Colonialism & Nigeria by Angie J

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Colonialism & Nigeria by Angie J

  1. 1. COLONIALISM in NIGERIA.
  2. 2. FIRST OF ALL.
  3. 3. WHAT is colonialism?
  4. 4. co·lo·nial·ism: kə-ˈlō-nē-ə-ˌli-zəm, -nyə-ˌli- (noun) 1853 : control by one power over a dependent area or people
  5. 5. ✴ when people take control of territory outside their own nation or country for their own benefit ✴idea originated during the “Age of Exploration” (1500’s - 1800’s) ✴European explorers contacted/discovered “new” lands ✴the “New World” was established ✴colonies were built for economic, political, and religious reasons
  6. 6. EXAMPLES?
  7. 7. EXAMPLES? ~ The United States of America began as a series of British colonies, originally called the “Thirteen Colonies”.
  8. 8. EXAMPLES? ~ The United States of America began as a series of British colonies, originally called the “Thirteen Colonies”. ~ Mexico, Brazil, and other South American countries were originally colonies of either Portugal or Spain.
  9. 9. EXAMPLES? ~ The United States of America began as a series of British colonies, originally called the “Thirteen Colonies”. ~ Mexico, Brazil, and other South American countries were originally colonies of either Portugal or Spain. ~ From the mid-1800’s to about 1950, India was a colonial area under the rule of the British East India Trading Company.
  10. 10. EXAMPLES? ~ The United States of America began as a series of British colonies, originally called the “Thirteen Colonies”. ~ Mexico, Brazil, and other South American countries were originally colonies of either Portugal or Spain. ~ From the mid-1800’s to about 1950, India was a colonial area under the rule of the British East India Trading Company. ~ Hong Kong was formerly a British colony (from 1841 to 1997).
  11. 11. EXAMPLES? ~ The United States of America began as a series of British colonies, originally called the “Thirteen Colonies”. ~ Mexico, Brazil, and other South American countries were originally colonies of either Portugal or Spain. ~ From the mid-1800’s to about 1950, India was a colonial area under the rule of the British East India Trading Company. ~ Hong Kong was formerly a British colony (from 1841 to 1997). ~ The island of Tokelau is a current colony of New Zealand.
  12. 12. SO... Why the heck did Europeans want to build colonies?
  13. 13. THE MOTIVES • gold, glory, and GOD
  14. 14. THE MOTIVES • gold, glory, and GOD • more land = more power
  15. 15. • gold, glory, and GOD • more land = more power THE MOTIVES • must convert HEATHENS into CHRISTIANS!
  16. 16. • gold, glory, and GOD • more land = more power THE MOTIVES • must convert HEATHENS into CHRISTIANS! • Triangular Trade Route: slave trade picks up millions in Africa
  17. 17. • more land = more power • THERoute: slave trade picks up millions in MOTIVES must convert HEATHENS into CHRISTIANS! • Triangular Trade Africa • later on.. needed raw materials to fuel the Industrial Revolution
  18. 18. A short satire about colonization (imperialism). QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  19. 19. Hold onto that thought for a moment. For now, let’s look at..... NIGERIA
  20. 20. 1.
  21. 21. 1. Where in the world is this place?
  22. 22. QuickTimeª and a peg ÿÿÆ#
  23. 23. Geography
  24. 24. Geography located on West African coast •
  25. 25. Geography located on West African coast • shares borders with Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
  26. 26. Geography located on West African coast • shares borders with Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north. Abuja = capital •
  27. 27. Geography on the coast of the Gulf of Guinea (Atlantic • Ocean)
  28. 28. on the coast of the Gulf of Guinea (Atlantic • Geography Ocean) land area of 923,768 km² (California x2)
  29. 29. on the coast of the Gulf of Guinea (Atlantic • Ocean) Geography land area of 923,768 km² (California x2) two main rivers: the Niger and the Benue •
  30. 30. on the coast of the Gulf of Guinea (Atlantic • Ocean) Geography land area of 923,768 km² (California x2) two main rivers: the Niger and the Benue • varied landscapes: includes mountains in southeast, beaches, rain forests, swamps, savannah plains, and some of the Sahara desert in the north
  31. 31. natural resources: petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, • limestone, lead, zinc Geography
  32. 32. limestone, lead, zinc Geography periodic/seasonal droughts and floods
  33. 33. PEOPLE current population: 149,229,090 •
  34. 34. PEOPLE current population: 149,229,090 • life expectancy: 47 years
  35. 35. current population: 149,229,090 • PEOPLE life expectancy: 47 years average number of children: 5 per woman •
  36. 36. current population: 149,229,090 • PEOPLE life expectancy: 47 years • average number of children: 5 per woman • Africa’s most populated country •
  37. 37. PEOPLE
  38. 38. average number of children: 5 per woman • PEOPLE Africa’s most populated country • ethnicities: more than 250 ethnicities (Hausa, • Fulani, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Ijaw, Kanuri, Ibibio, Tiv religions: Muslim (50%), Christian (40%), • Native (10%) religions: Muslim (50%), Christian (40%), • Native (10%)
  39. 39. NIGERIA today today QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  40. 40. A VERY BRIEF HISTORY OF AFRICA... was composed mainly of small tribes and clans of people supporting • themselves with farming, cattle, or hunting
  41. 41. A VERY BRIEF HISTORY OF AFRICA... was composed mainly of small tribes and clans of people supporting • themselves with farming, cattle, or hunting hundreds of different ethnicities and indigenous belief systems •
  42. 42. A VERY BRIEF HISTORY OF AFRICA... was composed mainly of small tribes and clans of people supporting • themselves with farming, cattle, or hunting hundreds of different ethnicities and indigenous belief systems • African societies on coast had greater contact with the outside world •
  43. 43. A VERY BRIEF HISTORY OF AFRICA... was composed mainly of small tribes and clans of people supporting • themselves with farming, cattle, or hunting hundreds of different ethnicities and indigenous belief systems • African societies on coast had greater contact with the outside world • 1700’s: slave trade = HUGE industry •
  44. 44. A VERY BRIEF HISTORY OF AFRICA... was composed mainly of small tribes and clans of people supporting • themselves with farming, cattle, or hunting hundreds of different ethnicities and indigenous belief systems • African societies on coast had greater contact with the outside world • 1700’s: slave trade = HUGE industry • late 1800’s: scramble for Africa, European nations struggle to • imperialize/colonize sections of Africa
  45. 45. “The scramble for Africa” for Africa”
  46. 46. To understand what happened to Nigeria, you must first look at the “Scramble for Africa”, when European nations sliced up sections of Africa to take as their own, and make colonies. And this is what happened...
  47. 47. Colonialism in AFRICA QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  48. 48. Colonialism in AFRICA • in the late 1800’s, European nations such as Great Britain, France, Italy, Germany, Portugal, Spain and the Netherlands participated in the Berlin Conference • at this meeting, the nations divided up Africa like a birthday cake • there was no representation for African tribes or societies • Europeans did not consider ethnic or religious differences among Africans when they made borders
  49. 49. Colonialism in AFRICA • instead, Europeans took advantage of differences between Africans, and pit different ethnic groups against each other • Europeans set up their own government systems to rule African peoples; often forced them to convert to Christianity; slavery • some “modernization” occurred: roads, communication lines, railroads, literacy and education, better medical care
  50. 50. So... what’s the deal with
  51. 51. So... what’s the deal with COLONIALISM
  52. 52. So... what’s the deal with COLONIALISM and NIGERIA?
  53. 53. COLONIALISM in NIGERIA
  54. 54. along Niger River COLONIALISM in NIGERIA 1400-1500: first contact with white Europeans; began colonizing Nigeria from coast towards inland 1900: Great Britain established a charter to rule Northern • Nigeria British used a “divide & conquer” method; pitting ethnic • groups against each other British introduced Christianity into Southern Nigeria; • especially to people like the Ibo (central theme in Things Fall Apart. Native beliefs disrespected; bonds of clan and kin broken •
  55. 55. COLONIALISM in NIGERIA concept of “civilizing” the native people; Christian evangelists • Church Missionary Society & Methodist Missionary Society establish schools in Southern Nigeria translated bible into local languages • introduced English as main language at school and society • made a “proper” code of conduct/behavior for Nigerian • villages
  56. 56. COLONIALISM in NIGERIA “If children were to develop along civilized lines, their daily • life must be supervised, controlled and directed along ‘proper lines'. That is, if a ‘raw' African is to be made a civilized, Christian black European, he must be isolated from the evil influences of his pagan past and present.” - Babs Fafunwa “A ‘good' citizen in Nigeria … meant one who was African • by blood, Christian by religion and British or French in culture and intellect.” - Babs Fafunwa
  57. 57. The reaction... QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. An example of people that suffered from European colonization.
  58. 58. QUOTES • “And at last the locusts did descend. They settled on every tree and on every blade of grass; they settled on the roofs and covered the bare ground. Mighty tree branches broke away under them, and the whole country became the brown-earth color of the vast, hungry swarm.”
  59. 59. QUOTES The coming of the locusts represents the coming of the white men to Nigeria. For example, only a few “scouts” of locusts came at first, and then a huge, impenetrable swarm followed. This represents the few early white missionaries that came before the rest. Like the locusts, the white men covered the land and took over the Nigerians’ lives. The tree branches that broke underneath the locusts represent the traditions and lifestyles that were broken as a result of the white men coming to the land.
  60. 60. QUOTES • “The white man is very clever... Now he has won our brothers, and our clan cannot act as one. He has put a knife on the things that held us together and now we have fallen apart.”
  61. 61. QUOTES This quote describes the climax of this story. The townspeople have realized that they have underestimated the white men and the damage they could cause. This quote very accurately reflects what actually happened in Nigeria when the British began colonizing it. The colonists played on the weaknesses of the clans and the differences that divided them; for example, they encouraged the outcasts of the village to join their church. In doing this, they broke the bonds that had bound the native people together (religion, customs) and the Nigerians found their lives “fallen apart”.
  62. 62. QUESTIONS • How do you think white Europeans justified taking over African territories without the peoples’ consent? Think about religious, racial, and social reasons.
  63. 63. > “Manifest Destiny” belief > the “White Man’s burden” belief > Europeans said that it was their “duty” to civilize and educate the “heathens” > many believed that white Europeans were biologically superior (Darwin’s theory) to blacks
  64. 64. QUESTIONS • Do you think the British improved or harmed Nigeria by colonizing it? Explain.
  65. 65. > Yes, improved: - Nigerians received modern knowledge and education of science, world history, languages, and contact with the outside world (i.e. Nwoye eventually attends the Western school in Umuofia) - Nigerians were given the opportunity to practice a non-traditional religion (i.e. Nwoye finds more peace in Christianity than the inexplicable actions of his native religion) - Nigeria became more modern; roads, communication lines, industries, and trains were introduced > No, harmed: - British colonists exploited Nigerian resources, such as oil and metal - Nigerian culture, religion, language, customs, and traditional lifestyle was ignored and destroyed
  66. 66. QUESTIONS • In “Things Fall Apart”, we see many unusual customs and beliefs that characterized Nigerian identity. For example, newborn twins were left to die in the wilderness because they were believed to be unholy. In your opinion, were the villagers of Umuofia “uncivilized” for adhering to these beliefs? Would you agree with the British in saying that they were “barbarians”? Explain.
  67. 67. > Yes, it is uncivilized/barbaric: - relying on an “Oracle” and the gods - using beliefs/legends instead of science to explain things like twins or infertility - killing innocent children because of a command from a supposed “oracle” > No, it is not barbaric/uncivilized: - each civilization has its own reasons for their beliefs and actions - different cultures cannot be labelled “uncivilized” because they are different from our own; some customs that we find normal may be considered “barbaric” and “uncivilized” by other people (i.e. abortions, pre-marital sex, eating meat, etc.)
  68. 68. Things Fall Apart
  69. 69. SOURCES: “1252641808_8cb370643a_o.jpg (JPEG Image, 552x561 pixels).” 23 Apr 2009 < http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1280/1252641808_8cb370643a_o.jpg>. “90px-Stamp_Southern_Nigeria_1901_1sh.jpg (JPEG Image, 90x106 pixels).” 23 Apr 2009 <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e5/Stamp_ Southern_Nigeria_1901_1sh.jpg/90px-Stamp_Southern_Nigeria_1901_1sh.jpg>. “Bainbridge, David. The Mad Scramble for Africa. (africa.jpg) (JPEG Image, 600x787 pixels) - Scaled (40%).” 23 Apr 2009 <https://ir- newspaper.wikispaces.com/file/view/africa.jpg>. “CIA - The World Factbook -- Nigeria.” 23 Apr 2009 <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ni.html>. quot;colonialism.quot; Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2009. Merriam-Webster Online. 21 April 2009 <http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/colonialism> Hughes, Katy. “Causes for Conflict in Nigeria: The Damage Caused by British Colonialism and Western Interference.” 17 Apr 2008. 23 Apr 2009 <http://nigeria.suite101.com/article.cfm/causes_for_conflict_in_nigeria>. Ihuegbu, Nnamdi. “quot;Colonialism and Independence: Nigeria as a Case Studyquot; by Nnamdi Ihuegbu.” 23 Apr 2009 <http://www.southernct.edu/organizations/hcr/2002/nonfiction/colonialism.htm>. Le Roy, Alexandre. quot;Upper and Lower Nigeria.quot; The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 23 Apr. 2009 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11073c.htm>. quot;Nigeria.quot; World History: The Modern Era. 2009. ABC-CLIO. 23 Apr. 2009 <http://www.worldhistory.abc-clio.com>. “YouTube - A Tale of Monsters.” 23 Apr 2009 <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sHPCbhu79zo&feature=related>. “YouTube - Colonialism in 10 Minutes: The Scramble For Africa. Uganda Rising..” 23 Apr 2009 <http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=Pw12KGSj53k>. “YouTube - WHAT THE TOURISTS SAY ABOUT NIGERIA!!!.” 23 Apr 2009 <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=43jU3WohDXo>.

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