Logos Appeals to logic or reason Inductive Deductive
Deductive Top down Theory > hypothesis > observation > confirmation
Inductive Particular to general Observation > pattern > hypothesis > thesis/theory
Ethos Ethical appeals Author’s credibility, reliability Respects reader Acknowledging opposing position Establish common ground with reader (see appeal to values)
Shared Values Considers values of audience and designs appeals to relate to those values For example, how do you sell forest conservation to Business? Environmentalists? “Average Joe”?
Pathos Emotional appeal Need for caution in its use
Exercise on Rhetorical Appeals In Stephen Lewis’“Pandemic,” find examples of each of “logos,”“ethos,” and “pathos.” Are there any places where you think Lewis crosses the line or fails to meet his responsibility to be logical, ethical and not to push too far emotionally? Appoint a spokesperson, and be prepared to discuss in class.