                                                                            Figure 3.8f–gCopyright © 2006 Pe...
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Ch3a

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Ch3a

  1. 1. Cells and Tissues Carry out all chemical activities needed to sustain life Cells are the building blocks of all living things Tissues are groups of cells that are similar in structure and functionCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  2. 2. Anatomy of the Cell Cells are not all the same All cells share general structures Cells are organized into three main regions  Nucleus  Cytoplasm  Plasma membrane Figure 3.1aCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  3. 3. The Nucleus Control center of the cell  Contains genetic material (DNA) Three regions  Nuclear membrane  Nucleolus  Chromatin Figure 3.1bCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  4. 4. Nuclear Membrane Barrier of nucleus Consists of a double phospholipid membrane Contain nuclear pores that allow for exchange of material with the rest of the cellCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  5. 5. Nucleoli Nucleus contains one or more nucleoli Sites of ribosome production  Ribosomes then migrate to the cytoplasm through nuclear poresCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  6. 6. Chromatin Composed of DNA and protein Scattered throughout the nucleus Chromatin condenses to form chromosomes when the cell dividesCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  7. 7. Plasma Membrane Barrier for cell contents Double phospholipid layer  Hydrophilic heads  Hydrophobic tails Also contains protein, cholesterol, and glycoproteins PRESS TO PLAY MEMBRANE STRUCTURE ANIMATIONCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  8. 8. Plasma Membrane Figure 3.2Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  9. 9. Plasma Membrane Specializations Microvilli  Finger-like projections that increase surface area for absorption Figure 3.3Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  10. 10. Plasma Membrane Specializations Membrane junctions  Tight junctions  Desmosomes  Gap junctions Figure 3.3Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  11. 11. Cytoplasm Material outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane  Cytosol  Fluid that suspends other elements  Organelles  Metabolic machinery of the cell  Inclusions  Non-functioning unitsCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  12. 12. Cytoplasmic Organelles Figure 3.4Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  13. 13. Cytoplasmic Organelles Ribosomes  Made of protein and RNA  Sites of protein synthesis  Found at two locations  Free in the cytoplasm  Attached to rough endoplasmic reticulumCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  14. 14. Cytoplasmic Organelles Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)  Fluid-filled tubules for carrying substances  Two types of ER  Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum  Studded with ribosomes  Site where building materials of cellular membrane are formed  Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum  Functions in cholesterol synthesis and breakdown, fat metabolism, and detoxification of drugsCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  15. 15. Cytoplasmic Organelles Golgi apparatus  Modifies and packages proteins  Produces different types of packages  Secretory vesicles  Cell membrane components  LysosomesCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  16. 16. Golgi Apparatus Figure 3.6Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  17. 17. Cytoplasmic Organelles Lysosomes  Contain enzymes that digest nonusable materials within the cell Peroxisomes  Membranous sacs of oxidase enzymes  Detoxify harmful substances  Break down free radicals (highly reactive chemicals)  Replicate by pinching in halfCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  18. 18. Cytoplasmic Organelles Mitochondria  “Powerhouses” of the cell  Change shape continuously  Carry out reactions where oxygen is used to break down food  Provides ATP for cellular energyCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  19. 19. Cytoplasmic Organelles Cytoskeleton  Network of protein structures that extend throughout the cytoplasm  Provides the cell with an internal framework Figure 3.7aCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  20. 20. Cytoplasmic Organelles Cytoskeleton  Three different types  Microfilaments  Intermediate filaments  Microtubules Figure 3.7b–dCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  21. 21. Cytoplasmic Organelles Centrioles  Rod-shaped bodies made of microtubules  Direct formation of mitotic spindle during cell divisionCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  22. 22. Cellular Projections Not found in all cells Used for movement  Cilia moves materials across the cell surface  Flagellum propels the cellCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  23. 23. Cell Diversity Figure 3.8a–bCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  24. 24. Cell Diversity Figure 3.8cCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  25. 25. Cell Diversity Figure 3.8d–eCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  26. 26. Cell Diversity Figure 3.8f–gCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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