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Youth Employment Skills Dvpt
Youth Employment Skills Dvpt
Youth Employment Skills Dvpt
Youth Employment Skills Dvpt
Youth Employment Skills Dvpt
Youth Employment Skills Dvpt
Youth Employment Skills Dvpt
Youth Employment Skills Dvpt
Youth Employment Skills Dvpt
Youth Employment Skills Dvpt
Youth Employment Skills Dvpt
Youth Employment Skills Dvpt
Youth Employment Skills Dvpt
Youth Employment Skills Dvpt
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Youth Employment Skills Dvpt

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  • 1. Youth employment and “skills development” in time of crisis in Africa
  • 2. Regarding some common specificities of employment in Africa <ul><li>Informality: informal employment = 25% of GDP in developing countries (average), 70% of employment in Sub-Saharan countries </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of recognition of qualifications within employment: low wages, working conditions, deskilling, low value of degrees… </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of jobs creation in services, under-investment in infrastructure… </li></ul><ul><li>Marginal skills management adopted by companies : participative management, investissement in continuing training, faire wages… </li></ul><ul><li>Labor markets are not flexible qualitatively (qualification and working organisation), productivity rate are low </li></ul><ul><li>WE CAN NOTICE THAT enable environment of work is not favourable to emphasize workers skills: workers are not encouraged neither motivated and employers don’t trust in workers’ qualifications </li></ul>
  • 3. With the example of youth employment <ul><li>Vulnerability with the crisis </li></ul><ul><li>In transition from education and working areas </li></ul><ul><li>Overrepresented in informal employment </li></ul><ul><li>Stigmatised in the entrance of labour markets : discriminated on their capabilities (leader, entrepreneurship)…their skills is socially predetermined (creativity, dynamism…) </li></ul><ul><li>WE have all ingredients to ANALYSE that initial education (qualification) doesn’t systematically induce skills development, others variable are important and should be taken into consideration </li></ul>
  • 4. My conception of skills development <ul><li>Skills is a process belonging to individuals that shows our capability </li></ul><ul><li>Capability is a kind of capital which move in moment of the life of a person </li></ul><ul><li>Skills development depends on the decision of each person to put into action his ones capability </li></ul><ul><li>My approach is systemic: the conception made by individual about his work is as important as the possessed knowledge capital </li></ul>
  • 5. If the diagnosis is shared, it’s not the case for causes <ul><li>Globally, two positions: </li></ul><ul><li>The educational system is inefficient </li></ul><ul><li>The process of decision making and policies monitoring are ineffective in both areas : companies and governments </li></ul>
  • 6. The educational system is inefficient <ul><li>Lack of financial and material means (ICT…) </li></ul><ul><li>Low achievements in initial education and specially in primary schools and VET… </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of quality in education and training : no innovation in pedagogical tools, traditional learning, low qualification of teachers, research is not taking into consideration… </li></ul><ul><li>WHEREAS, literature review is not convincing about ways methods criteria to measure the quality </li></ul><ul><li>So, we need to reform l’éducation, training teachers, takes priority to primary education or practical knowledge… </li></ul>
  • 7. The process of decision making and policies monitoring are ineffective in both areas : companies and governments <ul><li>Educational objectives are imposed by international configuration: cooperation, international organisations… </li></ul><ul><li>Weak potentiality of industries and SMEs to identify their needs, to finance the training and to develop VET of quality (intership, alternating training) </li></ul><ul><li>Systems are not governed and lack of dialogue and implication of the civil society to frame public policies </li></ul><ul><li>So, we need to conduct specific African studies to identify the needs, enhancing national knowledge, promoting indigenous knowledge, initiate innovations, diversified economy… </li></ul>
  • 8. MY HYPOTHESIS OF RESEARCH <ul><li>These two positions developed before are not really the causes but the effects of causes stem from: </li></ul><ul><li>The lack of conceptualization of employment and training relationship into education and employment policies and consequently a truly and transversal skills development policy is missing </li></ul><ul><li>The lack of consideration that between education and occupation, there is something we need to cope with and manage by a set of intermediaries that are not present in African countries </li></ul>
  • 9. What transversal skills development policy could offer ? <ul><li>The bridge between employment and training by facilitating the communication between stakeholders (governments, social partners, researchers and practitioners) </li></ul><ul><li>disseminating common vocabulary and values : ability, employability, capacity… </li></ul><ul><li>Creating a common framework of action </li></ul><ul><li>Decompartmentalization different education areas </li></ul><ul><li>Initiate human resources management favourable to the development of internal labour markets </li></ul><ul><li>Initiate implementation measures and systems that allow individuals to use their capabilities </li></ul>
  • 10. Among the measures, we can cite <ul><li>recognition of skills in informality by allowing informal workers and social excluded persons the opportunity to test, show, exchange and share skills in formal framework </li></ul><ul><li>favour alternating training in all forms of education </li></ul><ul><li>institutionalization the investment in continuing training (framing standards about financing, increase the role of trade unions, setting a entitlement to training…) </li></ul>
  • 11. What kind of intermediaries of skills development are needed ? <ul><li>In schools : professional of careers advice, guidance, training skills managers </li></ul><ul><li>In employment area , regarding sectors and social coherence of each country, creating temporary agencies, organisations of entrepreneurs and local development agencies which could: </li></ul><ul><li>pooling means between SMES </li></ul><ul><li>facilitating networking and mutual learning in key trades </li></ul><ul><li>business incubators </li></ul><ul><li>and why not the creation of specialised schools! </li></ul>
  • 12. Objectives of these tracks of research (1/2) <ul><li>Participate to debate about conceptions of vocational education and training policies in schools and during the career path : </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate the concept of life long learning </li></ul><ul><li>Break with the view that VET is a second chance in the educational system </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis education as a whole of knowledge without distinction: academic, vocational, practical and theoretical… </li></ul>
  • 13. Objectives of these tracks of research and discussions (2/2) <ul><li>Apprehending identity of workers and motivation as criteria of the efficiency of educational and training systems </li></ul><ul><li>Taking into account to formal and informal contexts and their interconnections </li></ul><ul><li>To debate the idea that combat against illiteracy is a precondition of development </li></ul><ul><li>Debuilding systematic relations made between level of qualification and instruction and capabilities, investment in education and skills development, public expenditure and public policies… </li></ul>
  • 14. Thank you for your attention

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