Objectives2.01 Analyze the effects of territorial expansion and the admission of new states to the Union.2.02 Describe how the growth of nationalism and sectionalism were reflected in art, literature, and language.2.03 Distinguish between the economic and social issues that led to sectionalism and nationalism.2.04 Assess political events, issues, and personalities that contributed to sectionalism and nationalism.2.05 Identify the major reform movements and evaluate their effectiveness.2.06 Evaluate the role of religion in the debate over slavery and other social movements and issues.
Trends in Antebellum America, 1810-18601. Nationalism (American ID)2. Expansion (Man Dest)3. Economic development – infrastructure, Ind Rev, K Cotton4. Emotional movements (Rom, Transcend, Awake)5. Social reforms (women’s suff, abol, ed, pris)6. Democratization (Jacksonian)7. Marshall Ct. decisions federal power
Know- Nothing Party:“The Supreme Order of theStar-Spangled Banner”
Cultural NationalismAmerican English - Noah Webster, 1828
American literature: Washington Irving, James FennimoreCooper, Nathaniel Hawthorne
American art:1) Neoclassical2) Romanticism: Hudson River school and TranscendentalismThemes:► Republican virtue► Romantic Nationalism ► American identity ► Westward expansion ► Perceptions of American Indians► Transcendentalism ► costs of civilization? ► restore divine dignity of Man
New Inventions 1800 41 patents approved 1860 4,357 patents approvedAnything new is quickly introduced here, including all of thelatest inventions. There is no clinging to old ways. Themoment an American hears the word “invention,” he pricksup his ears. - German visitor in the 1840s
First automated flour millOliverEvans First prototype of the locomotive
I’m a Factory Girl Filled with WishesIm a factory girlEveryday filled with fearFrom breathing in the poison airWishing for windows!Im a factory girlTired from the 13 hours of wok each dayAnd we have such low payWishing for shorten work times!Im a factory girlNever having enough time to eatNor to rest my feetWishing for more free time!Im a factory girlSick of all this harsh conditionsMaking me want to sign the petition!So do what I ask for because I am a factory girlAnd Im hereby speaking for all the rest!
Creating a Business-Friendly ClimateSupreme Court Rulings (see handout onBlackBoard for details): * Fletcher v. Peck (1810) * Dartmouth v. Woodward (1819) * McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) * Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)General Incorporation LawLaissez faire BUT govt. did much to assistcapitalism!
Distribution of Wealth• During the American Revolution, 45% of all wealth in the top 10% of the population.• 1845 Boston top 4% owned over 65% of the wealth.• 1860 Philadelphia top 1% owned over 50% of the wealth.• The gap between rich and poor was widening!
The Early Union MovementWorkingman’s Party (1829)Early unions were usually local, social, andweak.Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842) – legalizedunions and right to strikeWorker pol parties ineffective until post-CW
Eli Whitney’s Gun Factory Interchangeable Parts Rifle
Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin, 1791Actually invented by a slave!
The Antebellum South1. Agrarian2. VA & SC Deep South3. “Cotton Is King!” 1860 57% of US exports4. Slow industrialization5. Rudimentary financial system6. Inadequate transportation
Southern Society (1850) “Slavocracy”6,000,000 [plantation owners] The “Plain Folk” [white yeoman farmers] Black Freemen 250,000 Black Slaves 3,200,000 Total US Population 23,000,000 [9,250,000 in the South = 40%]
Southern Slavery--> An Aberration?• 1780s: first antislavery society (Philadelphia)• 1804: slavery eliminated from last N state• 1807: end of the slave trade, enforced by Royal Navy• 1820s: Central & S. American republics free slaves• 1833: abolished in British Empire• 1844: abolished in French colonies• 1861: Russian serfs emancipated