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Microbiology Chapter 1

Microbiology Chapter 1

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  • 1. Chapter 1 A Brief History of Microbiology
  • 2. The Early Years of Microbiology
    • What Does Life Really Look Like?
      • Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (Dutch)
        • Began making and using simple microscopes
        • Often made a new microscope for each specimen
        • Examined water and visualized tiny animals, fungi, algae, and single-celled protozoa; “animalcules”
      • By end of 19th century, these organisms were called microorganisms
  • 3. The Early Years of Microbiology
  • 4. The Early Years of Microbiology
  • 5. The Early Years of Microbiology
  • 6. The Early Years of Microbiology
    • How Can Microbes Be Classified?
      • Carolus Linnaeus (Swedish) developed taxonomic system for naming plants and animals and grouping similar organisms together
      • Leeuwenhoek’s microorganisms grouped into six categories as follows:
        • Fungi
        • Protozoa
        • Algae
        • Bacteria
        • Archaea
        • Small animals
  • 7. The Early Years of Microbiology
    • Fungi
      • Eukaryotic (have membrane-bound nucleus)
      • Obtain food from other organisms
      • Possess cell walls
      • Composed of
        • Molds – multicellular; have hyphae; reproduce by sexual and asexual spores
        • Yeasts – unicellular; reproduce asexually by budding; some produce sexual spores
  • 8. The Early Years of Microbiology
  • 9. The Early Years of Microbiology
    • Protozoa
      • Single-celled eukaryotes
      • Similar to animals in nutrient needs and cellular structure
      • Live freely in water; some live in animal hosts
      • Asexual (most) and sexual reproduction
      • Most are capable of locomotion by
        • Pseudopodia – cell extensions that flow in direction of travel
        • Cilia – numerous, short, hairlike protrusions that propel organisms through environment
        • Flagella – extensions of a cell that are fewer, longer, and more whiplike than cilia
  • 10. The Early Years of Microbiology
  • 11. The Early Years of Microbiology
    • Algae
      • Unicellular or multicellular
      • Photosynthetic
      • Simple reproductive structures
      • Categorized on the basis of pigmentation, storage products, and composition of cell wall
  • 12. The Early Years of Microbiology
  • 13. The Early Years of Microbiology
    • Bacteria and Archaea
      • Unicellular and lack nuclei
      • Much smaller than eukaryotes
      • Found everywhere there is sufficient moisture; some found in extreme environments
      • Reproduce asexually
      • Two kinds
        • Bacteria – cell walls contain peptidoglycan; some lack cell walls; most do not cause disease and some are beneficial
        • Archaea – cell walls composed of polymers other than peptidoglycan
  • 14. The Early Years of Microbiology
  • 15. The Early Years of Microbiology
  • 16. The Early Years of Microbiology
  • 17. The Golden Age of Microbiology
    • Scientists searched for answers to four questions
      • Is spontaneous generation of microbial life possible?
      • What causes fermentation?
      • What causes disease?
      • How can we prevent infection and disease?
  • 18. The Golden Age of Microbiology
    • Some philosophers and scientists of the past thought living things arose from three processes: asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction, or from nonliving matter
    • Aristotle proposed spontaneous generation – living things can arise from nonliving matter
  • 19. The Golden Age of Microbiology
    • Redi’s Experiments
      • When decaying meat was kept isolated from flies, maggots never developed
      • Meat exposed to flies was soon infested
      • As a result, scientists began to doubt Aristotle’s theory
  • 20. The Golden Age of Microbiology
  • 21. The Golden Age of Microbiology
    • Needham’s Experiments
      • Scientists did not believe animals could arise spontaneously, but did believe microbes could
      • Needham’s experiments with beef gravy and infusions of plant material reinforced this idea
  • 22. The Golden Age of Microbiology
    • Spallanzani’s Experiments
      • Concluded that
        • Needham failed to heat vials sufficiently to kill all microbes or had not sealed vials tightly enough
        • Microorganisms exist in air and can contaminate experiments
        • Spontaneous generation of microorganisms does not occur
      • Critics said sealed vials did not allow enough air for organisms to survive and that prolonged heating destroyed “life force”
  • 23. The Golden Age of Microbiology
  • 24. The Golden Age of Microbiology
    • Pasteur’s Experiments
      • When the “swan-necked flasks” remained upright, no microbial growth appeared
      • When the flask was tilted, dust from the bend in the neck seeped back into the flask and made the infusion cloudy with microbes within a day
  • 25. The Golden Age of Microbiology
  • 26. The Golden Age of Microbiology
    • The Scientific Method
      • Debate over spontaneous generation led in part to development of scientific method
        • A group of observations leads scientist to ask question about some phenomenon
        • The scientist generates hypothesis (potential answer to question)
        • The scientist designs and conducts experiment to test hypothesis
        • Based on observed results of experiment, scientist either accepts, rejects, or modifies hypothesis
  • 27. The Golden Age of Microbiology
  • 28. The Golden Age of Microbiology
    • What Causes Fermentation?
      • Spoiled wine threatened livelihood of vintners, compelling them to fund research into how to promote production of alcohol but prevent spoilage by acid during fermentation
      • Some believed air caused fermentation reactions, while others insisted living organisms caused fermentation
      • This debate also linked to debate over spontaneous generation
  • 29. The Golden Age of Microbiology
  • 30. The Golden Age of Microbiology
  • 31. The Golden Age of Microbiology
  • 32. The Golden Age of Microbiology
  • 33. The Golden Age of Microbiology
    • What Causes Disease?
      • Pasteur developed germ theory of disease
      • Robert Koch studied causative agents of disease
        • Anthrax
        • Examined colonies of microorganisms
  • 34. The Golden Age of Microbiology
  • 35. The Golden Age of Microbiology
    • Koch’s Experiments
      • Simple staining techniques
      • First photomicrograph of bacteria
      • First photomicrograph of bacteria in diseased tissue
      • Techniques for estimating CFU/ml
      • Use of steam to sterilize media
      • Use of Petri dishes
      • Aseptic techniques
      • Bacteria as distinct species
  • 36. The Golden Age of Microbiology
  • 37. The Golden Age of Microbiology
    • Koch’s Postulates
      • Suspected causative agent must be found in every case of the disease and be absent from healthy hosts
      • Agent must be isolated and grown outside the host
      • When agent is introduced into a healthy, susceptible host, the host must get the disease
      • Same agent must be reisolated from now-diseased experimental host
  • 38. The Golden Age of Microbiology
  • 39. The Golden Age of Microbiology
  • 40. The Golden Age of Microbiology
    • How Can We Prevent Infection and Disease?
      • Semmelweis and handwashing
      • Lister’s antiseptic technique
      • Nightingale and nursing
      • Snow – infection control and epidemiology
      • Jenner’s vaccine – field of immunology
      • Ehrlich’s “magic bullets” – field of chemotherapy
  • 41. The Golden Age of Microbiology
  • 42. The Golden Age of Microbiology
  • 43. The Modern Age of Microbiology
  • 44. The Modern Age of Microbiology
  • 45. The Modern Age of Microbiology
    • What Are the Basic Chemical Reactions of Life?
      • Biochemistry
        • Began with Pasteur’s work on fermentation and Buchner’s discovery of enzymes in yeast extract
        • Kluyver and van Niel – microbes used as model systems for biochemical reactions
        • Practical applications
          • Design of herbicides and pesticides
          • Diagnosis of illnesses and monitoring of patients’ responses to treatment
          • Treatment of metabolic diseases
          • Drug design
  • 46. The Modern Age of Microbiology
    • How Do Genes Work?
      • Microbial genetics
      • Molecular biology
      • Recombinant DNA technology
      • Gene therapy
  • 47. The Modern Age of Microbiology
    • Microbial Genetics
      • Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty determined genes are contained in molecules of DNA
      • Beadle and Tatum established that a gene’s activity is related to protein function
      • T ranslation of genetic information into protein explained
      • Rates and mechanisms of genetic mutation investigated
      • Control of genetic expression by cells described
  • 48. The Modern Age of Microbiology
    • Molecular Biology
      • Explanation of cell function at the molecular level
      • Genome sequencing
      • Pauling proposed that gene sequences could
        • Provide understanding of evolutionary relationships and processes
        • Establish taxonomic categories that reflect these relationships
        • Identify existence of microbes that have never been cultured
      • Woese determined that cells belong to bacteria, archaea, or eukaryotes
      • Cat-scratch fever caused by unculturable organism
  • 49. The Modern Age of Microbiology
    • Recombinant DNA Technology
      • Genes in microbes, plants, and animals manipulated for practical applications
      • Production of human blood-clotting factor by E. coli to aid hemophiliacs
    • Gene Therapy
      • Inserting a missing gene or repairing a defective one in humans by inserting desired gene into host cells
  • 50. The Modern Age of Microbiology
    • What Role Do Microorganisms Play in the Environment?
      • Bioremediation uses living bacteria, fungi, and algae to detoxify polluted environments
      • Recycling of chemicals such as carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur
  • 51. The Modern Age of Microbiology
    • How Do We Defend Against Disease?
      • Serology
        • The study of blood serum
        • Von Behring and Kitasato – existence in the blood of chemicals and cells that fight infection
      • Immunology
        • The study of the body’s defense against specific pathogens
      • Chemotherapy
        • Fleming discovered penicillin
        • Domagk discovered sulfa drugs
  • 52. The Modern Age of Microbiology
  • 53. The Modern Age of Microbiology
    • What Will the Future Hold?
      • Microbiology is built on asking and answering questions
      • The more questions we answer, the more questions we have

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