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DiGRA 2011

Gamification
A roundtable on game studies
and HCI perspectives
R. Khaled, D. Dixon, S. Deterding
Utrecht, September 16, 2011
cb
Today
                  You are here


• Introduction
• Pre-history of “gamification” in HCI
• Current topics in HCI
• Defining “gamification”
• Debate!



                                        3
“Gamification”?


“The use of
 game design elements
 in non-gaming contexts”


                           4
“Gamification”?




                 5
“Gamification”?




                 6
The blueprint
    Points                  Badges         Leaderboards          Incentives
Tracking, Feedback          Goal-setting      Competition          Rewards




                     (And behavioral analytics in the backend)
                                                                             7
The enablers



                      Success stories




                                  Existing discourses
Analytics & sensors
                                      & practices
                                                        8
Today
• Introduction                          You are here


• Pre-history of “gamification” in HCI
• Current topics in HCI
• Defining “gamification”
• Debate!



                                                       9
“Gamification” in HCI: A prehistory



               Utility
              Usability



          The great beyond
                                     10
Three Paradigms of HCI
                                                                                   Ludic design             CSCW
                                                                                        (2002+)              (2005+)

Man as machine   Man as computer                 Man as meaning-maker
Ergonomics
                 Cognitive sciences              Human sciences




                 Precursors                  Repurposings                 UX               Playfulness            Persuasive Tech
                   (1980+)                        (2001+)              (2002+)                (2005+)                   (2006+)
                                                                   Hedonic attributes
                                                                      Game UX




                                                                                                                                  11
                      Harrison, S., Tatar, D., and Sengers, P. The Three Paradigms of HCI. Proc. AltCHI 2007, ACM Press (2007).
Precursors
Enjoyable interfaces,
fun of use, metaphors
(1980-1988)
Dennis Chao, Doom as an Interface for
Process Management (2001)




Repurposing
3d engines, interfaces,                 Louis von Ahn, Games with a Purpose (2006)
controllers, inputs
(2001+)
User Experience
Pleasure, fun, emotion,
desire, hedonic attributes
(2002+)
Game UX
Playability heuristics, metrics,
models of game experience
(2002+)
“Ludic design”
Curiosity, exploration,
reflection, openness
(2002+)
Playfulness
Conditions, elements,
experiences, inspiration
(2005+)
CSCW
Motivating collaboration,
recommender/reputation
(2005+)
Persuasive Tech.
Persuasive games,
persuasive patterns
(2006+)
Today
• Introduction                          You are here


• Pre-history of “gamification” in HCI
• Current topics in HCI
• Defining “gamification”
• Debate!



                                                       20
Gerling, K. and Masuch, M.: Exploring the Potential
                                                                      of Gamification Among Frail Elderly Persons (2011)


   Cheng, L., Shami, S., Dugan, C., Muller,
  M., DiMicco, J., Patterson, J., Rohall, S.,
  Sempere, A. and Geyer, W. Finding
  Moments of Play at Work (2011).




Diversity of
applications
Life as a series of quests                      Choe, S. P., Jang, H. and Song, J. Roleplaying gamification to
                                                encourage social interactions at parties (2011).
Müller, F., Peer, F., Agamanolis, S., and Sheridan, J.
                                                                           Gamification and Exertion (2011)
 Diakopoulos, N. Design Challenges in Playable Data (2011)




Diversity of                                   Cramer, H., Ahmet, Z., Rost, M. and Holmquist, L. E.: Gamification
                                               and location-sharing: some emerging social conflicts (2011)
applications
Challenges of working
with real data
Laschke, M. and Hassenzahl, M.:            Narasimhan, N., Chiricescu, S. and
                                                Being a "mayor" or a "patron"?             Vasudevan,V. The Gamification of
                                                The difference between owning              Television: is there life beyond
                                                badges and telling stories (2011)          badges? (2011)


Huotari, K. and Hamari, J. “Gamification” from
the perspective of service marketing (2011)




Diversity of
applications
Gamification of services                              Nikkila, S., Linn, S., Sundaram, H. and Kelliher, A. Playing in
                                                     Taskville: Designing a Social Game for the Workplace (2011)
Reeves, B., Cummings, J. J. and Anderson, D. Leveraging the
   Brewer, R. S., Lee, G. E., Xu,Y., Desiato, C., Katchuk,
                                                                      engagement of games to change energy behavior (2011)
   M. and Johnson, P. M. Lights Off. Game On. The Kukui
   Cup: A Dorm Energy Competition (2011).




Diversity of
applications
Eco behaviours                                    Inbar, O., Tractinsky, N., Tsimhoni, O. and Seder, T.: Driving the
                                                  Scoreboard: Motivating Eco-Driving Through In-Car Gaming (2011).
Choe, S. P., Jang, H. and Song, J. Roleplaying gamification to
     Hoonhout, J. and Meerbeek, B.: Brainstorm triggers:          encourage social interactions at parties (2011).
     game characteristics as input in ideation (2011)




Diversity of
applications                                  Dixon, D. Player Types and
Game design and game                          Gamification (2011)
studies as a design lens
Cramer, H., Ahmet, Z., Rost, M. and Holmquist, L. E.:
Gamification and location-sharing: some emerging
social conflicts (2011)




                                                        Antin, J. and Churchill, E. Badges
                                                        in Social Media: A Social
                                                        Psychological Perspective (2011)




Making sense of
gamification
Achievement and badges
Dimension 1: Presence and Dimension 2: Readiness.
 The division between discursive and practical consciousness can be mirrored in
 the interface of the medium by the distinction between presence-at-hand and
 readiness-to-hand.

 Dimension 3: Adversity.
 The degree to which its material aspects make the game more or less difficult
 to the players to win.


                  Cheung, G. Consciousness in Gameplay (2011)




Making sense of
                                                                   Huotari, K. and Hamari, J. “Gamification” from
gamification                                                        the perspective of service marketing (2011)
Theories and frameworks
Hoonhout, J. and Meerbeek, B.: Brainstorm triggers:
   game characteristics as input in ideation (2011)




Making sense of                                          Lee, H.-J. What could media art learn
                                                         from recent experimental games? (2011)
gamification
In relation to other theory
Khaled, R. It’s Not Just Whether You Win or Lose:
                                                                            Thoughts on Gamification and Culture (2011)
         Antin, J. and Churchill, E. Badges in Social Media:
         A Social Psychological Perspective (2011)




Making sense of                        Deterding, S. Situated motivational affordances of game elements: A conceptual model (2011)

gamification
Psychology as a lens
responsibilities of users,
                                           coercion and social pressure
    regulators, designers




                                 Ethics                   targeting
                                                          vulnerable
  privacy and data use                                    audiences



                                  need for transparency
Discussion topics
                                  and informed consent
socio-economic status/access      gaming literacy



                                            dependency levels
cultural groups


                       User groups             aesthetic tastes


 gender
                                                player types



Discussion topics                 work place roles
                          age
motivations
 challenges and
 constraints of working
                                                      user roles
 with given tasks, data




                          Design
  feedback
                                                 “best practice”



                          balance between user
Discussion topics         and designer control
morally defined: whose                            conflict of in-game/out-
ends are being furthered                         of-game goals (getting
by the cheat?                                    points/getting fit)




                         Cheating, gaming the
                        system, and emergent
                           player behaviour
  universal
                                                      potential real-world
                                                      negative effects


Discussion topics              socially defined
Today
• Introduction
• Pre-history of “gamification” in HCI
• Current topics in HCI     You are here


• Defining “gamification”
• Debate!



                                           34
A definition


    Gamification
    - The use of game design
    elements in non-game contexts




                                    35
A definition


    Gamification
    - The use of game design
    elements in non-game contexts




                                    36
Games not play
                 Game




                 Play
                        37
Gamefulness

              38
Using elements of games



                          libert
             chaser             yand
        Dune                        vigila
                                          nce




    Whole                     Parts




                                                39
Bringing it all together
                               Game




                                      Gameful Design
             (Serious) Games               or
                                       Gamification


     Whole                                              Parts



                   Toys
                   and                 Playful Design
                Playthings




                               Play
                                                                40
Using different elements of design
                                     Playtesting, playcentric design, value
Game design methods
                                     conscious game design


Game models                          MDA, Game design atoms, CEGE


Game design principles and           Enduring play, clear goals, variety of
heuristics                           play styles

                                     Levels, time constraints, limited
Game design patterns and mechanics
                                     resources


Game interface patterns              Badge, leaderboard, timer



                                                                              41
Non-game contexts




                    42
Contextualising gamification




                              43
the definition again


     Gamification
     Gameful Design
     - The use of game design
     elements in non-game contexts



                                     44
Today
• Introduction
• Pre-history of “gamification” in HCI
• Current topics in HCI
                            You are here
• Defining “gamification”
• Debate!



                                           45
Debate!
3 focal questions: 3 min/respondent, 15 min
open debate
• What is new and valuable in the HCI perspective? What is
 missing?
• How have these phenomena appeared and been approached
 in past game studies?
• What do these phenomena hold for game studies? Why and
 how should we study them?


                                                             46
Thank you
Rilla Khaled   Dan Dixon             Sebastian Deterding
rikh@itu.dk    dan@digitaldust.org   s.deterding@hans-bredow-institut.de

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Gamification: A roundtable on game studies and HCI perspectives

  • 1. DiGRA 2011 Gamification A roundtable on game studies and HCI perspectives R. Khaled, D. Dixon, S. Deterding Utrecht, September 16, 2011 cb
  • 2.
  • 3. Today You are here • Introduction • Pre-history of “gamification” in HCI • Current topics in HCI • Defining “gamification” • Debate! 3
  • 4. “Gamification”? “The use of game design elements in non-gaming contexts” 4
  • 7. The blueprint Points Badges Leaderboards Incentives Tracking, Feedback Goal-setting Competition Rewards (And behavioral analytics in the backend) 7
  • 8. The enablers Success stories Existing discourses Analytics & sensors & practices 8
  • 9. Today • Introduction You are here • Pre-history of “gamification” in HCI • Current topics in HCI • Defining “gamification” • Debate! 9
  • 10. “Gamification” in HCI: A prehistory Utility Usability The great beyond 10
  • 11. Three Paradigms of HCI Ludic design CSCW (2002+) (2005+) Man as machine Man as computer Man as meaning-maker Ergonomics Cognitive sciences Human sciences Precursors Repurposings UX Playfulness Persuasive Tech (1980+) (2001+) (2002+) (2005+) (2006+) Hedonic attributes Game UX 11 Harrison, S., Tatar, D., and Sengers, P. The Three Paradigms of HCI. Proc. AltCHI 2007, ACM Press (2007).
  • 12. Precursors Enjoyable interfaces, fun of use, metaphors (1980-1988)
  • 13. Dennis Chao, Doom as an Interface for Process Management (2001) Repurposing 3d engines, interfaces, Louis von Ahn, Games with a Purpose (2006) controllers, inputs (2001+)
  • 14. User Experience Pleasure, fun, emotion, desire, hedonic attributes (2002+)
  • 15. Game UX Playability heuristics, metrics, models of game experience (2002+)
  • 20. Today • Introduction You are here • Pre-history of “gamification” in HCI • Current topics in HCI • Defining “gamification” • Debate! 20
  • 21. Gerling, K. and Masuch, M.: Exploring the Potential of Gamification Among Frail Elderly Persons (2011) Cheng, L., Shami, S., Dugan, C., Muller, M., DiMicco, J., Patterson, J., Rohall, S., Sempere, A. and Geyer, W. Finding Moments of Play at Work (2011). Diversity of applications Life as a series of quests Choe, S. P., Jang, H. and Song, J. Roleplaying gamification to encourage social interactions at parties (2011).
  • 22. Müller, F., Peer, F., Agamanolis, S., and Sheridan, J. Gamification and Exertion (2011) Diakopoulos, N. Design Challenges in Playable Data (2011) Diversity of Cramer, H., Ahmet, Z., Rost, M. and Holmquist, L. E.: Gamification and location-sharing: some emerging social conflicts (2011) applications Challenges of working with real data
  • 23. Laschke, M. and Hassenzahl, M.: Narasimhan, N., Chiricescu, S. and Being a "mayor" or a "patron"? Vasudevan,V. The Gamification of The difference between owning Television: is there life beyond badges and telling stories (2011) badges? (2011) Huotari, K. and Hamari, J. “Gamification” from the perspective of service marketing (2011) Diversity of applications Gamification of services Nikkila, S., Linn, S., Sundaram, H. and Kelliher, A. Playing in Taskville: Designing a Social Game for the Workplace (2011)
  • 24. Reeves, B., Cummings, J. J. and Anderson, D. Leveraging the Brewer, R. S., Lee, G. E., Xu,Y., Desiato, C., Katchuk, engagement of games to change energy behavior (2011) M. and Johnson, P. M. Lights Off. Game On. The Kukui Cup: A Dorm Energy Competition (2011). Diversity of applications Eco behaviours Inbar, O., Tractinsky, N., Tsimhoni, O. and Seder, T.: Driving the Scoreboard: Motivating Eco-Driving Through In-Car Gaming (2011).
  • 25. Choe, S. P., Jang, H. and Song, J. Roleplaying gamification to Hoonhout, J. and Meerbeek, B.: Brainstorm triggers: encourage social interactions at parties (2011). game characteristics as input in ideation (2011) Diversity of applications Dixon, D. Player Types and Game design and game Gamification (2011) studies as a design lens
  • 26. Cramer, H., Ahmet, Z., Rost, M. and Holmquist, L. E.: Gamification and location-sharing: some emerging social conflicts (2011) Antin, J. and Churchill, E. Badges in Social Media: A Social Psychological Perspective (2011) Making sense of gamification Achievement and badges
  • 27. Dimension 1: Presence and Dimension 2: Readiness. The division between discursive and practical consciousness can be mirrored in the interface of the medium by the distinction between presence-at-hand and readiness-to-hand. Dimension 3: Adversity. The degree to which its material aspects make the game more or less difficult to the players to win. Cheung, G. Consciousness in Gameplay (2011) Making sense of Huotari, K. and Hamari, J. “Gamification” from gamification the perspective of service marketing (2011) Theories and frameworks
  • 28. Hoonhout, J. and Meerbeek, B.: Brainstorm triggers: game characteristics as input in ideation (2011) Making sense of Lee, H.-J. What could media art learn from recent experimental games? (2011) gamification In relation to other theory
  • 29. Khaled, R. It’s Not Just Whether You Win or Lose: Thoughts on Gamification and Culture (2011) Antin, J. and Churchill, E. Badges in Social Media: A Social Psychological Perspective (2011) Making sense of Deterding, S. Situated motivational affordances of game elements: A conceptual model (2011) gamification Psychology as a lens
  • 30. responsibilities of users, coercion and social pressure regulators, designers Ethics targeting vulnerable privacy and data use audiences need for transparency Discussion topics and informed consent
  • 31. socio-economic status/access gaming literacy dependency levels cultural groups User groups aesthetic tastes gender player types Discussion topics work place roles age
  • 32. motivations challenges and constraints of working user roles with given tasks, data Design feedback “best practice” balance between user Discussion topics and designer control
  • 33. morally defined: whose conflict of in-game/out- ends are being furthered of-game goals (getting by the cheat? points/getting fit) Cheating, gaming the system, and emergent player behaviour universal potential real-world negative effects Discussion topics socially defined
  • 34. Today • Introduction • Pre-history of “gamification” in HCI • Current topics in HCI You are here • Defining “gamification” • Debate! 34
  • 35. A definition Gamification - The use of game design elements in non-game contexts 35
  • 36. A definition Gamification - The use of game design elements in non-game contexts 36
  • 37. Games not play Game Play 37
  • 39. Using elements of games libert chaser yand Dune vigila nce Whole Parts 39
  • 40. Bringing it all together Game Gameful Design (Serious) Games or Gamification Whole Parts Toys and Playful Design Playthings Play 40
  • 41. Using different elements of design Playtesting, playcentric design, value Game design methods conscious game design Game models MDA, Game design atoms, CEGE Game design principles and Enduring play, clear goals, variety of heuristics play styles Levels, time constraints, limited Game design patterns and mechanics resources Game interface patterns Badge, leaderboard, timer 41
  • 44. the definition again Gamification Gameful Design - The use of game design elements in non-game contexts 44
  • 45. Today • Introduction • Pre-history of “gamification” in HCI • Current topics in HCI You are here • Defining “gamification” • Debate! 45
  • 46. Debate! 3 focal questions: 3 min/respondent, 15 min open debate • What is new and valuable in the HCI perspective? What is missing? • How have these phenomena appeared and been approached in past game studies? • What do these phenomena hold for game studies? Why and how should we study them? 46
  • 47. Thank you Rilla Khaled Dan Dixon Sebastian Deterding rikh@itu.dk dan@digitaldust.org s.deterding@hans-bredow-institut.de