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History and scope

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History and scope

  2. 2. History <ul><li>1665 Robert Hooke observed living plant tissues (20X mag.) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Little boxes” or Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Used simple magnifying lens </li></ul><ul><li>Suggested all living things are made of cells </li></ul>
  3. 3. Hooke's Microscope 1665 Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was inspired by this publication
  4. 4. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1677) (“layu-wen-hook”) <ul><ul><li>First observation of living cells (200-300X mag.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Animalcules” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single lens Microscope (Self made)—simple microscope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tooth plaque </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rain water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diarrheal feces </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek <ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Protozoa </li></ul><ul><li>Sperm cells </li></ul><ul><li>Blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>Microscopic worms </li></ul>
  6. 6. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek’s microscope 3-4” microscope Required good lighting and patience
  7. 8. Spontaneous Generation <ul><li>The idea that life could arise spontaneously from nonliving matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Toads and Mice could arise from soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Until the 18 th century this believe existed </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. History (cont.) <ul><li>1668 Francesco Redi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st one to disprove spontaneous generation </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Francesco Redi’s experiments with meat uncovered covered Maggots No maggots Disproved that maggots arise from decaying meat!!
  10. 11. <ul><li>Proved (??) spontaneous generation in chicken broth </li></ul><ul><li>Heated Nutrient Fluids and poured them into covered flasks </li></ul>British clergyman John Needham’s experiments (1745) Hot Mutton gravy Turbid broth “ phial swarm’d with life...”
  11. 12. Italian priest Lazzaro Spallanzani (1765) <ul><li>Similar to Needham’s Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>He showed that heating a sealed flask of meat broth prevented growth of organism </li></ul><ul><li>Skeptics claimed—lack of O 2 prevented growth!! </li></ul>
  12. 13. The Golden Age of Microbiology! <ul><li>Louis Pasteur (finally disproved spontaneous generation after many years of debate) </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Koch (proof of germ theory) </li></ul><ul><li>Other pioneers in Microbiology </li></ul>
  13. 14. Pasteur—Father of microbiology <ul><li>1857- Louis Pasteur saves France’s wine industry </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon III begged Pasteur (a chemist by training) to help solve a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Sailors were mutinying b/c their wine was spoiling after only a few weeks at sea </li></ul><ul><li>Pasteur armed with his trusty microscope accepted the challenge </li></ul>
  14. 15. Luis Pasteur
  15. 16. <ul><ul><li>Spontaneous Generation finally disproved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boiled broth in long-s-shaped necked flasks (unsealed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remained sterile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proved that microorganisms are present in air, but air does not create microbes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning of the golden age of microbiology </li></ul></ul>Louis Pasteur (1861)
  16. 17. Swan neck flask experiment disproved spontaneous generation(1861)
  17. 18. History (cont.) <ul><li>1861 Pasteur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proved Microorganisms are present in nonliving matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microbes can be destroyed by heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aseptic Technique </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Fermentation mediated by yeast, not air </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pasteurization to prevent wine and beer spoilage (by bacteria) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. 1857-Louis Pasteur saves France’s wine <ul><li>Good wine contained yeast </li></ul><ul><li>Sour wine contained bacterium ( Bacteria that use alcohol and produce acetic acid spoil wine by turning it to vinegar (acetic acid). </li></ul><ul><li>He reasoned that if wine is heated to destroy the harmful bacteria it wouldn’t spoil (process known as Pasteurization) </li></ul>
  19. 20. Pasteur’s Tomb in the Crypt of the Pasteur Institute in Paris
  20. 21. Germ Theory of Disease <ul><li>Pasteur proposed that wine spoiling in an analogy for disease (bacterial growth made the wine “sick”) </li></ul><ul><li>He hypothesized in 1857 that microorganisms are responsible for infectious diseases </li></ul>
  21. 22. Edward Jenner (country doctor) <ul><ul><li>Milkmaid didn’t get smallpox b/c they contracted the milder form of cowpox </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immune system cannot distinguish btw cowpox/smallpox </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scratched a farmboy w/ a needle bearing fluid from cowpox </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small pox Vaccine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Vacca -cow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccination w/ cowpox provided immunity for smallpox </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Protection from a disease from vaccination Immunity
  23. 25. Robert Koch (1843-1910) <ul><li>German country physician who developed microbiology into a science </li></ul><ul><li>Developed pure culture techniques (used potato slices to grow bacteria) developed agar later on </li></ul><ul><li>Proof of the germ theory </li></ul><ul><li>Work with anthrax </li></ul><ul><li>Koch’s postulates </li></ul>
  24. 26. Bacillus anthracis
  25. 27. Pure Culture Key to Studying Microbes Definition : Pure culture is a population of organism, all of which are the progeny of a single organism -In nature, microbes almost never occur as pure cultures
  26. 28. AGAR <ul><li>Is a complex polysaccharide derived from seaweed </li></ul><ul><li>Was suggested by Fannie Hesse wife of Koch’s co-worker Walther Hesse </li></ul><ul><li>“ why do your jellies and pudding stay solid in warm weather”? </li></ul><ul><li>AGAR-AGAR had been used as a gelling agent in Asia for centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Fannie learned to use AGAR-AGAR from a Dutch neighbor in New York who spent time in Asia </li></ul>
  27. 29. Koch’s postulates <ul><li>Specific microorganism is present in all cases of the disease </li></ul><ul><li>Organism can be obtained in pure culture outside of the host </li></ul><ul><li>Organism when re-inoculated into host causes the same symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Organism can be isolated in pure culture from experimentally infected host </li></ul>
  28. 30. Koch’s findings <ul><li>Koch and his coworkers discovered that bacteria caused </li></ul><ul><li>TUBERCULOSIS </li></ul><ul><li>CHOLERA </li></ul><ul><li>DIPTHERIA </li></ul><ul><li>TYPHOID FEVER </li></ul><ul><li>GONORRHEA </li></ul><ul><li>PNEUMONIA </li></ul>
  29. 31. Hungarian doctor Ignaz Semmelweis (1818-1865) <ul><li>Taught medicine in Vienna </li></ul><ul><li>No one connected germs w/ disease yet </li></ul><ul><li>Puerperal fever “childbirth fever” caused 25-30% mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Nearby obstetric hospital had only a 2% death rate </li></ul>
  30. 33. Ignaz Semmelweis ( cont .) <ul><li>He made some observations </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Students working on cadavers moved from the dissecting room to the maternity ward </li></ul><ul><li>Midwives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stayed only in maternity ward </li></ul></ul>
  31. 34. Ignaz Semmelweis ( cont .) <ul><li>Ordered students to wash hands and medical instruments in chlorinated lime </li></ul><ul><li>Mortality dropped to 1.3% </li></ul><ul><li>By 1848, 0% mortality </li></ul>
  32. 35. Paul Ehrlich-hospital dermatologist <ul><li>Chemotherapy-Treatment using chemical substances </li></ul><ul><li>1910 Paul Ehrlich -”Magic bullet” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salvarsan (arsenic derivative) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation 606 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Syphilis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 36. Alexander Fleming –scottish researcher--1928 <ul><li>Discovered Penicillin (fungus) by accident </li></ul><ul><li>Was convinced that nasal mucus had antibacterial effects </li></ul><ul><li>Left his Staphylococcus culture on an agar plate for 2 weeks-went on vacation-came back &found mold on his plate which prevented bacterial growth (a mycology lab underneath him had this rare spore drift) </li></ul>
  34. 39. Founders of Microbiology (Review) <ul><li>First observed microbes— Leeuwenhoek </li></ul><ul><li>Proved living cells can arise only from other living cells ---Pasteur </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmed the Germ Theory of Disease -- Koch </li></ul>
  35. 40. Scope of microbiology
  36. 41. Microbiology <ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Immunology </li></ul>
  37. 42. Bacteria <ul><li>Medical importance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gastroenteritis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syphilis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tetanus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lyme disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plague </li></ul></ul>
  38. 43. Bacteria ( cont. ) <ul><li>Industrial importance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food supplements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amino acids & Vitamins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic solvents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acetone </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 44. Bacteria ( cont. ) <ul><li>Pharmaceutical importance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antibiotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>polymyxin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insulin </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 45. Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA <ul><li>Biotechnology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of microorganisms, cells, or cell components to make a product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foods, antibiotics, vitamins, enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recombinant DNA Technology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insertion or modification of genes to produce desired proteins </li></ul></ul>
  41. 46. Figure 9.1.1
  42. 47. Bacteria ( cont. ) <ul><li>Environmental importance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodegradation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oil spills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wastewater treatment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 48. Figure 9.1.2
  44. 49. Gram positive S. aureus
  45. 50. Gram negative E. coli
  46. 52. Fungi <ul><li>Medical importance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valley fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Candidiasis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Athlete's foot </li></ul></ul>
  47. 53. Fungi ( cont. ) <ul><li>Industrial importance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fermentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bread </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 54. Fungi ( cont. ) <ul><li>Pharmaceutical importance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antibiotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Penicillin </li></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 55. Fungi ( cont. ) <ul><li>Environmental importance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wastewater treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degradation of complex organic matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lignin in wood </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 58. Viruses <ul><li>Medical importance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenza </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rabies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common cold </li></ul></ul>
  51. 59. Viruses <ul><li>Genetic engineering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Gene shuttles” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment of some genetic disorders </li></ul></ul>
  52. 60. <ul><li>Microinjection </li></ul><ul><li>Gene gun </li></ul>DNA can be inserted into a cell by: Figure 9.6 & 7
  53. 61. Viruses ( cont. ) <ul><li>Environmental importance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unknown </li></ul></ul>
  54. 62. ADENOVIRUS
  56. 64. <ul><li>West Nile encephalitis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>West Nile Virus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First diagnosed in the West Nile region of Uganda in 1937. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appeared in New York City in 1999. </li></ul></ul>Emerging Infectious Diseases
  57. 65. <ul><li>Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prion (infectious proteinaceous material) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also causes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New-variant CJD in humans related to cattle fed sheep offal for protein. </li></ul></ul>Emerging Infectious Diseases
  58. 66. <ul><li>Escherichia coli O57:H7 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxin-producing strain of E. coli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fist seen in 1982 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leading cause of diarrhea worldwide. </li></ul></ul>Emerging Infectious Diseases
  59. 67. <ul><li>Invasive group A Streptococcus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapidly growing bacteria cause extensive tissue damage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased incidence since 1995 </li></ul></ul>Emerging Infectious Diseases
  60. 68. <ul><li>Ebola hemorrhagic fever </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ebola virus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes fever, hemorrhaging, and blood clotting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First identified near Ebola River, Congo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outbreak every few years </li></ul></ul>Emerging Infectious Diseases
  61. 69. <ul><li>Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hantavirus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fist identified in 1951 in Korea as cause of hemorrhagic fever and named for Hantaan River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A new disease involving respiratory symptoms was seen in the U.S. in 1995 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The U.S. virus, called Hantavirus Sin Nombre virus, probably came to the U.S. with rats around 1900 </li></ul></ul>Emerging Infectious Diseases
  62. 70. <ul><li>Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First identified in 1981. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worldwide epidemic infecting 40 million people; 14,000 new infections everyday. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexually transmitted disease affecting males and females. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the U.S., HIV/AIDS in people 13-24 years of age: 44% are female and 63% are African American. </li></ul></ul>Emerging Infectious Diseases
  63. 71. <ul><li>Anthrax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacillus anthracis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1877, Koch proved B. anthracis causes anthrax. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veterinarians and agricultural workers are at risk of cutaneous anthrax. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2001, dissemination of B. anthracis via mail infected 22 people. </li></ul></ul>Emerging Infectious Diseases

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