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  • 2. INTRODUCTION • The high demand for concrete in the construction using normal weight aggregates such as gravel and granite drastically increases the unnecessary weight of concrete.Therefore, there is a need to explore and to find out suitable replacement material to substitute the natural gravel stone strength . In developed countries, the construction industries have identified many artificial and natural lightweight aggregates (LWA) that have replaced conventional aggregates thereby reducing the size of structural members. This has brought immense change in the development of high rise structures using LWC.
  • 3. Coconut shells collected from the dump yards in kerala
  • 4. continental utilization of coconut shells as L.W.A  However, in Asia the construction industry is yet to utilize the advantage of LWC in the construction of high rise structures.  Coconut Shell (CS) are not commonly used in the construction industry but are often dumped as agricultural wastes.  It was concluded that the CSs were more suitable as low strength-giving lightweight aggregate when used to replace common coarse aggregate in concrete production especially for m30 grade concrete.
  • 5. Coconut shell crushing equipment
  • 6. Small cubes of coconut shells
  • 7. applications of coconut shells in different civil engineering aspects • The versatility of coconut fibres and its applications in different branches of engineering, particularly in civil engineering as a construction material. • Not only the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of coconut fibres are shown; but also properties of composites (cement pastes, mortar and/or concrete etc), in which coconut fibres are used as reinforcement, are discussed. Coconut fibres reinforced composites have been used as cheap and durable non structural elements. • The aim of this seminar is to spread awareness of coconut fibres as a construction material in civil engineering. • Coconut shell concrete can be classified under structural lightweight concrete.
  • 8. Old house of kerala surprisingly made with coconut shells as aggregate
  • 9. Low cost housing construction made with coconut shells in concrete production
  • 10. Comparision from practical study to theoretical by conducting experiments • properties of concrete using coconut shell as coarse aggregate were investigated in an experimental study. • flexural, compressive,splitting tensile strengths, impact resistance and bond strength were measured and compared with the theoretical values as recommended by the standards.The bond properties were determined through pullout test.
  • 11. Brick wall construction made with coconut shells in concrete
  • 12. Collection of coconut shells and making it an aggregate • Here Coconut shells which were already broken into two pieces were collected from local temple; air dried for five days approximately at the temperature of 25 to 30oC removed fibre and husk on dried shells; further broken the shells into small chips manually using hammer and sieved through 12mm sieve.The material passed through 12mm sieve was used to replace coarse aggregate with CS. The material retained on 12mm sieve was discarded. Water absorption of the CS was 8% and specific gravity at saturated surface dry condition of the material was found as 1.33
  • 13. concrete cube test • Physical and mechanical properties of periwinkle shell and crushed granite were determined and compared. A total of 300 concrete cubes of size 150 × 150 ×150 mm3 with different percentages by weight of crushed granite to periwinkle shells as coarse aggregate. • extra water was added in the mixes depending on the CS replacement to compensate water absorption of the CS particles
  • 14. Coconut shells gravel
  • 15. Mix proportions by weight method Mix Ratio 1 (Cement) : 2(Fine Aggregate) 4 (Course Aggregate) Sample A Cement Sand 100% Gravel Sample B Cement Sand 25% coconut shells+ 75% gravel Sample C Cement Sand 50% coconut shells +50% gravel Sample D Cement Sand 75% coconut shells+ 25% gravel Sample E Cement Sand 100% coconut shells
  • 16. PROCEDURE OF CONDUCTING CUBE TEST All the ingredients of the mix were weighed and mixed in the concrete mixture machine as per the concrete mix design. The steel mould was used for casting the beam specimens. Before mixing the concrete, the moulds were kept ready by placing it on a horizontal surface. The sides and bottom of all the moulds were properly greased for easy demoulding. The concrete was placed in the mould in three layers and compaction was done using needle vibrator. Proper care was taken for uniform compaction and surface finish throughout the beam.
  • 17. Compression test results for 1:1:2 and 1:2:4 concrete mixes • there was good relationship between the coconut shells and cement paste • Here density increased so compressive strength also increased.
  • 19. Split tensile strength • Split tensile strength test was conducted in accordance with STM . Cylinders of 100 x 200 mm size were used for this test, the test specimens were placed between two platens with two pieces of 3 mm thick • approximately 25 mm wide plywood strips on the top and bottom of the specimens. The split tensile strength was conducted • on the same machine on which the compressive strength test was performed. The specimens were tested for 1, 7 and 28 days.
  • 20. Results of split tensile strength • The CS concretes had higher strength enhancement than control concrete at 7 days of curing when compared to corresponding demoulded strength. Maximum strength gain was for M30 concrete with 70 percent of its 28 day split tensile strength nearly same strength gain was observed for M20 concrete
  • 21. Test setup of flexural two point loading • The experiments were conducted on a loading frame of capacity 400 kN. The beams were tested as a simply supported beam with a clear span of 2500mm and it is subjected to two point loading. The loading set-up consists of a load cell, hydraulic jack and a hand pump to apply the load. The experimental setup is shown in the next slide. Steel pellets for the Demec gauge strain measurement was pasted on the compression side and tension side.
  • 22. Light weight aggregate concrete beam with coconut as aggregate is tested in bending (flexural) of capacity 400k.n
  • 23. TEST RESULTS Failure mode In the control concrete beam initial crack is 35 kN. The coconut shell 25% beam initial crack is 25 kN. The coconut shell 50% beam initial crack is 30 kN. The coconut shell 75% beam initial crack is 35 kN. The failure beams as shown in next slide.
  • 24. LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY • The strength beam without coconut shell is 90 kN with a central deflection of 680 mm.The strength beam with coconut shell 25% is 90 kN with a central deflection of 650 mm.The strength beam with coconut shell 50% is 90 kN with a central deflection of 745 mm. The strength beam with coconut shell 75% is 70 kN with a central deflection of 900mm.
  • 25. CONCLUSION • The experimental results of concrete beams, we undoubtedly adopt for small house constructions. • The comparison of mechanical properties and structural behavior of the NWC and CS beams is discussed. • The crack width, deflection, ultimate strength, concrete and steel strains are analyzed and compared for both beams. • Based on the results, the following conclusions may be drawn as the overall flexural behavior of reinforced concrete with coconut shells as coarse aggregates. beams used in this study closely resembles that of equivalent beam made with normal weight concrete.
  • 26. Thank you for your attention Any queries (or) doubts ?? !!