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Igcse Population Change Review



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  • 1. IGCSE Population Review and Revision 40 slides, 20 minutes; sit back and enjoy…..
  • 2. Population Distribution
    • Population distribution – the spread of the population, where people live.
    • Population density – the number of people per km squared.
    • Densely populated – an area with a high number of people per km squared.
    • Sparsely populated – an area where the number of people per km squared is low.
  • 3. Population Distribution
    • Where people live?
    • Why they live there (what are the human and physical factors that explain population density and distribution)?
    • A densely populated area of the world is Europe ?
    • A sparsely populated area of the world is Amazonia .
  • 4. Population Change The Population Formula Natural Population Change = Birth Rate (BR) – Death Rate (DR)
  • 5. The Demographic Transition Model
    • This is a model which shows population change (births, deaths and natural change) over time.
    • A model is a simplified version of reality.
    • The demographic transition model suggests all countries go through 4 (or 5) stages of population change.
    • The demographic transition model can be used to predict short and long term population changes.
  • 6.  
  • 7. Population Pyramids
    • Population pyramids show the population structure for an area or country in terms of age and sex ratios.
    • The pyramid is useful because it helps us to predict short and long term population changes.
  • 8. Mozambique – An LEDC
  • 9. The UK – An MEDC
  • 10.  
  • 11. Population Explosion
  • 12. Individual Decisions This explosion occurred largely in LEDCs and results from millions of individual decisions that are influenced by the characteristics of the places people live.
  • 13. LEDC Population Trends and Issues High birth rates and falling death rates leading to rapid population growth – the population explosion Youthful populations
  • 14.
    • Children needed as workers and to look after parents when they are older.
    • Infant mortality rates are high, so high birth rates compensate for this.
    • It is hoped children will grow up`, move to the city and get a good job, then send money home.
    • Religion often forbids the use of birth control.
    • Having a big family increase peoples status and importance in their village.
    • People (women) do not have access to EDUCATION and contraception
    Why traditionally are BRs high in LEDCs?
  • 15. Why did death rates fall in LEDCs?
    • Improved health care as knowledge, technology and medicines are imported from MEDCs.
    • Cleaner and safer drinking water, again as systems are imported from more developed countries.
    • Better diets as more food is grown, often as a result of improved farming techniques developed in MEDCs.
    • All leads to better living conditions and less disease which results in people living longer and falling death rates.
  • 16. Youthful Populations Death rate maybe be falling in LEDCs but life expectancy is still low – the result when combined with high BR is a youthful population
  • 17.
    • Lack of food and famine cause early death in many people.
    • The spread of disease, for example cholera that comes from drinking dirty water, causes many deaths.
    • Health care and hospitals are poor and often difficult to access.
    Why is life expectancy low in LEDCs?
  • 18. Youthful Population Pyramid
  • 19. Overpopulation Issues
  • 20. Overgrazing and Overcultivation As seen in the Sahel region of Africa including Darfur in western Sudan
  • 21. Deforestation and Soil erosion Again think Mato Grosso, Amazonia (Brazil) the Sahel (Darfur)
  • 22. Overcrowding and the growth of Shanty Towns Favelas in Brazil (Rio de Janeiro) Busties in India, e.g. Mumbai Slums in Jakarta
  • 23. Pollution and Waste
    • Water pollution for example from human waste (villages in Bangladesh)
    • Land pollution for example from farming (Mato Grosso, Brazil).
    • Air pollution for example from increased car use (think Rio).
    • Waste – see the Rio favela photo above
  • 24. Traffic Congestion And Rio once again – think of the road to Barra
  • 25. Crime and Lawlessness
  • 26. Other Problems
    • Shortage of resources, food and raw materials.
    • Unemployment and underemployment.
    • Lack of money for basic health care and schooling.
    • Rising crime, political coups and huge debts.
    • Low living standards and a lack of development.
  • 27. Youthful Populations Many young people (with a high youthful dependency ratio) puts pressure on schools, taxes, families; and exacerbates problems associated with rapid population growth and over population in LEDCS – this can hinder development
  • 28. What are the sustainable management solutions?
    • Anti-natalist population policies and strategies
    • Tanzania case study
    • Kerela, India case study
    • China, One Child Policy case study
    • North Africa case study
  • 29. Disease – HIV/AIDS
    • In many LEDCs disease is another demographic factor that has significant implications.
    • In Africa there are an estimated 30 million infected with HIV, in India and China rates of infection arte growing.
    • What are the social, economic, environmental and political impacts of HIV/AIDS?
    • What can countries and the international community do about HIV/AIDS?
    • You should have detailed information including a country specific case study from your AIDS report.
  • 30. MEDC Population Trends and Issues Ageing population in MEDCs result from long life expectancies , low fertility rates and the legacy of the post-war baby boom
  • 31. Why is life expectancy long?
    • Top quality health care with well trained doctors, high-technology equipment and advanced medicines
    • Access to clean water and high levels of sanitation (such as sewage) – reduces the spread of disease
    • Food supply is plentiful and levels of hunger and malnutrition are low
    • People’s working lives are often office based which can be healthier and involves a reduced risk of accidents
  • 32. Why are fertility rates low?
    • Female education and emancipation are key as women then become involved in the decision making process
    • Education about, and access and availability of, contraception
    • Urbanization leading to reduced requirement for children as farm workers
    • Increased perception of children as financial burden
  • 33. Post-war Baby Boom
  • 34. Example case studies where the issues of an ageing population are happening now. Italy, UK, Germany, (western Europe), Japan, South Korea Maybe even China???
  • 35. Ageing Population Pyramid
  • 36.  
  • 37. Ageing Populations in MEDCs
    • Problems and Issues
    • Declining economically active population and high (old age) dependency ratio
    • Pressure on the pensions system
    • Great demand for services such as hospitals, care homes, public transport
    • Pressure on the housing sector with many old couples occupying large family homes
    • Opportunities
    • Tourism and other grey Euro opportunities
    • A place in the sun and impact on southern European hosing sectors
    • Availability of skilled, experienced and “wise” people in labour force
    • Availability of wiling part-time workers
    • Reduced demand for schools and child care services
  • 38. What are the sustainable management solutions?
    • Pro-natalist population policies (e.g. France)
    • Encouraged immigration (UK and Italy although policies changing regularly)
    • Raising retirement ages (currently gone up to 67 from 65 in UK)
    • Forcing people to have private pensions and not rely on state (Slovakia’s 2 nd tier)
  • 39. Completing the formula - Migration Population change within an area needs to consider both natural change (BR-DR) and migration (add those who move in and subtract those who move out)
  • 40. Migration Case Studies
    • Economic migration – Mexico to the USA
    • Forced migration – Darfur (Sudan) internally displace people and refugees
    • Rural to urban migration – urbanization in Brazil and the growth of mega-cities such as Rio de Janeiro
  • 41. Migration Case Studies
    • Headline facts and figures – when, where, how many?
    • Reasons – push (e.g. poor living conditions) and pull (e.g. better paid work with opportunities for career development) factors
    • Impacts – on area of origin AND are of destination (positive, such as supply of cheap labour or remittances, and negative, such as impacts on origin population structures or exploitation)
    • Long term sustainable management attempts e.g. wall on US border vs. better managed temporary work visas