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Rhetorical Appeals

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  • 1. Rhetorical Appeals
  • 2. Logos
    Appeals to logic or reason
    Inductive
    Deductive
  • 3. Deductive
    Top down
    Theory > hypothesis > observation > confirmation
  • 4. Inductive
    Particular to general
    Observation > pattern > hypothesis > thesis/theory
  • 5. Ethos
    Ethical appeals
    Author’s credibility, reliability
    Respects reader
    Acknowledging opposing position
    Establish common ground with reader (see appeal to values)
  • 6. Shared Values
    Considers values of audience and designs appeals to relate to those values
    For example, how do you sell forest conservation to
    Business?
    Environmentalists?
    “Average Joe”?
  • 7. Pathos
    Emotional appeal
    Need for caution in its use
  • 8. Exercise on Rhetorical Appeals
    In Stephen Lewis’“Pandemic,” find examples of each of “logos,”“ethos,” and “pathos.”
    Are there any places where you think Lewis crosses the line or fails to meet his responsibility to be logical, ethical and not to push too far emotionally?
    Appoint a spokesperson, and be prepared to discuss in class.