Antebellum american society pt. 1

1,460 views

Published on

Published in: Business, Lifestyle
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,460
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
153
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Antebellum american society pt. 1

  1. 1. Objectives2.01 Analyze the effects of territorial expansion and the admission of new states to the Union.2.02 Describe how the growth of nationalism and sectionalism were reflected in art, literature, and language.2.03 Distinguish between the economic and social issues that led to sectionalism and nationalism.2.04 Assess political events, issues, and personalities that contributed to sectionalism and nationalism.2.05 Identify the major reform movements and evaluate their effectiveness.2.06 Evaluate the role of religion in the debate over slavery and other social movements and issues.
  2. 2. Trends in Antebellum America, 1810-18601. Nationalism (American ID)2. Expansion (Man Dest)3. Economic development – infrastructure, Ind Rev, K Cotton4. Emotional movements (Rom, Transcend, Awake)5. Social reforms (women’s suff, abol, ed, pris)6. Democratization (Jacksonian)7. Marshall Ct. decisions  federal power 
  3. 3. Regional SpecializationEAST  IndustrialSOUTH  Cotton & SlaveryWEST  Nation’s “Breadbasket”
  4. 4. American Population Centers in 1820
  5. 5. American Population Centers in 1860
  6. 6. National Origin of Immigrants: 1820 - 1860Why now?
  7. 7. American View of the Irish Immigrant
  8. 8. Know- Nothing Party:“The Supreme Order of theStar-Spangled Banner”
  9. 9. Cultural NationalismAmerican English - Noah Webster, 1828
  10. 10. American literature: Washington Irving, James FennimoreCooper, Nathaniel Hawthorne
  11. 11. American art:1) Neoclassical2) Romanticism: Hudson River school and TranscendentalismThemes:► Republican virtue► Romantic Nationalism ► American identity ► Westward expansion ► Perceptions of American Indians► Transcendentalism ► costs of civilization? ► restore divine dignity of Man
  12. 12. Monticello
  13. 13. Virginia State Capitol
  14. 14. Jefferson Rotunda(Univ. of VA), 1819-26
  15. 15. Neo-Classical Architecture:U. S. Customs House, 1836
  16. 16. The Capitol Rotunda
  17. 17. George WashingtonHoratio Greenough, 1841 The “New Cincinnatus”?
  18. 18. In Nature’s WonderlandThomas Doughty, 1835
  19. 19. NiagaraFrederic Church, 1857
  20. 20. View of the Catskills, Early Autumn Thomas Cole, 1837
  21. 21. View from Mt. Holyoke: The Oxbow Thomas Cole, 1836
  22. 22. The Course of Empire: The Savage State Thomas Cole, 1834
  23. 23. The Course of Empire: The Arcadianor The Pastoral State - Thomas Cole, 1836
  24. 24. The Course of Empire: Consummation Thomas Cole, 1836
  25. 25. The Course of Empire: Destruction Thomas Cole, 1836
  26. 26. The Course of Empire: Desolation Thomas Cole, 1836
  27. 27. Kindred Spirits – Asher Durand, 1849
  28. 28. Watercolors by John AudubonStanley Hawk Barred Owl
  29. 29. Boston Harbor from Constitution Wharf Robert Salmon, 1833
  30. 30. The Constitution in Boston Harbor Fitz Hugh Lane, 1848-49
  31. 31. Fur Trappers Descending the Missouri George Caleb Bingham, 1845
  32. 32. The Landing of the Pilgrims Unknown Artist, 1830s
  33. 33. Washington Crossing the DelawareEmmanuel Gottlieb Leutze, 1851
  34. 34. Young Omahaw, War Eagle, Little Missouri, and Pawnees Charles Bird King, 1821 1. “Noble Savage”
  35. 35. Buffalo Bull’s Back Fat, Head Chief,Blood Tribe - George Caitlin, 18322. The “Stoic” Indian
  36. 36. Mato-Tope – Karl Bodmer, 1830s3. The “Demonic” Indian
  37. 37. Osage Scalp DanceJohn Mix Stanley, 1845
  38. 38. Last of the Race – Tompkins Matteson, 1847 4. The “Doomed” Indian
  39. 39. Dying Indian Chief Contemplating the Progress of CivilizationThomas Crawford, 1857
  40. 40. Economic NationalismFirst Turnpike, Lancaster, PA (1790) By 1832: 2400 mi. of roads
  41. 41. Cumberland “National Road,” 1811
  42. 42. Conestoga Covered Wagons
  43. 43. Yankee Clipper Ships
  44. 44. Robert Fulton, The Clermont
  45. 45. Erie Canal System, 1817-1825
  46. 46. The Erie Canal, 1820s
  47. 47. Principal Canals in 1840
  48. 48. The “Iron Horse” Wins!, 18301830  13 miles of track built by Baltimore & Ohio RR By 1850  9000 mi. of RR track [1860  31,000 mi.]
  49. 49. The Railroad Revolution, 1850s Immigrant labor built the No. RRs. Slave labor built the So. RRs.
  50. 50. Inland Freight Rates
  51. 51. New Inventions 1800  41 patents approved 1860  4,357 patents approvedAnything new is quickly introduced here, including all of thelatest inventions. There is no clinging to old ways. Themoment an American hears the word “invention,” he pricksup his ears. - German visitor in the 1840s
  52. 52. First automated flour millOliverEvans First prototype of the locomotive
  53. 53. John Deere, Steel Plow (1837)
  54. 54. Cyrus McCormick, Mechanical Reaper (1831)
  55. 55. Samuel F. B. Morse 1840 – Telegraph
  56. 56. Cyrus Field, Transatlantic Cable, 1858
  57. 57. Elias Howe & Isaac Singer 1840s Sewing Machine
  58. 58. Samuel Slater“Father of the Factory System”
  59. 59. The Lowell/Waltham System:First Dual-Purpose Textile Plant Francis Cabot Lowell’s town - 1814
  60. 60. Lowell in 1850
  61. 61. Lowell Mill
  62. 62. Early Textile Mill Loom Floor
  63. 63. New England Dominance in Textiles
  64. 64. Lowell Girls
  65. 65. I’m a Factory Girl Filled with WishesIm a factory girlEveryday filled with fearFrom breathing in the poison airWishing for windows!Im a factory girlTired from the 13 hours of wok each dayAnd we have such low payWishing for shorten work times!Im a factory girlNever having enough time to eatNor to rest my feetWishing for more free time!Im a factory girlSick of all this harsh conditionsMaking me want to sign the petition!So do what I ask for because I am a factory girlAnd Im hereby speaking for all the rest!
  66. 66. Changing Occupation Distributions: 1820 - 1860
  67. 67. Creating a Business-Friendly ClimateSupreme Court Rulings (see handout onBlackBoard for details): * Fletcher v. Peck (1810) * Dartmouth v. Woodward (1819) * McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) * Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)General Incorporation LawLaissez faire  BUT govt. did much to assistcapitalism!
  68. 68. Distribution of Wealth• During the American Revolution, 45% of all wealth in the top 10% of the population.• 1845 Boston  top 4% owned over 65% of the wealth.• 1860 Philadelphia  top 1% owned over 50% of the wealth.• The gap between rich and poor was widening!
  69. 69. The Early Union MovementWorkingman’s Party (1829)Early unions were usually local, social, andweak.Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842) – legalizedunions and right to strikeWorker pol parties ineffective until post-CW
  70. 70. Eli Whitney’s Gun Factory Interchangeable Parts Rifle
  71. 71. Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin, 1791Actually invented by a slave!
  72. 72. The Antebellum South1. Agrarian2. VA & SC Deep South3. “Cotton Is King!” 1860 57% of US exports4. Slow industrialization5. Rudimentary financial system6. Inadequate transportation
  73. 73. Southern Society (1850) “Slavocracy”6,000,000 [plantation owners] The “Plain Folk” [white yeoman farmers] Black Freemen 250,000 Black Slaves 3,200,000 Total US Population  23,000,000 [9,250,000 in the South = 40%]
  74. 74. Slave-Owning Population (1850)
  75. 75. Distribution of Slave Labor in 1850
  76. 76. Southern Population
  77. 77. Southern Agriculture
  78. 78. Slaves Picking Cottonon a Mississippi Plantation
  79. 79. Slaves Using the Cotton Gin
  80. 80. Changes in Cotton Production 1820
  81. 81. Changes in Cotton Production 1860
  82. 82. Value of Cotton Exports As % of All US Exports
  83. 83. Slave Auction Notice, 1823
  84. 84. Slave Auction: Charleston, SC-1856
  85. 85. Slave Accoutrements Slave Master BrandsSlave muzzle
  86. 86. Slave AccoutrementsSlave leg irons Slave tag, SC Slave shoes
  87. 87. Anti-Slavery Pamphlet
  88. 88. Slaves posingin front of their cabin on a Southern plantation.
  89. 89. A Slave Family
  90. 90. Southern Slavery--> An Aberration?• 1780s: first antislavery society (Philadelphia)• 1804: slavery eliminated from last N state• 1807: end of the slave trade, enforced by Royal Navy• 1820s: Central & S. American republics free slaves• 1833: abolished in British Empire• 1844: abolished in French colonies• 1861: Russian serfs emancipated
  91. 91. Runaway Slave Ads
  92. 92. Slave Rebellionsin the Antebellum SouthGabriel Prosser 1800 1822
  93. 93. Slave Rebellions: Nat Turner, 1831

×