Paleolithic 2,500,000 BCE The world’s earliest stone tools, Ethiopia 2,100,000 BCE Tanzanian stone tools 700, 000 BCE Stone tools at Abu Simbel, Nubia 400, 000 BCE Cave Drawings of antelopes and other animals at Porc Epic cave near Dire Dawa, Ethiopia 250, 000 250, 000 BCE Numerous stone artifacts in Nubia and Egypt
Post- Paleolithic 75,000 BCE Shell Jewelry found in Blombos Cave, South Africa in 2004 37,000 BCE Mathematical artifacts found in / 25,000 BCE Swaziland and Ishango, Congo 35,000 BCE Decorated ostrich egg shells found in Namibia 26,000 BCE Painted stone slabs, Namibia 16,000 BCE Domestication of wild grasses: Ethiopian/ Nubian complex
Neolithic 15,000 BCE Domestication of sorghum: Nubia, present day Sudan, East Africa 9370 BCE Pottery at Tagalagal and Tamaya Mellet, Niger, West Africa 8000 BCE Africa’s oldest boat – found in Dufuna, Northeast Nigeria 8000 BCE Domestication of barley and wheat, Ethiopia 7000 BCE Wavy line pottery across Sahara/Sahelian region
Birthplace of modern man An international team of scientists has unearthed the skeleton of a human-like meat-eating creature that lived in Africa 2.5 million years ago and may be the earliest known ancestor of modern man. Researchers say the newly discovered hominid species, Australopithecus garhi, marks a turning point in evolution.
Arabica, the first coffee, once grew wild in Ethiopia
The Kingdom of Aksum This important trading nation in northeastern Africa grew from ca. 5th century B.C.E to become an important trading nation by the 1st century C.E. It converted to Christianity in 325 or 328.
(left) This mask is from the ubango tribe probably made in the 1400s. (right) This mask is from the Toma tribe of Guinea Tribal masks
Khami There have been many civilizations in Zimbabwe as is shown by the ancient stone structures at Khami, Great Zimbabwe and Dhlo-Dhlo.
Great Zimbabwe <ul><li>This was a city that flourished from around 1200 to 1450 by a Bantu people, the Shona. </li></ul><ul><li>It was the center of a gold-trading empire, then abandoned around 1450. </li></ul>
The shaded area indicates the sphere of influence in southeast Africa during the period of Great Zimbabwe, 11 th – 15 th Century C.E. Great Zimbabwe
Mutapa Empire <ul><li>The Mutapa Empire replaced Great Zimbabwe and was also involved in the gold trade (at least at first – once the gold was exhuasted, they switched to slaves). </li></ul><ul><li>It didn’t last long, though, and was conquered by the Portuguese in 1629. </li></ul>
Sphere of influence This diplomatic term denotes an area in which a foreign power maintains rights superior to those of a host nation. This concept became recognized in international law during the “scramble for Africa” in the 1880s, when the great powers carved up the continent for commercial exploitation.
Colonization No less than other European powers, Belgium proclaimed its colonial mission to be that of spreading civilization. But while Britain and France had global empires, Belgium's attention was focused on the vast, resource-rich Central African territory of Congo, 76 times larger than Belgium itself. The European country of Belgium controlled the Republic of the Congo (Zaire)
<ul><li>European influence </li></ul><ul><li>The Europeans, primarily the Dutch and English, colonized the area. </li></ul><ul><li>The Zulus suffered for it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Zulus were a warrior tribe in the area who conquered a lot of territory. The Dutch and English started encroaching, however. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1878, the British and the Zulus were at war. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There were several dramatic battles. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the Battle of Isandlwana, 20,000 Zulus surprised a British force of about 1,500 and pasted them. </li></ul></ul></ul>
<ul><ul><ul><li>The next day at Rorke’s Drift, the British waged a defensive battle against the Zulus. 139 British soldiers held out against 5,000 Zulus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They fired their rifles so rapidly, the barrels glowed; rounds popping off in the breach presented an additional </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hazard. </li></ul></ul></ul>
The Boer War British soldiers digging trenches in South Africa This war erupted between Afrikaaners and the British in South Africa, resulting in British imprisonment of the Afrikaaner women and children in concentration camps. This conflict at the turn of the 20 th century foreshadowed modern guerrilla warfare tactics.
Apartheid The table below shows the wide disparities that once existed between the white South Africa ruling minority and the immigrants to that country. White and black segregation at a 1976 soccer match.
Slavery starts In the early 1400's the Portuguese enslaved Africans to cultivate sugar in the Azores. The production of sugar demanded great labor as well as plenty of acreage, and only by using slaves could the Portuguese keep the enterprise profitable. And the plantation model the Portuguese developed would spread throughout the New World and remained the dominant economic model of the southern United States through the Civil War.
African Diaspora During the 1700s when the Atlantic slave trade was flourishing, West Africans accounted for approximately two-thirds of the African captives imported into the Americas.
The Slave Trade Slavery in Africa and the brutal form of slavery that would develop in the Americas were vastly different.
Slavery In the Ashanti Kingdom of West Africa, for example, slaves could marry, own property and even own slaves. And slavery ended after a certain number of years of servitude. African slavery was not hereditary, and lacked the racist notion that whites were masters and blacks were slaves. 13th century slave market in the Yemen