Youth Employment Skills Dvpt


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Youth Employment Skills Dvpt

  1. 1. Youth employment and “skills development” in time of crisis in Africa
  2. 2. Regarding some common specificities of employment in Africa <ul><li>Informality: informal employment = 25% of GDP in developing countries (average), 70% of employment in Sub-Saharan countries </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of recognition of qualifications within employment: low wages, working conditions, deskilling, low value of degrees… </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of jobs creation in services, under-investment in infrastructure… </li></ul><ul><li>Marginal skills management adopted by companies : participative management, investissement in continuing training, faire wages… </li></ul><ul><li>Labor markets are not flexible qualitatively (qualification and working organisation), productivity rate are low </li></ul><ul><li>WE CAN NOTICE THAT enable environment of work is not favourable to emphasize workers skills: workers are not encouraged neither motivated and employers don’t trust in workers’ qualifications </li></ul>
  3. 3. With the example of youth employment <ul><li>Vulnerability with the crisis </li></ul><ul><li>In transition from education and working areas </li></ul><ul><li>Overrepresented in informal employment </li></ul><ul><li>Stigmatised in the entrance of labour markets : discriminated on their capabilities (leader, entrepreneurship)…their skills is socially predetermined (creativity, dynamism…) </li></ul><ul><li>WE have all ingredients to ANALYSE that initial education (qualification) doesn’t systematically induce skills development, others variable are important and should be taken into consideration </li></ul>
  4. 4. My conception of skills development <ul><li>Skills is a process belonging to individuals that shows our capability </li></ul><ul><li>Capability is a kind of capital which move in moment of the life of a person </li></ul><ul><li>Skills development depends on the decision of each person to put into action his ones capability </li></ul><ul><li>My approach is systemic: the conception made by individual about his work is as important as the possessed knowledge capital </li></ul>
  5. 5. If the diagnosis is shared, it’s not the case for causes <ul><li>Globally, two positions: </li></ul><ul><li>The educational system is inefficient </li></ul><ul><li>The process of decision making and policies monitoring are ineffective in both areas : companies and governments </li></ul>
  6. 6. The educational system is inefficient <ul><li>Lack of financial and material means (ICT…) </li></ul><ul><li>Low achievements in initial education and specially in primary schools and VET… </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of quality in education and training : no innovation in pedagogical tools, traditional learning, low qualification of teachers, research is not taking into consideration… </li></ul><ul><li>WHEREAS, literature review is not convincing about ways methods criteria to measure the quality </li></ul><ul><li>So, we need to reform l’éducation, training teachers, takes priority to primary education or practical knowledge… </li></ul>
  7. 7. The process of decision making and policies monitoring are ineffective in both areas : companies and governments <ul><li>Educational objectives are imposed by international configuration: cooperation, international organisations… </li></ul><ul><li>Weak potentiality of industries and SMEs to identify their needs, to finance the training and to develop VET of quality (intership, alternating training) </li></ul><ul><li>Systems are not governed and lack of dialogue and implication of the civil society to frame public policies </li></ul><ul><li>So, we need to conduct specific African studies to identify the needs, enhancing national knowledge, promoting indigenous knowledge, initiate innovations, diversified economy… </li></ul>
  8. 8. MY HYPOTHESIS OF RESEARCH <ul><li>These two positions developed before are not really the causes but the effects of causes stem from: </li></ul><ul><li>The lack of conceptualization of employment and training relationship into education and employment policies and consequently a truly and transversal skills development policy is missing </li></ul><ul><li>The lack of consideration that between education and occupation, there is something we need to cope with and manage by a set of intermediaries that are not present in African countries </li></ul>
  9. 9. What transversal skills development policy could offer ? <ul><li>The bridge between employment and training by facilitating the communication between stakeholders (governments, social partners, researchers and practitioners) </li></ul><ul><li>disseminating common vocabulary and values : ability, employability, capacity… </li></ul><ul><li>Creating a common framework of action </li></ul><ul><li>Decompartmentalization different education areas </li></ul><ul><li>Initiate human resources management favourable to the development of internal labour markets </li></ul><ul><li>Initiate implementation measures and systems that allow individuals to use their capabilities </li></ul>
  10. 10. Among the measures, we can cite <ul><li>recognition of skills in informality by allowing informal workers and social excluded persons the opportunity to test, show, exchange and share skills in formal framework </li></ul><ul><li>favour alternating training in all forms of education </li></ul><ul><li>institutionalization the investment in continuing training (framing standards about financing, increase the role of trade unions, setting a entitlement to training…) </li></ul>
  11. 11. What kind of intermediaries of skills development are needed ? <ul><li>In schools : professional of careers advice, guidance, training skills managers </li></ul><ul><li>In employment area , regarding sectors and social coherence of each country, creating temporary agencies, organisations of entrepreneurs and local development agencies which could: </li></ul><ul><li>pooling means between SMES </li></ul><ul><li>facilitating networking and mutual learning in key trades </li></ul><ul><li>business incubators </li></ul><ul><li>and why not the creation of specialised schools! </li></ul>
  12. 12. Objectives of these tracks of research (1/2) <ul><li>Participate to debate about conceptions of vocational education and training policies in schools and during the career path : </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate the concept of life long learning </li></ul><ul><li>Break with the view that VET is a second chance in the educational system </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis education as a whole of knowledge without distinction: academic, vocational, practical and theoretical… </li></ul>
  13. 13. Objectives of these tracks of research and discussions (2/2) <ul><li>Apprehending identity of workers and motivation as criteria of the efficiency of educational and training systems </li></ul><ul><li>Taking into account to formal and informal contexts and their interconnections </li></ul><ul><li>To debate the idea that combat against illiteracy is a precondition of development </li></ul><ul><li>Debuilding systematic relations made between level of qualification and instruction and capabilities, investment in education and skills development, public expenditure and public policies… </li></ul>
  14. 14. Thank you for your attention