Chapter 5 and 6

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Chapter 5 and 6

  1. 1. What Assumptions are the Author Making?<br />Idea accepted as true, but no proof is given.<br />
  2. 2. Manipulative Language<br />Cliché: tired, overused expression<br />Is the writer trying to gloss over or skip over details by using the cliché?<br />Is the writer trying to avoid directly stating an unpopular or unpleasant idea?<br />Is the cliché fitting or appropriate?<br />What does the use of the cliché reveal about the author?<br />
  3. 3. Manipulative Language<br />Jargon: subject/interest specific words<br />Often a sign you are not the intended audience<br />If you are the intended audience, often a sign author is trying to manipulate you<br />
  4. 4. Manipulative Language<br />Allusions: references to well-know religious, literary, artistic or historical works or sources.<br />What does the allusion mean?<br />Why did the writer include it?<br />What does the allusion contribute to the overall meaning of the work?<br />
  5. 5. Manipulative Language<br />Euphemisms: a word or phrase used in place of a word that is unpleasant, embarrassing, or otherwise objectionable.<br />Passed away/died<br />Friendly fire/killed my own soldiers by accident<br />Sanitation engineer/janitor<br />
  6. 6. Manipulative Language<br />Doublespeak: deliberately unclear or evasive language.<br />Why is the writer being evasive or unclear?<br />What are they trying to hide?<br />
  7. 7. Chapter 6: Reading and Evaluating Arguments<br />212:189<br />Fall 2011<br />
  8. 8. What is an Argument?<br />Trying to convince someone with facts and data that one side of an argument is the RIGHT side of the argument.<br />Cheese is good because…<br />It comes in many forms<br />Cream cheese<br />Cheddar cheese<br />Cheese cake<br />It is full of calcium<br />It can be harvested from many animals, allowing farmers to expand their wares<br />Goat<br />Cow<br />Camel<br />
  9. 9. Parts of an Argument<br />Must address an issue-a problem or controversy about which people disagree.<br />Some people say cheese is gross, and unhealthy, but I disagree. Cheese is good.<br />Must take a position-a side on the view.<br />Cheese is good.<br />Offers support for the claim; facts, details, data<br />The USDA suggests a serving of dairy at each meal (http://www.choosemyplate.gov/)<br />Has a refutation which considers opposing viewpoints and may attempt to disprove or discredit them.<br />Some people say cheese isn’t necessary because broccoli has the same amount of calories, but broccoli is expensive during the winter months when it must be grown elsewhere, while milk stays the same.<br />
  10. 10. Types of Claims<br />Fact: can be proven or verified by observation or research.<br />Value: states that one thing or idea is better and more desirable than another (right and wrong).<br />Policy: what should or ought to be done to solve a problem.<br />
  11. 11. Types of Support<br />Reason: general statement that supports a claim. Why the writers viewpoint is reasonable.<br />Evidence: facts, stats, data, experiences, comparisons, examples<br />Emotional appeals (Weakest): targeted towards needs and values of the readers or that theya re likely to care about.<br />
  12. 12. Inductive or Deductive?<br />Inductive argument: reaches a general conclusion from observed specifics<br />Deductive argument: begins with a general statement, or premise, and moves toward a more specific statement.<br />Pg. 160 Fig. 6-2<br />
  13. 13. Strategies for Reading<br />Think before you read<br />What does the title suggest?<br />Who is the author and what are their credentials?<br />What is the date?<br />What do I already know about the issue?<br />Read Actively<br />Read once for an initial impression.<br />Read the argument several more times.<br />Annotate as you read.<br />Highlight key terms<br />Diagram or map and analyze structures.<br />
  14. 14. Strategies for Evaluating<br />Types of evidence<br />Is the observer biased or did they exaggerate or incorrectly perceive a situation?<br />Are the examples typical? Are statistics used clearly?<br />Are comparisons realistic or true?<br />Relevancy and sufficiency of evidence<br />Definitions of terms<br />Cause and Effect relationships<br />Implied or stated system?<br />Recognizes or refutes opposing viewpoints?<br />Unfair emotional appeals?<br />Charged or biased language<br />False authority<br />Association<br />Appeal to common folk<br />Ad hominem-attacks the holder of opposing viewpoint, rather than the viewpoint.<br />Join the crowd<br />
  15. 15. Errors in Logical Reasoning<br />Circular reasoning-begging the question. Using part of the conclusion as evidence to support it.<br />Female soldiers should not be sent to the front of the line because killing is a man’s job.<br />No evidence<br />No reason to accept<br />Hasty generalizations<br />Non sequitur-it does not follow that<br />False cause<br />Either Or Fallacy-only two sides<br />

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