Goal 3.04 and 3.05 reconstructionPresentation Transcript
Reconstruction Goal 3.04 Analyze the political, economic, and social impact of Reconstruction on the nation and identify the reasons why Reconstruction came to an end.
Reconstruction Goal 3.05 Evaluate the degree to which the Civil War and Reconstruction proved to be a test of the supremacy of the national government.
Key Terms Discussed Reconstruction plans Andrew Johnson Freedman’s Bureau Radical Republicans Thaddeus Stevens Civil Rights Act of 1866 Tenure of Office Act Johnson’s impeachment Scalawags Carpetbaggers Black Codes Ku Klux Klan Sharecroppers Tenant farmers Jim Crow laws The Whiskey Ring Military reconstruction 13th amendment 14th amendment 15th amendment Election of 1876 Compromise of 1877 Solid South
Key Questions 1. How do webring the Southback into the Union? 4. What branchof governmentshould controlthe process ofReconstruction? 2. How do we rebuild the South after itsdestruction during the war? 3. How do weintegrate andprotect newly-emancipatedblack freedmen?
Differing Views of Reconstruction1865-1877 Wartime: (Lincoln) – Lenient Presidential: (Johnson) – Semi-lenient; punish Confederate elite only Congressional/Radical Reconstruction:(Thaddeus Stevens) – harsh; treat South as conquered territory; empower blacks and poor whites
With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace . . . - Abraham Lincoln, Second Inaugural Address, March 4, 1865
President Lincoln’s Plan
Goal: restore Union ASAP
Replace majority rule with “loyal rule” in the South.
Pardon all but highest ranking Confederate officers.
Recognition when 10% of 1860 election voting pop. took loyalty oath and est. new gov’t.
Didn’t consult Congress regarding Reconstruction.
Died before plan was enacted.
1864 “Lincoln Governments”formed in LA, TN, AR
Weak and dependent on the Northern army for their survival.
Wade-Davis Bill (1864)
50% of 1860 voters to take an “iron clad” oath of allegiance (swearing they had never aided the rebellion).
State constitutional convention before the election of state officials.
Enacted specific safeguards of freedmen’s liberties.
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Freedmen’s Bureau (1865)
Former N. abolitionists risked their lives to help southern freedmen.
Called “carpetbaggers” by white southern Democrat
“Scalawags” – white southerners who joined Rep. Party
Freedmen’s Bureau School
Establishment of Historically Black Colleges in the South
President Andrew Johnson
Agreed with Lincolnthat states had neverlegally left the Union.
“Damn the negroes! I am fighting these traitorous aristocrats, their masters!”
President Johnson’s Plan (10%+)
Simple loyalty oath to all except Confederate civil and military officers and those with property over $20,000 (they could apply directly to Johnson)
New constitutions must accept minimum conditions repudiating slavery, secession and state debts.
Named provisional governors in Confederate states and called them to oversee elections for constitutional conventions.
1. Disenfranchised certain leading Confederates. 2. Pardoned planter aristocrats brought them back to political power to control state organizations. EFFECTS? 3. Republicans were outraged that planter elite were back in power in the South!
Growing Northern Alarm!
Many Southern state constitutions fell short of minimum requirements.
Johnson granted 13,500 special pardons.
Revival of southern defiance.
Guarantee stable labor supply now that blacks were emancipated.
Restore pre-emancipationsystem of race relations.
Forced many blacks to become sharecroppers[tenant farmers].
Sharecropping: Give land to a poor white/ex-slave and portion of the crop goes to landowner; creates unbroken debt cycle Tenant Farming: farmer rents land, keeps all harvest; few farmers made it to this
Congress Breaks with the President
Congress bars SouthernCongressional delegates.
Joint Committee on Reconstruction created.
February, 1866 Presidentvetoed the Freedmen’sBureau bill.
March, 1866 Johnsonvetoed the 1866 Civil Rights Act.
Congress passed both bills over Johnson’s vetoes 1st in U. S. history!!
Radical (Congressional) Reconstruction
Ratified in July, 1868.
Provide a constitutional guarantee of the rights and security of freed people.
Insure against neo-Confederate political power.
Southern states would be punished for denying the right to vote to black citizens!
The Balance of Power in Congress
Johnson’s “Swing around the Circle” The 1866 Bi-Election
A referendum on Radical Reconstruction.
Johnson tours to push his plan; alienates voters.
Republicanswon a 3-1majority in both houses and gained control of every northern state.
Radical Plan for Readmission
Civil authorities in South subject to military supervision.
Required new state constitutions, includingblack suffrage and ratification of the 13th and 14th Amendments.
Military Reconstruction Act of 1867
Restart Reconstruction in 10 states that refuse to ratify 14th Amendment; divided into 5 military districts.
Tenure of Office Act of 1867
Tenure of Office Act - President can’t remove any officials w/o Senate’s consent if the position originally required Senate approval
President Johnson’s Impeachment
Johnson removed Stanton in February, 1868.
Johnson replaced generals in the field who were more sympathetic to Radical Reconstruction.
The House impeached him on February 24 before even drawing up the charges by a vote of 126 – 47!
The Senate Trial
11 week trial.
Johnson acquitted 35 to 19 (one short of required 2/3s vote).
The Grant Administration (1868-1876)
The 1868 Republican Ticket
1868 Presidential Election
The Election of 1868
1872 Presidential Election
The Election of 1872
Grant Administration Scandals
Era of unprecedented growth and corruption.
William “Boss” Tweed, NYC - Tammany Hall’s political machine)[Thomas Nast crusading cartoonist/reporter]
And They Say He Wants a Third Term
Black "Adjustment" in the South
Blacks in Southern Politics
Core voters were black veterans.
Blacks were politically unprepared.
Blacks could register and vote in states since 1867.
The 15th Amendment guaranteedfederal voting.
Ratified in 1870.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Women’s rights groups were furious that they were not granted the vote!
Colored Rulein the South?
Supreme Court Interpretation U.S. v. Cruikshank:14thAmendment does not involve people discriminating against people; only the government discriminating U.S. v. Reese:undermined idea all black males can vote: ruled the 15th Amendment didn’t give right to vote, simply listed grounds on which states could not deny right to vote
Ku Klux Klan: the “Invisible Empire of the South”
The Failure of Federal Enforcement
Enforcement Acts of 1870 & 1871 [also known as the KKK Act].
“The Lost Cause.”
Redeemers(prewarDemocrats and Union Whigs).
The Civil Rights Act of 1875
Crime for any individual to deny full & equal use of public conveyances and public places.
Prohibited discrimination in jury selection.
Shortcoming no strong enforcement
No new civil rights act was attempted for 90 years!
The Abandonment of Reconstruction
Northern Support Wanes
Changes within the Republican Party:
‘Scalawags’ not committed to protecting African-Americans
The party splits over corruption
Panic of 1873 [6-yeardepression].
Concern over westwardexpansion and Indian wars
1876 Presidential Tickets
1876 Presidential Election
The Political Crisis of 1877
“Corrupt Bargain”Part II?
Alas, the Woes of Childhood… Sammy Tilden—Boo-Hoo! Ruthy Hayes’s got my Presidency, and he won’t give it to me!
A Political Crisis: The “Compromise” of 1877
Compromise of 1877
Hayes became president
Federal troops will leave the South
Result: “Redemption” – White Southerners regain control of the South