DiGRA 2011GamificationA roundtable on game studiesand HCI perspectivesR. Khaled, D. Dixon, S. DeterdingUtrecht, September 1...
Today                  You are here• Introduction• Pre-history of “gamification” in HCI• Current topics in HCI• Defining “ga...
“Gamification”?“The use of game design elements in non-gaming contexts”                           4
“Gamification”?                 5
“Gamification”?                 6
The blueprint    Points                  Badges         Leaderboards          IncentivesTracking, Feedback          Goal-s...
The enablers                      Success stories                                  Existing discoursesAnalytics & sensors ...
Today• Introduction                          You are here• Pre-history of “gamification” in HCI• Current topics in HCI• Defi...
“Gamification” in HCI: A prehistory               Utility              Usability          The great beyond                 ...
Three Paradigms of HCI                                                                                   Ludic design     ...
PrecursorsEnjoyable interfaces,fun of use, metaphors(1980-1988)
Dennis Chao, Doom as an Interface forProcess Management (2001)Repurposing3d engines, interfaces,                 Louis von...
User ExperiencePleasure, fun, emotion,desire, hedonic attributes(2002+)
Game UXPlayability heuristics, metrics,models of game experience(2002+)
“Ludic design”Curiosity, exploration,reflection, openness(2002+)
PlayfulnessConditions, elements,experiences, inspiration(2005+)
CSCWMotivating collaboration,recommender/reputation(2005+)
Persuasive Tech.Persuasive games,persuasive patterns(2006+)
Today• Introduction                          You are here• Pre-history of “gamification” in HCI• Current topics in HCI• Defi...
Gerling, K. and Masuch, M.: Exploring the Potential                                                                      o...
Müller, F., Peer, F., Agamanolis, S., and Sheridan, J.                                                                    ...
Laschke, M. and Hassenzahl, M.:            Narasimhan, N., Chiricescu, S. and                                             ...
Reeves, B., Cummings, J. J. and Anderson, D. Leveraging the   Brewer, R. S., Lee, G. E., Xu,Y., Desiato, C., Katchuk,     ...
Choe, S. P., Jang, H. and Song, J. Roleplaying gamification to     Hoonhout, J. and Meerbeek, B.: Brainstorm triggers:     ...
Cramer, H., Ahmet, Z., Rost, M. and Holmquist, L. E.:Gamification and location-sharing: some emergingsocial conflicts (2011)...
Dimension 1: Presence and Dimension 2: Readiness. The division between discursive and practical consciousness can be mirro...
Hoonhout, J. and Meerbeek, B.: Brainstorm triggers:   game characteristics as input in ideation (2011)Making sense of     ...
Khaled, R. It’s Not Just Whether You Win or Lose:                                                                         ...
responsibilities of users,                                           coercion and social pressure    regulators, designers...
socio-economic status/access      gaming literacy                                            dependency levelscultural gro...
motivations challenges and constraints of working                                                      user roles with giv...
morally defined: whose                            conflict of in-game/out-ends are being furthered                         o...
Today• Introduction• Pre-history of “gamification” in HCI• Current topics in HCI     You are here• Defining “gamification”• D...
A definition    Gamification    - The use of game design    elements in non-game contexts                                   ...
A definition    Gamification    - The use of game design    elements in non-game contexts                                   ...
Games not play                 Game                 Play                        37
Gamefulness              38
Using elements of games                          libert             chaser             yand        Dune                   ...
Bringing it all together                               Game                                      Gameful Design           ...
Using different elements of design                                     Playtesting, playcentric design, valueGame design m...
Non-game contexts                    42
Contextualising gamification                              43
the definition again     Gamification     Gameful Design     - The use of game design     elements in non-game contexts     ...
Today• Introduction• Pre-history of “gamification” in HCI• Current topics in HCI                            You are here• D...
Debate!3 focal questions: 3 min/respondent, 15 minopen debate• What is new and valuable in the HCI perspective? What is mi...
Thank youRilla Khaled   Dan Dixon             Sebastian Deterdingrikh@itu.dk    dan@digitaldust.org   s.deterding@hans-bre...
Gamification: A roundtable on game studies and HCI perspectives
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Gamification: A roundtable on game studies and HCI perspectives

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Gamification: A roundtable on game studies and HCI perspectives

  1. 1. DiGRA 2011GamificationA roundtable on game studiesand HCI perspectivesR. Khaled, D. Dixon, S. DeterdingUtrecht, September 16, 2011cb
  2. 2. Today You are here• Introduction• Pre-history of “gamification” in HCI• Current topics in HCI• Defining “gamification”• Debate! 3
  3. 3. “Gamification”?“The use of game design elements in non-gaming contexts” 4
  4. 4. “Gamification”? 5
  5. 5. “Gamification”? 6
  6. 6. The blueprint Points Badges Leaderboards IncentivesTracking, Feedback Goal-setting Competition Rewards (And behavioral analytics in the backend) 7
  7. 7. The enablers Success stories Existing discoursesAnalytics & sensors & practices 8
  8. 8. Today• Introduction You are here• Pre-history of “gamification” in HCI• Current topics in HCI• Defining “gamification”• Debate! 9
  9. 9. “Gamification” in HCI: A prehistory Utility Usability The great beyond 10
  10. 10. Three Paradigms of HCI Ludic design CSCW (2002+) (2005+)Man as machine Man as computer Man as meaning-makerErgonomics Cognitive sciences Human sciences Precursors Repurposings UX Playfulness Persuasive Tech (1980+) (2001+) (2002+) (2005+) (2006+) Hedonic attributes Game UX 11 Harrison, S., Tatar, D., and Sengers, P. The Three Paradigms of HCI. Proc. AltCHI 2007, ACM Press (2007).
  11. 11. PrecursorsEnjoyable interfaces,fun of use, metaphors(1980-1988)
  12. 12. Dennis Chao, Doom as an Interface forProcess Management (2001)Repurposing3d engines, interfaces, Louis von Ahn, Games with a Purpose (2006)controllers, inputs(2001+)
  13. 13. User ExperiencePleasure, fun, emotion,desire, hedonic attributes(2002+)
  14. 14. Game UXPlayability heuristics, metrics,models of game experience(2002+)
  15. 15. “Ludic design”Curiosity, exploration,reflection, openness(2002+)
  16. 16. PlayfulnessConditions, elements,experiences, inspiration(2005+)
  17. 17. CSCWMotivating collaboration,recommender/reputation(2005+)
  18. 18. Persuasive Tech.Persuasive games,persuasive patterns(2006+)
  19. 19. Today• Introduction You are here• Pre-history of “gamification” in HCI• Current topics in HCI• Defining “gamification”• Debate! 20
  20. 20. Gerling, K. and Masuch, M.: Exploring the Potential of Gamification Among Frail Elderly Persons (2011) Cheng, L., Shami, S., Dugan, C., Muller, M., DiMicco, J., Patterson, J., Rohall, S., Sempere, A. and Geyer, W. Finding Moments of Play at Work (2011).Diversity ofapplicationsLife as a series of quests Choe, S. P., Jang, H. and Song, J. Roleplaying gamification to encourage social interactions at parties (2011).
  21. 21. Müller, F., Peer, F., Agamanolis, S., and Sheridan, J. Gamification and Exertion (2011) Diakopoulos, N. Design Challenges in Playable Data (2011)Diversity of Cramer, H., Ahmet, Z., Rost, M. and Holmquist, L. E.: Gamification and location-sharing: some emerging social conflicts (2011)applicationsChallenges of workingwith real data
  22. 22. Laschke, M. and Hassenzahl, M.: Narasimhan, N., Chiricescu, S. and Being a "mayor" or a "patron"? Vasudevan,V. The Gamification of The difference between owning Television: is there life beyond badges and telling stories (2011) badges? (2011)Huotari, K. and Hamari, J. “Gamification” fromthe perspective of service marketing (2011)Diversity ofapplicationsGamification of services Nikkila, S., Linn, S., Sundaram, H. and Kelliher, A. Playing in Taskville: Designing a Social Game for the Workplace (2011)
  23. 23. Reeves, B., Cummings, J. J. and Anderson, D. Leveraging the Brewer, R. S., Lee, G. E., Xu,Y., Desiato, C., Katchuk, engagement of games to change energy behavior (2011) M. and Johnson, P. M. Lights Off. Game On. The Kukui Cup: A Dorm Energy Competition (2011).Diversity ofapplicationsEco behaviours Inbar, O., Tractinsky, N., Tsimhoni, O. and Seder, T.: Driving the Scoreboard: Motivating Eco-Driving Through In-Car Gaming (2011).
  24. 24. Choe, S. P., Jang, H. and Song, J. Roleplaying gamification to Hoonhout, J. and Meerbeek, B.: Brainstorm triggers: encourage social interactions at parties (2011). game characteristics as input in ideation (2011)Diversity ofapplications Dixon, D. Player Types andGame design and game Gamification (2011)studies as a design lens
  25. 25. Cramer, H., Ahmet, Z., Rost, M. and Holmquist, L. E.:Gamification and location-sharing: some emergingsocial conflicts (2011) Antin, J. and Churchill, E. Badges in Social Media: A Social Psychological Perspective (2011)Making sense ofgamificationAchievement and badges
  26. 26. Dimension 1: Presence and Dimension 2: Readiness. The division between discursive and practical consciousness can be mirrored in the interface of the medium by the distinction between presence-at-hand and readiness-to-hand. Dimension 3: Adversity. The degree to which its material aspects make the game more or less difficult to the players to win. Cheung, G. Consciousness in Gameplay (2011)Making sense of Huotari, K. and Hamari, J. “Gamification” fromgamification the perspective of service marketing (2011)Theories and frameworks
  27. 27. Hoonhout, J. and Meerbeek, B.: Brainstorm triggers: game characteristics as input in ideation (2011)Making sense of Lee, H.-J. What could media art learn from recent experimental games? (2011)gamificationIn relation to other theory
  28. 28. Khaled, R. It’s Not Just Whether You Win or Lose: Thoughts on Gamification and Culture (2011) Antin, J. and Churchill, E. Badges in Social Media: A Social Psychological Perspective (2011)Making sense of Deterding, S. Situated motivational affordances of game elements: A conceptual model (2011)gamificationPsychology as a lens
  29. 29. responsibilities of users, coercion and social pressure regulators, designers Ethics targeting vulnerable privacy and data use audiences need for transparencyDiscussion topics and informed consent
  30. 30. socio-economic status/access gaming literacy dependency levelscultural groups User groups aesthetic tastes gender player typesDiscussion topics work place roles age
  31. 31. motivations challenges and constraints of working user roles with given tasks, data Design feedback “best practice” balance between userDiscussion topics and designer control
  32. 32. morally defined: whose conflict of in-game/out-ends are being furthered of-game goals (gettingby the cheat? points/getting fit) Cheating, gaming the system, and emergent player behaviour universal potential real-world negative effectsDiscussion topics socially defined
  33. 33. Today• Introduction• Pre-history of “gamification” in HCI• Current topics in HCI You are here• Defining “gamification”• Debate! 34
  34. 34. A definition Gamification - The use of game design elements in non-game contexts 35
  35. 35. A definition Gamification - The use of game design elements in non-game contexts 36
  36. 36. Games not play Game Play 37
  37. 37. Gamefulness 38
  38. 38. Using elements of games libert chaser yand Dune vigila nce Whole Parts 39
  39. 39. Bringing it all together Game Gameful Design (Serious) Games or Gamification Whole Parts Toys and Playful Design Playthings Play 40
  40. 40. Using different elements of design Playtesting, playcentric design, valueGame design methods conscious game designGame models MDA, Game design atoms, CEGEGame design principles and Enduring play, clear goals, variety ofheuristics play styles Levels, time constraints, limitedGame design patterns and mechanics resourcesGame interface patterns Badge, leaderboard, timer 41
  41. 41. Non-game contexts 42
  42. 42. Contextualising gamification 43
  43. 43. the definition again Gamification Gameful Design - The use of game design elements in non-game contexts 44
  44. 44. Today• Introduction• Pre-history of “gamification” in HCI• Current topics in HCI You are here• Defining “gamification”• Debate! 45
  45. 45. Debate!3 focal questions: 3 min/respondent, 15 minopen debate• What is new and valuable in the HCI perspective? What is missing?• How have these phenomena appeared and been approached in past game studies?• What do these phenomena hold for game studies? Why and how should we study them? 46
  46. 46. Thank youRilla Khaled Dan Dixon Sebastian Deterdingrikh@itu.dk dan@digitaldust.org s.deterding@hans-bredow-institut.de
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