5 Class#7 Pre Colonial Indigenous Development, Underdevelopment From


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  • 5 Class#7 Pre Colonial Indigenous Development, Underdevelopment From

    1. 1. Pre-colonial indigenous Development, underdevelopment from the slave trade 06/04/09
    2. 2. Pre-colonial Indigenous Development <ul><li>Africa: home of Adamu </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural and Iron Revolutions </li></ul><ul><li>Bantu Migrations or Diffusion? </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern African Empires </li></ul><ul><li>Western African Empires </li></ul><ul><li>Southern African Empires </li></ul><ul><li>Other forms of pre-colonial society and governance: Nigerian Ibgo, Kenyan Gikuyu </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary pride in pre-colonial Africa </li></ul>06/04/09
    3. 3. Africa: home of Adamu <ul><li>First humans came from eastern Africa </li></ul><ul><li>200K years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Human cultures and socialization began in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>First sophisticated stone tools developed in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>First human colonization of the rain forest began in Africa </li></ul>06/04/09
    4. 4. Iron Revolution in Africa <ul><li>500 BC in (Nubia present day Sudan) </li></ul><ul><li>Also developed at Nok in ceneral Nigeria </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern African Iron making centered just west of Lake Victoria </li></ul><ul><li>Diffused from these centers </li></ul><ul><li>Iron making peoples expanded their territory at the expense of stone tool users (map 103) </li></ul>06/04/09
    5. 5. Agricultural Revolutions <ul><li>8000-4000 BC evidence of pastoralism in “moist” Sahara with domesticated goats, sheep, and cattle </li></ul><ul><li>3000 to 1000 B.C. sedentary farming well established with grains in the Savanna and “tubers’ and bananas in forest regions </li></ul><ul><li>Africa’s “agriculture hearths” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethiopian Plateau </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West African Savanna </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West African Forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Savanna boundary in west central Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crops and Agriculture “diffused” from these hearths </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent exchange between African and Middle East </li></ul>06/04/09
    6. 6. Agricultural Revolutions: continued <ul><li>Plants domesticated by Africans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cereals: teff (Ethiopian), millet, bulrush millet, sorghum, African rice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roots and tubers: yams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil Crops: oil palm, castor oil, shea butter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starch and sugar plants: enset </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetables: Okra, garden eggs (African egg plant) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruits: watermelons, tamarind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulants: Coffee, kola </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber plants: Cotton </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
    7. 7. Agriculture and Columbian Exchange <ul><li>Many African Staple foods are of Native American origin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cassava </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maize (Corn) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pineapple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peanuts </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
    8. 8. Agriculture and Columbian Exchange <ul><li>Common American foods from Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Okra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watermelon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citrus Fruit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bananas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coffee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But more than just food was exchanged between the Americas and Africa; Slaves and cultures </li></ul>06/04/09
    9. 9. Bantu Migrations or Diffusion? <ul><li>450 distinct Bantu languages </li></ul><ul><li>Bantu peoples expanded from southeastern Nigeria to dominate almost all of eastern and southern Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Some scholars believe Bantu peoples migrated with advanced agricultural and iron working technology and conquered “less advanced” societies and those societies were absorbed into Bantu people </li></ul>06/04/09
    10. 11. Bantu Migrations or Diffusion?: Continued <ul><li>Other scholars say the “Grand theory” diminishes indigenous people and that Bantu peoples simply migrated in multiple migration waves </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd theory states that Bantu people migrated because of population pressures expanded and were incorporated into local societies where Bantu languages and technologies became dominant. </li></ul>06/04/09
    11. 12. African Empires <ul><li>3000 year old history of empires in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of African empires undermines the notion that development began with colonization </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial and modern denial of African civilizations </li></ul><ul><li>See map 104 </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern African Empires </li></ul><ul><li>Western African Empires </li></ul><ul><li>Southern African Empires </li></ul><ul><li>Regions not ruled by empire does not imply no civilization </li></ul>06/04/09
    12. 13. Eastern African Empires <ul><li>Kush: in present day Sudan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>asserted independence from Egypt 1000 BC, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 8 th century BC Kush conquered Egypt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaspsed 300 AD because of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>agricultural soil exhaustion and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>overexploitation of forests for charcoal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Egypt is also an African empire </li></ul>06/04/09
    13. 14. Eastern African Empires (Christian empires) <ul><li>Nubia: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>established in Sudanese Nile River Valley 6 th century AD, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made up of three Christian Kingdoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolated from other Christian centers by Islamic expansion and expired in 15 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Auxum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Ethiopian Highlands 1 st century AD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First political state to embrace Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predecessor to Ethiopian or Abyssinian empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended 1974 when Haile Selassie deposed in military coup </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
    14. 15. Swahili City States <ul><li>Established between 8 th and 19 th century AD </li></ul><ul><li>Kilwa, Lamu, Mombasa, Mogadishu, and Gedi Ruins </li></ul><ul><li>Originally thought to be built by Arab/Persian/Asian, but evidence now points to African origin of cities with foreign merchants serving guest roles </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of Islam, trade, establishing written Swahili language </li></ul><ul><li>Cosmopolitan cities served coastal indigenous people, inland migrants, and truly global migrants </li></ul>06/04/09
    15. 16. Western African empires <ul><li>Ghana </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kingdom located in persent day Mali and Senegal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 th to 11 th century AD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became Islamic empire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mali </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mid 13 th century upper Niger and Senegal valleys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built on Gold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universities of Timbuktu and Nenne centers for foreign scholars in middle ages </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
    16. 17. Western African Empires <ul><li>Yoroba States in Southwestern Nigeria with Kingdom of Benin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on trade in Kola nuts, ivory and gold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First states in forest zone </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
    17. 18. Central and Southern African Empires <ul><li>Great Zimbabwe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>13 th to 15 th Centruy AD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skilled metal workers, miners, craftspersons, and copper workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traded with India and China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Famous walled city </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Luba, Lunda and Kongo empires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>14 th to 18 th centuries in southern DRC northern Angola </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture, metalworking, trade in food stuffs, metals and salt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portuguese Slave trade destabilized and later collapsed Kongo in 16 th century </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
    18. 19. Other forms of pre-colonial society and governance: <ul><li>Nigerian Ibgo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron working technological advanced society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ No Chief” or King </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kenyan Gikuyu </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced Agricultural techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indigenous “Democracy” through council of elders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But no Kingdom or empire or chief </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
    19. 20. Contemporary pride in pre-colonial Africa <ul><li>Gold Coast renamed Ghana even though not a geographical match </li></ul><ul><li>Mali and Benin named after pre-colonial empires </li></ul><ul><li>Rhodesia renamed Zimbabwe after the great Zimbabwe </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-colonial African roots in spirituals, gospel, blues and rock’n’roll </li></ul>
    20. 21. The Slave Trades and underdevelopment <ul><li>Trans-Saharan Trade </li></ul><ul><li>East African Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Trans-Atlantic Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-African Slave trade </li></ul><ul><li>Underdevelopment from the slave trade </li></ul><ul><li>Social Construction of Blackness from the slave trade </li></ul>06/04/09
    21. 22. Trans-Saharan Trade <ul><li>Began 7 th century AD with “ship of the Sahara” </li></ul><ul><li>B ooks, textiles and beads from Islamic areas exchanged for gold, ivory and slaves from African Savanna </li></ul><ul><li>9.4 million slaves stolen from 650AD to 1900 </li></ul><ul><li>Many died on the way </li></ul><ul><li>2/3 young women to be concubines or house-girls </li></ul><ul><li>Males employed as soldiers or courtiers and some in powerful positions in the Islamic world </li></ul>
    22. 23. East African Trade <ul><li>Followed Swahili trading routes linking Africa to Arabia, Oman, Persia, India and China </li></ul><ul><li>Early century AD->grew 8 th cent AD->peaked 18 th and 19 th cent. </li></ul><ul><li>Like trans-Saharan trade most slaves were women and children to become household servants and concubines </li></ul><ul><li>http://intl-programs.uiowa.edu/academic/crossingborders/cb_projects_indiafrica.htm#hyderabad </li></ul>
    23. 24. Trans-Atlantic Trade <ul><li>Largest slave trade ever in the world with 10 to 15 million stolen </li></ul><ul><li>First purely capitalist profit driven slavery </li></ul><ul><li>First purely race based slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Entire economy of Africa’s western coast between 16 th and 19 th century organized to facilitate the capture, Transportation and sale of Slaves </li></ul><ul><li>English, Danes, Dutch, Swedes, French, Spanish, and Portuguese establish slaving castles through the coast </li></ul><ul><li>Only Portuguese in Angola established direct slaving, where most Europeans relied on African intermediaries </li></ul>
    24. 25. Trans-Atlantic Trade: in the Americas <ul><li>In Americas slave labor crucial in plantations for sugar, tobacco, indigo, and cotton </li></ul><ul><li>Africans taken because of resistance to European diseases unlike native Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>Africans desirable as slaves for more than just labor as many skilled agriculturalists, iron makers (blacksmiths), and in knowledge of mining skills that European indentured servants lacked </li></ul><ul><li>African slaves taken to Americas also had special knowledge of tropical climates that was necessary for the European colonization of parts of Americas </li></ul><ul><li>Auction posters listing skills of slaves </li></ul>
    25. 26. Underdevelopment from the slave trade <ul><li>West African kingdoms waged war for the sole purpose of raiding for slaves </li></ul><ul><li>While Africa lost much of its skilled educated productive and young labor, Africa’s elite only gained cheap manufactured goods and nothing to encourage further development </li></ul><ul><li>Some estimates say that population cut in half </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 to15 million arrive in Americas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many more died in transit, famine, or disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although in some slaving regions population increased due to the buying of female slaves taken into those societies as concubines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insecurity disrupted agriculture, manufacturing, and trade </li></ul><ul><li>The slave trade expanded power of elite at expense of other African classes </li></ul>
    26. 27. Inter-African Slave Trade <ul><li>Slavery traditionally not permanent and slaves had rights in African context </li></ul><ul><li>As export slavery increased internal continental slavery changed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women and children often taken locally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights and slave customs diminished as slavery became commoditized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>African plantations develop using slave labor </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery integrated Africa into the European capitalist system and changed local production to view slavery as economic rather than customary especially on Atlantic and Indian Ocean coasts </li></ul><ul><li>So ingrained in local economy that colonizers fear disrupting local slavery. </li></ul>
    27. 28. Social Construction of Blackness from the slave trade <ul><li>Prior to trans-Atlantic slave trade Africans took “blackness” for granted (Mazrui) </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery socially constructed “blackness” </li></ul><ul><li>Fostered development of racist stereotypes and myths in Europe portraying Africans as shiftless slaves and to enslave them was to rescue them </li></ul><ul><li>To enslave Africans Europeans had to de-humanize them </li></ul><ul><li>Trans-Atlantic Slave trade initiated social construction of race (race is not biological) </li></ul>