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  • The figure shows that there are really two realms that are involved in research. The first, on the top, is the land of theory. It is what goes on inside our heads as researchers. It is were we keep our theories about how the world operates. The second, on the bottom, is the land of observations. It is the real world into which we translate our ideas -- our programs, treatments, measures and observations. When we conduct research, we are continually flitting back and forth between these two realms, between what we think about the world and what is going on in it. When we are investigating a cause-effect relationship, we have a theory (implicit or otherwise) of what the cause is ( the cause construct ). For instance, if we are testing a new educational program, we have an idea of what it would look like ideally. Similarly, on the effect side, we have an idea of what we are ideally trying to affect and measure ( the effect construct ). But each of these, the cause and the effect, has to be translated into real things, into a program or treatment and a measure or observational method. We use the term  operationalization  to describe the act of translating a construct into its manifestation. In effect, we take our idea and describe it as a series of operations or procedures. Now, instead of it only being an idea in our minds, it becomes a public entity that anyone can look at and examine for themselves. It is one thing, for instance, for you to say that you would like to measure self-esteem (a construct). But when you show a ten-item paper-and-pencil self-esteem measure that you developed for that purpose, others can look at it and understand more clearly what you intend by the term self-esteem.
  • THINK about how much research goes into this ad
  • Transcript

    • 1. Data Do you want numbers with that?
    • 2. Data Validity Finding Referencing
    • 3. Data Validity Finding Referencing
    • 4. Validity of what?
    • 5. Validity?
      • ‘ the best available approximation to the truth
      • of a given proposition ,
      • inference , or
      • conclusion ’
    • 6. Research validity
    • 7. Validity?
      • Of data sources…..
      • PRIMARY data sources
      • data we generate (and process)
      • SECONDARY data sources
      • data others generate and we process
    • 8. Validity?
      • Of sources…..
      • books
      • articles
      • journals
      • websites
    • 9. Validity of a web site?
    • 10. Website Validity Checklist ?
      • The site is professional
      • Website has an author
      • Information must be credible and error free
      • Site is published and copyrighted
      • Links to other sites verify the same information
      • References
      • Information is unbiased
      • Website must be current
      • From
    • 11. Learn about website validity?
      • Google it!
      • SACE
    • 12. Summary research advice?
      • SACE Board on conducting research
        • critical learning skill promoted in SACE
        • essential part of the learning process
        • From
    • 13. SACE documents
      • are provided to support students / teachers undertaking independent research for SACE subjects.
      • includes advice on conducting ethical research, and writing and referencing conventions.
      • SACE
    • 14. Wikiversity
    • 15. Wikiversity
      • Wikiversity  is a  Wikimedia Foundation  project devoted to 
      • learning resources , 
      • learning projects , and 
      • research  for use in
      • all  levels , types, and styles of education from
        • pre-school to university, including
        • professional training and informal learning.
      • We invite  teachers ,  students , and  researchers  to join us in creating  open educational resources  and collaborative  learning communities .
      • To learn more, try a  guided tour  or  start editing now .
    • 16. Data Validity Finding Referencing
    • 17. Using the web for research
    • 18. One way of getting data
    • 19. Using the web to gather data
    • 20. Using the web to gather data
    • 21. Using the web to gather data
    • 22. Libraries
      • In case you hadn’t seen this:
      • Back to the main point
      How much research goes into an ad like this one?
    • 23. Adelaide Uni e-library
    • 24. What is Summon?
      • With Summon, you can quickly search , discover and access
        • reliable and credible library content –
        • print and electronic books,
        • single articles to entire e-journals,
        • newspapers, theses and more.
      • Summon is a good starting point to find material for your research.
      • Search Summon from Library website or from your smartphone.
    • 25. What's covered in Summon?
      • Thousands of citations and fulltext of scholarly materials, including:
      • 6,800+ publishers' journals and books
      • 94,000+ journal and newspaper titles
      • 500,000,000+ items indexed so far, from journal articles to e-books, audio music files to theses
      • 1,000,000+ University of Adelaide Library catalogue records
        • for known items, it's best to use the  classic catalogue  or  Summon Advanced search
    • 26. What’s a journal?
      • Collection of articles
      • Peer-referenced
      • Now also online (e-journals)
    • 27. Summon? ‘ cromagnon ’ This is HOT
    • 28. Summon? This is HOT
    • 29. EBSCO host ‘teenage self image’ This is HOT
    • 30. Data Validity Finding Referencing
    • 31. Referencing – why?
      • When you write a report or essay and include someone else’s ideas you should immediately acknowledge this original source.
      • This is called  referencing  (or citing) and the description of the source you provide is called a  reference  (or a citation).
      • We are going to focus on the Harvard or  author-date  system, one of the more commonly used systems in Australia.
      • There are some variations in the application of the author-date system, depending on the authority consulted. The information provided here is based on  Style manual for authors, editors and printers  2002, 6th edn, John Wiley & Sons, Australia.
      • Adapted from eLearning site of Tasmania TAFE
    • 32. Referencing – why?
      • provides evidence you have researched topic thoroughly and found sources that support your argument or the information you are providing. Your document appears more  authoritative .
      • an acknowledgement of another person’s intellectual work , which rightfully belongs to that person
      • using another’s work without acknowledgement is called plagiarism . Plagiarism is the taking, using, and passing off as your own the ideas or words of another.
      • Adapted from eLearning site of Tasmania TAFE
    • 33. Referencing – when?
      • You should reference if you:
      • quote (use their exact words)
      • copy (use their figures, tables or structure)
      • paraphrase (use their idea in your own words)
      • summarise (give a brief account of their ideas)
      • Adapted from eLearning site of Tasmania TAFE
    • 34. Referencing – how?
      • You identify your source of information by making reference to it:
      • in the text of your report or essay (called  in-text  referencing)
      • in a list at the end of your report or essay (called a  reference list  or  citation list )
      • Adapted from eLearning site of Tasmania TAFE
    • 35. Referencing tools / options
      • Booklet based on SACE (go )
      • Uni sites (Adelaide, Wollongong, Purdue ( The OWL )…….
      • Bibliographic software ( EndNote etc)
      • Online bibliographic helpers
        • Son of Citation Machine
        • CiteULike
      • MS Word ‘insert reference’
    • 36. EBSCO host ‘teenage self image’ This is HOT
    • 37. Finally
      • Expect difficulties
      • Play!
      • Make mistakes
      • Keep trying
      • Keep it consistent
    • 38. Finally