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Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
Antebellum american society pt. 1
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Antebellum american society pt. 1

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  • 1. Objectives2.01 Analyze the effects of territorial expansion and the admission of new states to the Union.2.02 Describe how the growth of nationalism and sectionalism were reflected in art, literature, and language.2.03 Distinguish between the economic and social issues that led to sectionalism and nationalism.2.04 Assess political events, issues, and personalities that contributed to sectionalism and nationalism.2.05 Identify the major reform movements and evaluate their effectiveness.2.06 Evaluate the role of religion in the debate over slavery and other social movements and issues.
  • 2. Trends in Antebellum America, 1810-18601. Nationalism (American ID)2. Expansion (Man Dest)3. Economic development – infrastructure, Ind Rev, K Cotton4. Emotional movements (Rom, Transcend, Awake)5. Social reforms (women’s suff, abol, ed, pris)6. Democratization (Jacksonian)7. Marshall Ct. decisions  federal power 
  • 3. Regional SpecializationEAST  IndustrialSOUTH  Cotton & SlaveryWEST  Nation’s “Breadbasket”
  • 4. American Population Centers in 1820
  • 5. American Population Centers in 1860
  • 6. National Origin of Immigrants: 1820 - 1860Why now?
  • 7. American View of the Irish Immigrant
  • 8. Know- Nothing Party:“The Supreme Order of theStar-Spangled Banner”
  • 9. Cultural NationalismAmerican English - Noah Webster, 1828
  • 10. American literature: Washington Irving, James FennimoreCooper, Nathaniel Hawthorne
  • 11. American art:1) Neoclassical2) Romanticism: Hudson River school and TranscendentalismThemes:► Republican virtue► Romantic Nationalism ► American identity ► Westward expansion ► Perceptions of American Indians► Transcendentalism ► costs of civilization? ► restore divine dignity of Man
  • 12. Monticello
  • 13. Virginia State Capitol
  • 14. Jefferson Rotunda(Univ. of VA), 1819-26
  • 15. Neo-Classical Architecture:U. S. Customs House, 1836
  • 16. The Capitol Rotunda
  • 17. George WashingtonHoratio Greenough, 1841 The “New Cincinnatus”?
  • 18. In Nature’s WonderlandThomas Doughty, 1835
  • 19. NiagaraFrederic Church, 1857
  • 20. View of the Catskills, Early Autumn Thomas Cole, 1837
  • 21. View from Mt. Holyoke: The Oxbow Thomas Cole, 1836
  • 22. The Course of Empire: The Savage State Thomas Cole, 1834
  • 23. The Course of Empire: The Arcadianor The Pastoral State - Thomas Cole, 1836
  • 24. The Course of Empire: Consummation Thomas Cole, 1836
  • 25. The Course of Empire: Destruction Thomas Cole, 1836
  • 26. The Course of Empire: Desolation Thomas Cole, 1836
  • 27. Kindred Spirits – Asher Durand, 1849
  • 28. Watercolors by John AudubonStanley Hawk Barred Owl
  • 29. Boston Harbor from Constitution Wharf Robert Salmon, 1833
  • 30. The Constitution in Boston Harbor Fitz Hugh Lane, 1848-49
  • 31. Fur Trappers Descending the Missouri George Caleb Bingham, 1845
  • 32. The Landing of the Pilgrims Unknown Artist, 1830s
  • 33. Washington Crossing the DelawareEmmanuel Gottlieb Leutze, 1851
  • 34. Young Omahaw, War Eagle, Little Missouri, and Pawnees Charles Bird King, 1821 1. “Noble Savage”
  • 35. Buffalo Bull’s Back Fat, Head Chief,Blood Tribe - George Caitlin, 18322. The “Stoic” Indian
  • 36. Mato-Tope – Karl Bodmer, 1830s3. The “Demonic” Indian
  • 37. Osage Scalp DanceJohn Mix Stanley, 1845
  • 38. Last of the Race – Tompkins Matteson, 1847 4. The “Doomed” Indian
  • 39. Dying Indian Chief Contemplating the Progress of CivilizationThomas Crawford, 1857
  • 40. Economic NationalismFirst Turnpike, Lancaster, PA (1790) By 1832: 2400 mi. of roads
  • 41. Cumberland “National Road,” 1811
  • 42. Conestoga Covered Wagons
  • 43. Yankee Clipper Ships
  • 44. Robert Fulton, The Clermont
  • 45. Erie Canal System, 1817-1825
  • 46. The Erie Canal, 1820s
  • 47. Principal Canals in 1840
  • 48. The “Iron Horse” Wins!, 18301830  13 miles of track built by Baltimore & Ohio RR By 1850  9000 mi. of RR track [1860  31,000 mi.]
  • 49. The Railroad Revolution, 1850s Immigrant labor built the No. RRs. Slave labor built the So. RRs.
  • 50. Inland Freight Rates
  • 51. New Inventions 1800  41 patents approved 1860  4,357 patents approvedAnything new is quickly introduced here, including all of thelatest inventions. There is no clinging to old ways. Themoment an American hears the word “invention,” he pricksup his ears. - German visitor in the 1840s
  • 52. First automated flour millOliverEvans First prototype of the locomotive
  • 53. John Deere, Steel Plow (1837)
  • 54. Cyrus McCormick, Mechanical Reaper (1831)
  • 55. Samuel F. B. Morse 1840 – Telegraph
  • 56. Cyrus Field, Transatlantic Cable, 1858
  • 57. Elias Howe & Isaac Singer 1840s Sewing Machine
  • 58. Samuel Slater“Father of the Factory System”
  • 59. The Lowell/Waltham System:First Dual-Purpose Textile Plant Francis Cabot Lowell’s town - 1814
  • 60. Lowell in 1850
  • 61. Lowell Mill
  • 62. Early Textile Mill Loom Floor
  • 63. New England Dominance in Textiles
  • 64. Lowell Girls
  • 65. I’m a Factory Girl Filled with WishesIm a factory girlEveryday filled with fearFrom breathing in the poison airWishing for windows!Im a factory girlTired from the 13 hours of wok each dayAnd we have such low payWishing for shorten work times!Im a factory girlNever having enough time to eatNor to rest my feetWishing for more free time!Im a factory girlSick of all this harsh conditionsMaking me want to sign the petition!So do what I ask for because I am a factory girlAnd Im hereby speaking for all the rest!
  • 66. Changing Occupation Distributions: 1820 - 1860
  • 67. Creating a Business-Friendly ClimateSupreme Court Rulings (see handout onBlackBoard for details): * Fletcher v. Peck (1810) * Dartmouth v. Woodward (1819) * McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) * Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)General Incorporation LawLaissez faire  BUT govt. did much to assistcapitalism!
  • 68. Distribution of Wealth• During the American Revolution, 45% of all wealth in the top 10% of the population.• 1845 Boston  top 4% owned over 65% of the wealth.• 1860 Philadelphia  top 1% owned over 50% of the wealth.• The gap between rich and poor was widening!
  • 69. The Early Union MovementWorkingman’s Party (1829)Early unions were usually local, social, andweak.Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842) – legalizedunions and right to strikeWorker pol parties ineffective until post-CW
  • 70. Eli Whitney’s Gun Factory Interchangeable Parts Rifle
  • 71. Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin, 1791Actually invented by a slave!
  • 72. The Antebellum South1. Agrarian2. VA & SC Deep South3. “Cotton Is King!” 1860 57% of US exports4. Slow industrialization5. Rudimentary financial system6. Inadequate transportation
  • 73. Southern Society (1850) “Slavocracy”6,000,000 [plantation owners] The “Plain Folk” [white yeoman farmers] Black Freemen 250,000 Black Slaves 3,200,000 Total US Population  23,000,000 [9,250,000 in the South = 40%]
  • 74. Slave-Owning Population (1850)
  • 75. Distribution of Slave Labor in 1850
  • 76. Southern Population
  • 77. Southern Agriculture
  • 78. Slaves Picking Cottonon a Mississippi Plantation
  • 79. Slaves Using the Cotton Gin
  • 80. Changes in Cotton Production 1820
  • 81. Changes in Cotton Production 1860
  • 82. Value of Cotton Exports As % of All US Exports
  • 83. Slave Auction Notice, 1823
  • 84. Slave Auction: Charleston, SC-1856
  • 85. Slave Accoutrements Slave Master BrandsSlave muzzle
  • 86. Slave AccoutrementsSlave leg irons Slave tag, SC Slave shoes
  • 87. Anti-Slavery Pamphlet
  • 88. Slaves posingin front of their cabin on a Southern plantation.
  • 89. A Slave Family
  • 90. Southern Slavery--> An Aberration?• 1780s: first antislavery society (Philadelphia)• 1804: slavery eliminated from last N state• 1807: end of the slave trade, enforced by Royal Navy• 1820s: Central & S. American republics free slaves• 1833: abolished in British Empire• 1844: abolished in French colonies• 1861: Russian serfs emancipated
  • 91. Runaway Slave Ads
  • 92. Slave Rebellionsin the Antebellum SouthGabriel Prosser 1800 1822
  • 93. Slave Rebellions: Nat Turner, 1831

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