Youth Employment Skills Dvpt
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Youth Employment Skills Dvpt

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Youth Employment Skills Dvpt Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Youth employment and “skills development” in time of crisis in Africa
  • 2. Regarding some common specificities of employment in Africa
    • Informality: informal employment = 25% of GDP in developing countries (average), 70% of employment in Sub-Saharan countries
    • Shortage of recognition of qualifications within employment: low wages, working conditions, deskilling, low value of degrees…
    • Shortage of jobs creation in services, under-investment in infrastructure…
    • Marginal skills management adopted by companies : participative management, investissement in continuing training, faire wages…
    • Labor markets are not flexible qualitatively (qualification and working organisation), productivity rate are low
    • WE CAN NOTICE THAT enable environment of work is not favourable to emphasize workers skills: workers are not encouraged neither motivated and employers don’t trust in workers’ qualifications
  • 3. With the example of youth employment
    • Vulnerability with the crisis
    • In transition from education and working areas
    • Overrepresented in informal employment
    • Stigmatised in the entrance of labour markets : discriminated on their capabilities (leader, entrepreneurship)…their skills is socially predetermined (creativity, dynamism…)
    • WE have all ingredients to ANALYSE that initial education (qualification) doesn’t systematically induce skills development, others variable are important and should be taken into consideration
  • 4. My conception of skills development
    • Skills is a process belonging to individuals that shows our capability
    • Capability is a kind of capital which move in moment of the life of a person
    • Skills development depends on the decision of each person to put into action his ones capability
    • My approach is systemic: the conception made by individual about his work is as important as the possessed knowledge capital
  • 5. If the diagnosis is shared, it’s not the case for causes
    • Globally, two positions:
    • The educational system is inefficient
    • The process of decision making and policies monitoring are ineffective in both areas : companies and governments
  • 6. The educational system is inefficient
    • Lack of financial and material means (ICT…)
    • Low achievements in initial education and specially in primary schools and VET…
    • Shortage of quality in education and training : no innovation in pedagogical tools, traditional learning, low qualification of teachers, research is not taking into consideration…
    • WHEREAS, literature review is not convincing about ways methods criteria to measure the quality
    • So, we need to reform l’éducation, training teachers, takes priority to primary education or practical knowledge…
  • 7. The process of decision making and policies monitoring are ineffective in both areas : companies and governments
    • Educational objectives are imposed by international configuration: cooperation, international organisations…
    • Weak potentiality of industries and SMEs to identify their needs, to finance the training and to develop VET of quality (intership, alternating training)
    • Systems are not governed and lack of dialogue and implication of the civil society to frame public policies
    • So, we need to conduct specific African studies to identify the needs, enhancing national knowledge, promoting indigenous knowledge, initiate innovations, diversified economy…
  • 8. MY HYPOTHESIS OF RESEARCH
    • These two positions developed before are not really the causes but the effects of causes stem from:
    • The lack of conceptualization of employment and training relationship into education and employment policies and consequently a truly and transversal skills development policy is missing
    • The lack of consideration that between education and occupation, there is something we need to cope with and manage by a set of intermediaries that are not present in African countries
  • 9. What transversal skills development policy could offer ?
    • The bridge between employment and training by facilitating the communication between stakeholders (governments, social partners, researchers and practitioners)
    • disseminating common vocabulary and values : ability, employability, capacity…
    • Creating a common framework of action
    • Decompartmentalization different education areas
    • Initiate human resources management favourable to the development of internal labour markets
    • Initiate implementation measures and systems that allow individuals to use their capabilities
  • 10. Among the measures, we can cite
    • recognition of skills in informality by allowing informal workers and social excluded persons the opportunity to test, show, exchange and share skills in formal framework
    • favour alternating training in all forms of education
    • institutionalization the investment in continuing training (framing standards about financing, increase the role of trade unions, setting a entitlement to training…)
  • 11. What kind of intermediaries of skills development are needed ?
    • In schools : professional of careers advice, guidance, training skills managers
    • In employment area , regarding sectors and social coherence of each country, creating temporary agencies, organisations of entrepreneurs and local development agencies which could:
    • pooling means between SMES
    • facilitating networking and mutual learning in key trades
    • business incubators
    • and why not the creation of specialised schools!
  • 12. Objectives of these tracks of research (1/2)
    • Participate to debate about conceptions of vocational education and training policies in schools and during the career path :
    • Integrate the concept of life long learning
    • Break with the view that VET is a second chance in the educational system
    • Analysis education as a whole of knowledge without distinction: academic, vocational, practical and theoretical…
  • 13. Objectives of these tracks of research and discussions (2/2)
    • Apprehending identity of workers and motivation as criteria of the efficiency of educational and training systems
    • Taking into account to formal and informal contexts and their interconnections
    • To debate the idea that combat against illiteracy is a precondition of development
    • Debuilding systematic relations made between level of qualification and instruction and capabilities, investment in education and skills development, public expenditure and public policies…
  • 14. Thank you for your attention