For the Cell Biology Video Staining of Endoplasmic Reticulum, go to Animation and Video Files.
Figure 6.12 Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
For the Cell Biology Video ER to Golgi Traffic, go to Animation and Video Files. For the Cell Biology Video Golgi Complex in 3D, go to Animation and Video Files. For the Cell Biology Video Secretion From the Golgi, go to Animation and Video Files.
Figure 6.16 Review: relationships among organelles of the endomembrane system
For the Cell Biology Video ER and Mitochondria in Leaf Cells, go to Animation and Video Files. For the Cell Biology Video Mitochondria in 3D, go to Animation and Video Files. For the Cell Biology Video Chloroplast Movement, go to Animation and Video Files.
Figure 6.17 The mitochondrion, site of cellular respiration
For the Cell Biology Video The Cytoskeleton in a Neuron Growth Cone, go to Animation and Video Files For the Cell Biology Video Cytoskeletal Protein Dynamics, go to Animation and Video Files.
Figure 6.22 Centrosome containing a pair of centrioles
Figure 6.23a A comparison of the beating of flagella and cilia — motion of flagella
Figure 6.24 Ultrastructure of a eukaryotic flagellum or motile cilium
For the Cell Biology Video Interphase Microtubule Dynamics, go to Animation and Video Files. For the Cell Biology Video Microtubule Sliding in Flagellum Movement, go to Animation and Video Files. For the Cell Biology Video Microtubule Dynamics, go to Animation and Video Files.
Figure 6.28 Plant cell walls
For the Cell Biology Video Cartoon Model of a Collagen Triple Helix, go to Animation and Video Files. For the Cell Biology Video Staining of the Extracellular Matrix, go to Animation and Video Files. For the Cell Biology Video Fibronectin Fibrils, go to Animation and Video Files.
Figure 6.32 Intercellular junctions in animal tissues
Ribosomes: Protein factories – particles made of ribosomal RNA and protein – Protein synthesis occurs here • Free ribosomes are localized to the cytosol • Bound ribosomes are on the ER or the nuclear envelope Cytosol Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Free ribosomes Bound ribosomes Large subunit Fig. 6-11 Small subunit Diagram of a ribosome
Fig. 6-16-3 Nucleus Rough ER Smooth Golgi ER Transport vessicle Transport vessicle Lysosome Plasma membrane •Nuclear envelope is connected to rough ER •Proteins produced by the ER flow in transport vessicles to the Golgi •Golgi pinches off vessicles that give rise to lysosomes, vessicles and vacuoles •Lysosomes can fuse with another vessicle for digestion •Transport vessicle carries proteins to plasma membrane for secretion •Plasma membrane expands by fusion of vessicles; proteins are secreted from the cell
Fig. 6-32 Tight Tight junctions prevent junction fluid from moving across a layer of cells 0.5 µm Tight junction Desmosomes fasten cells together in sheets Intermediate filaments Desmosome Gap Desmosome junctions Gap junctions all cells to communicate with one Space Extracellular another via cytoplasmic matrix between Gap channels cells junction Plasma membranes of adjacent cells 0.1 µm
Fig. 6-UN1 Cell Component Structure Function Concept 6.3 Nucleus Surrounded by nuclear Houses chromosomes, made of The eukaryotic cell’s genetic envelope (double membrane) chromatin (DNA, the genetic instructions are housed in perforated by nuclear pores. material, and proteins); contains the nucleus and carried out The nuclear envelope is nucleoli, where ribosomal by the ribosomes continuous with the subunits are made. Pores endoplasmic reticulum (ER). regulate entry and exit of materials. (ER) Ribosome Two subunits made of ribo- Protein synthesis somal RNA and proteins; can be free in cytosol or bound to ER Concept 6.4 Endoplasmic reticulum Extensive network of Smooth ER: synthesis of The endomembrane system membrane-bound tubules and lipids, metabolism of carbohy- regulates protein traffic and (Nuclear sacs; membrane separates drates, Ca2+ storage, detoxifica- performs metabolic functions envelope) lumen from cytosol; tion of drugs and poisons in the cell continuous with the nuclear envelope. Rough ER: Aids in synthesis of secretory and other proteins from bound ribosomes; adds carbohydrates to glycoproteins; produces new membrane Golgi apparatus Stacks of flattened Modification of proteins, carbo- membranous hydrates on proteins, and phos- sacs; has polarity pholipids; synthesis of many (cis and trans polysaccharides; sorting of Golgi faces) products, which are then released in vesicles. Lysosome Membranous sac of hydrolytic Breakdown of ingested substances, enzymes (in animal cells) cell macromolecules, and damaged organelles for recycling Vacuole Large membrane-bounded Digestion, storage, waste vesicle in plants disposal, water balance, cell growth, and protection Concept 6.5 Mitochondrion Bounded by double Cellular respiration Mitochondria and chloro- membrane; plasts change energy from inner membrane has one form to another infoldings (cristae) Chloroplast Typically two membranes Photosynthesis around fluid stroma, which contains membranous thylakoids stacked into grana (in plants) Peroxisome Specialized metabolic Contains enzymes that transfer compartment bounded by a hydrogen to water, producing single membrane hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a by-product, which is converted to water by other enzymes in the peroxisome