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Today• Introduction You are here• Pre-history of “gamiﬁcation” in HCI• Current topics in HCI• Deﬁning “gamiﬁcation”• Debate! 9
“Gamiﬁcation” in HCI: A prehistory Utility Usability The great beyond 10
Three Paradigms of HCI Ludic design CSCW (2002+) (2005+)Man as machine Man as computer Man as meaning-makerErgonomics Cognitive sciences Human sciences Precursors Repurposings UX Playfulness Persuasive Tech (1980+) (2001+) (2002+) (2005+) (2006+) Hedonic attributes Game UX 11 Harrison, S., Tatar, D., and Sengers, P. The Three Paradigms of HCI. Proc. AltCHI 2007, ACM Press (2007).
PrecursorsEnjoyable interfaces,fun of use, metaphors(1980-1988)
Dennis Chao, Doom as an Interface forProcess Management (2001)Repurposing3d engines, interfaces, Louis von Ahn, Games with a Purpose (2006)controllers, inputs(2001+)
User ExperiencePleasure, fun, emotion,desire, hedonic attributes(2002+)
Game UXPlayability heuristics, metrics,models of game experience(2002+)
Today• Introduction You are here• Pre-history of “gamiﬁcation” in HCI• Current topics in HCI• Deﬁning “gamiﬁcation”• Debate! 20
Gerling, K. and Masuch, M.: Exploring the Potential of Gamiﬁcation Among Frail Elderly Persons (2011) Cheng, L., Shami, S., Dugan, C., Muller, M., DiMicco, J., Patterson, J., Rohall, S., Sempere, A. and Geyer, W. Finding Moments of Play at Work (2011).Diversity ofapplicationsLife as a series of quests Choe, S. P., Jang, H. and Song, J. Roleplaying gamiﬁcation to encourage social interactions at parties (2011).
Müller, F., Peer, F., Agamanolis, S., and Sheridan, J. Gamiﬁcation and Exertion (2011) Diakopoulos, N. Design Challenges in Playable Data (2011)Diversity of Cramer, H., Ahmet, Z., Rost, M. and Holmquist, L. E.: Gamiﬁcation and location-sharing: some emerging social conﬂicts (2011)applicationsChallenges of workingwith real data
Laschke, M. and Hassenzahl, M.: Narasimhan, N., Chiricescu, S. and Being a "mayor" or a "patron"? Vasudevan,V. The Gamiﬁcation of The difference between owning Television: is there life beyond badges and telling stories (2011) badges? (2011)Huotari, K. and Hamari, J. “Gamiﬁcation” fromthe perspective of service marketing (2011)Diversity ofapplicationsGamiﬁcation of services Nikkila, S., Linn, S., Sundaram, H. and Kelliher, A. Playing in Taskville: Designing a Social Game for the Workplace (2011)
Reeves, B., Cummings, J. J. and Anderson, D. Leveraging the Brewer, R. S., Lee, G. E., Xu,Y., Desiato, C., Katchuk, engagement of games to change energy behavior (2011) M. and Johnson, P. M. Lights Off. Game On. The Kukui Cup: A Dorm Energy Competition (2011).Diversity ofapplicationsEco behaviours Inbar, O., Tractinsky, N., Tsimhoni, O. and Seder, T.: Driving the Scoreboard: Motivating Eco-Driving Through In-Car Gaming (2011).
Choe, S. P., Jang, H. and Song, J. Roleplaying gamiﬁcation to Hoonhout, J. and Meerbeek, B.: Brainstorm triggers: encourage social interactions at parties (2011). game characteristics as input in ideation (2011)Diversity ofapplications Dixon, D. Player Types andGame design and game Gamiﬁcation (2011)studies as a design lens
Cramer, H., Ahmet, Z., Rost, M. and Holmquist, L. E.:Gamiﬁcation and location-sharing: some emergingsocial conﬂicts (2011) Antin, J. and Churchill, E. Badges in Social Media: A Social Psychological Perspective (2011)Making sense ofgamiﬁcationAchievement and badges
Dimension 1: Presence and Dimension 2: Readiness. The division between discursive and practical consciousness can be mirrored in the interface of the medium by the distinction between presence-at-hand and readiness-to-hand. Dimension 3: Adversity. The degree to which its material aspects make the game more or less difﬁcult to the players to win. Cheung, G. Consciousness in Gameplay (2011)Making sense of Huotari, K. and Hamari, J. “Gamiﬁcation” fromgamiﬁcation the perspective of service marketing (2011)Theories and frameworks
Hoonhout, J. and Meerbeek, B.: Brainstorm triggers: game characteristics as input in ideation (2011)Making sense of Lee, H.-J. What could media art learn from recent experimental games? (2011)gamiﬁcationIn relation to other theory
Khaled, R. It’s Not Just Whether You Win or Lose: Thoughts on Gamiﬁcation and Culture (2011) Antin, J. and Churchill, E. Badges in Social Media: A Social Psychological Perspective (2011)Making sense of Deterding, S. Situated motivational affordances of game elements: A conceptual model (2011)gamiﬁcationPsychology as a lens
responsibilities of users, coercion and social pressure regulators, designers Ethics targeting vulnerable privacy and data use audiences need for transparencyDiscussion topics and informed consent
socio-economic status/access gaming literacy dependency levelscultural groups User groups aesthetic tastes gender player typesDiscussion topics work place roles age
motivations challenges and constraints of working user roles with given tasks, data Design feedback “best practice” balance between userDiscussion topics and designer control
morally deﬁned: whose conﬂict of in-game/out-ends are being furthered of-game goals (gettingby the cheat? points/getting ﬁt) Cheating, gaming the system, and emergent player behaviour universal potential real-world negative effectsDiscussion topics socially deﬁned
Today• Introduction• Pre-history of “gamiﬁcation” in HCI• Current topics in HCI You are here• Deﬁning “gamiﬁcation”• Debate! 34
A deﬁnition Gamiﬁcation - The use of game design elements in non-game contexts 35
A deﬁnition Gamiﬁcation - The use of game design elements in non-game contexts 36
Using elements of games libert chaser yand Dune vigila nce Whole Parts 39
Bringing it all together Game Gameful Design (Serious) Games or Gamiﬁcation Whole Parts Toys and Playful Design Playthings Play 40
Using different elements of design Playtesting, playcentric design, valueGame design methods conscious game designGame models MDA, Game design atoms, CEGEGame design principles and Enduring play, clear goals, variety ofheuristics play styles Levels, time constraints, limitedGame design patterns and mechanics resourcesGame interface patterns Badge, leaderboard, timer 41
the deﬁnition again Gamiﬁcation Gameful Design - The use of game design elements in non-game contexts 44
Today• Introduction• Pre-history of “gamiﬁcation” in HCI• Current topics in HCI You are here• Deﬁning “gamiﬁcation”• Debate! 45
Debate!3 focal questions: 3 min/respondent, 15 minopen debate• What is new and valuable in the HCI perspective? What is missing?• How have these phenomena appeared and been approached in past game studies?• What do these phenomena hold for game studies? Why and how should we study them? 46
Thank youRilla Khaled Dan Dixon Sebastian Deterdingrikh@itu.dk email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org