Black History IS American History A Celebration of the African American Experience in America By Orin Johnson, Instruction...
The Birth of Bondage Period  1600’s – 1890’s Black History IS American History A Celebration of the African American Exper...
<ul><li>1619: The First African Slaves in America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first Africans as slave labor are introduced i...
<ul><li>1773: Phyllis Wheatley Poetry Published. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phyllis Wheatley's poetry is published in &quot;Poe...
<ul><li>1788:  Abdul Rahman was captured </li></ul><ul><ul><li>and sold into slavery in the South where he as an  African ...
<ul><li>1808: US bans the Import of Slaves. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The US bans the import of slaves,  but not  the sale and...
<ul><li>1831: Nat Turner Slave Revolt. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nat Turner, a  slave and a preacher ,  leads  a short and blo...
<ul><li>1839: Amistad Slave ship Revolt. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joseph Cinque (born Sengbe Pieh)  leads 37 African slaves i...
<ul><li>1846: Fredrick Douglas creates North Star. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frederick Douglass launches an  abolitionist news...
<ul><li>1849: Harriett Tubman escapes Slavery. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harriet Tubman, born Araminta Ross escapes from slave...
<ul><li>1850: The Underground Railroad Begins. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Underground Railroad is  started by William Still...
<ul><li>1851: Sojourner Truth Delivers speech “Ain’t I a Woman” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Truth delivered her best-known speec...
<ul><li>1852: Uncle Tom’s Cabin Published. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Uncle Tom's Cabin” is published by Harriet Beecher ...
<ul><li>1857: The Dred Scott Decision. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dred Scott  appeals to the U.S. Supreme Court for his freedom...
<ul><li>1861: The Civil War Begins. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Civil War begins when  South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida,...
<ul><li>1863: The Emancipation Proclamation Issued. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abraham Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclama...
<ul><li>1865: Civil War Ends/Lincoln Assassinated. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1865 the Civil War ends and the  13th Amendmen...
<ul><li>1866-1875 Civil Rights Act Passed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Act of 1866  sought to protect freedmen and ...
<ul><li>1881: The Tuskegee Institute was Founded. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Tuskegee institute is founded by former slaves...
<ul><li>1896: Segregation Legalized. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Supreme Court decides in the Plessy vs. Ferguson case that ...
The Harlem Renaissance Period  1900’s – 1940’s Black History IS American History A Celebration of the African American Exp...
<ul><li>1909: NAACP was Founded. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, NAA...
<ul><li>1919: Harlem Renaissance Begins. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harlem Renaissance marks a period of almost fifteen years w...
<ul><li>1932: The Tuskegee Experiment Begins. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Tuskegee Experiment, a forty year-long experiment ...
<ul><li>1941: Buddy Johnson begins career as composer –  BHM 2009 Spotlight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Born  Woodrow Wilson Joh...
<ul><li>1945: Buddy Johnson’s most famous song “ Since I Fell For You ” was penned </li></ul><ul><ul><li>and was first pop...
The Civil Rights Period  1950’s – 1970’s Black History IS American History A Celebration of the African American Experienc...
<ul><li>1954: Brown vs. Board of Education. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka case, in whic...
<ul><li>1955: Rosa Parks Arrested. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rosa Parks, a seamstress and  NAACP secretary, refuses to give up...
<ul><li>1957: Little Rock Nine Protected. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nine African-American students were prevented from...
<ul><li>1960: SNCC Founded / Freedom Riders. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The  SNCC  The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committe...
<ul><li>1963: March on Washington for Jobs & Freedom Occurs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over  200,000 people  March on Washingt...
<ul><li>1965: Malcolm X Assassinated. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malcolm X is assassinated on  Feb. 21st 1965  at the Audubon b...
<ul><li>1966-1967: Thurgood Marshall Appointed to the Supreme Court. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1967 Thurgood Marshall, form...
<ul><li>1968: Martin Luther King Jr. Assassinated. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated in  Me...
<ul><li>1972: Shirley Chisholm makes bid for the Democratic nomination for President. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On January 23,...
The Great Achievements Period  1980’s – 1990’s Black History IS American History A Celebration of the African American Exp...
<ul><li>1980: Robert Johnson Launches BET. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Robert L. Johnson launches Black Entertainment Television...
<ul><li>1984: Jesse Jackson makes bid for the Democratic nomination for President. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jackson became th...
<ul><li>1986: Oprah Winfrey Debuts. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oprah Winfrey becomes the  first African-American woman to host ...
<ul><li>1989: Colin Powell Appointed Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General Colin Powell is appoin...
<ul><li>1991: Clarence Thomas Appointed to the Supreme Court. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarence Thomas is  appointed Associat...
<ul><li>1992: Carol Moseley Braun is elected to the US Senate. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carol Moseley Braun of Illinois becom...
<ul><li>1993: Toni Morrison is Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toni Morrison is awarded the  Nobel Pr...
<ul><li>1995: Million Man March Occurs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Million Man March, organized by Louis Farrakhan,  brings...
<ul><li>1997: Holder Named Deputy Attorney General. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1997, Eric H. Holder Jr. was named by Preside...
The New Leadership Period  2000’s – Today Black History IS American History A Celebration of the African American Experien...
<ul><li>2001: Colin Powell Appointed Secretary of State. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colin Powell is appointed  Secretary of Sta...
<ul><li>2002: Halle & Denzel win top honors at Academy Awards. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Halle Berry and Denzel Washington win...
<ul><li>2004: Barack Obama Elected Senator. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illinois State Senator Barack Obama is elected to the  U...
<ul><li>2005: Condoleezza Rice Appointed Secretary of State </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Condoleezza Rice is appointed  Secretary...
<ul><li>2006: Coretta Scott King Dies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coretta Scott King,  civil rights activist  and widow of Dr. ...
<ul><li>2007: Oprah Winfrey opens School in South Africa. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oprah Winfrey opens the  Oprah Winfrey Lea...
<ul><li>2008: Obama Gains Support for the Democratic nomination for President. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In  Super Tuesday  el...
<ul><li>January 20 th  2009  Barack Hussein Obama is inaugurated the  44 th  President of the United States. </li></ul>2009
<ul><li>February 12, 2009  the NAACP Celebrated its  100 th  Year Anniversary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The NAACP Headquarters...
<ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African American Odyssey online at  http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/ao...
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Black History Is American History Bhm 2009

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This is the Black History Month 2009 presentation shown during this years event. These slides were also compiled in the Education Booklet provided at the event as well.

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Black History Is American History Bhm 2009

  1. 1. Black History IS American History A Celebration of the African American Experience in America By Orin Johnson, Instructional Designer Superior Court of California, County of San Francisco Training Department
  2. 2. The Birth of Bondage Period 1600’s – 1890’s Black History IS American History A Celebration of the African American Experience in America
  3. 3. <ul><li>1619: The First African Slaves in America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first Africans as slave labor are introduced in America. A Dutch trader exchanges his cargo of 20 Africans for food in Jamestown Virginia , in August of 1619. It is believed that these Africans were sold into conditions similar to indentured servitude - a common practice in England and colonial America. The American slavery system became more developed and codified in its inhumane treatment around 1680. </li></ul></ul>1619 2 Advertisements for Slave Sale July 24, 1774 Vessel of Slaves & Atlantic Slave Routes
  4. 4. <ul><li>1773: Phyllis Wheatley Poetry Published. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phyllis Wheatley's poetry is published in &quot;Poems on Various Subjects Religion and Moral&quot; in London and various magazines. It was the first book to be published that was authored by an African-American . Wheatley was subjected to an oral examination to test her knowledge and literacy because it was not believed that a Negro could write poetry. Among the group of examiners was John Hancock, a future signer of The Declaration of Independence. </li></ul></ul>1773 Phyllis Wheatley (1753-1784)
  5. 5. <ul><li>1788: Abdul Rahman was captured </li></ul><ul><ul><li>and sold into slavery in the South where he as an African prince endured the unimaginable indignities and faced immeasurable odds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He managed to survive his long fall from royalty with character and integrity intact even as the &quot;property&quot; of a poor and nearly illiterate planter from Natchez, MS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enslaved for 40 years he regained his freedom eventually returning to Africa where his royal status has since been acknowledged here and abroad. </li></ul></ul>1788
  6. 6. <ul><li>1808: US bans the Import of Slaves. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The US bans the import of slaves, but not the sale and practice of slavery . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ohio 's original constitution outlawed slavery in 1802 . Ohio also aggressively barred black immigration. </li></ul></ul>1808 January 1, 2008 200 th Anniversary of Slavery Immigration Ban
  7. 7. <ul><li>1831: Nat Turner Slave Revolt. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nat Turner, a slave and a preacher , leads a short and bloody slave revolt in Southampton County, Virginia. Turner is later hanged and Virginia consequently institutes stricter slave laws. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also This Year: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>William Lloyd Garrison begins publishing the Liberator , a weekly paper that advocates the abolition of slavery. </li></ul></ul>1831 William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879) Nat Turner executed 1831
  8. 8. <ul><li>1839: Amistad Slave ship Revolt. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joseph Cinque (born Sengbe Pieh) leads 37 African slaves in a revolt aboard the Amistad slave ship, killing the captain and taking control of the ship. The ship is later recaptured by the U.S. The matter is tried in the Supreme Court, where it is ordered that the slaves be returned to Africa and freed. </li></ul></ul>1839 Sengbe Pieh (1813-1879) Pictorial of La Amistad Revolt – October 2, 1839 Watercolor of La Amistad
  9. 9. <ul><li>1846: Fredrick Douglas creates North Star. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frederick Douglass launches an abolitionist newspaper The North Star . Douglass escaped from slavery in 1838 by posing as a free black seaman on a train ride to the north and became an infamous speaker on the abolitionist lecture circuit and an important political figure. He served as president of the Freedman's Savings Bank during Reconstruction and penned his autobiography &quot;Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass&quot; in 1845. </li></ul></ul>1846 Frederick Douglas (1818-1895)
  10. 10. <ul><li>1849: Harriett Tubman escapes Slavery. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harriet Tubman, born Araminta Ross escapes from slavery and becomes one of the most celebrated and effective leaders of the Underground Railroad . Harriet Tubman will guide hundreds of slaves to freedom before and during the war. She was never captured while rescuing slaves and as she was quoted she &quot;never lost a passenger&quot;. </li></ul></ul>1849 Harriett Tubman (1820-1913)
  11. 11. <ul><li>1850: The Underground Railroad Begins. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Underground Railroad is started by William Still . It is a network of secret routes, way-stations, safe havens and meeting points in which thousands of African-Americans will escape from slavery in the south. Some routes on the Underground Railroad traveled as far north as Canada and as far south as Mexico. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Levi Coffin, a Quaker abolitionist was referred to as the &quot;President of the Underground Railroad,&quot; by a slave catcher is credited with helping more than 3,000 slaves find freedom by maintaining his home in Newport, Ind., as a haven on the Underground Railroad. </li></ul></ul>1850 Map of Underground Railroad Routes Canadian monument to the Underground Railroad Levi Coffin, (1798 – 1877)
  12. 12. <ul><li>1851: Sojourner Truth Delivers speech “Ain’t I a Woman” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Truth delivered her best-known speech in 1851 at the Ohio Women's Rights Convention. The speech has become known as Ain't I a Woman? after a slogan she adopted from one of the most famous abolitionist images, that of a kneeling female slave with the caption &quot;Am I Not a Woman and a Sister?&quot; </li></ul></ul>1851 Sojourner Truth (c.1797–1883) Truth’s carte de visited. Sold to raise money. Anti-slavery medallion of the late 18th century.
  13. 13. <ul><li>1852: Uncle Tom’s Cabin Published. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Uncle Tom's Cabin” is published by Harriet Beecher Stowe, a white abolitionist. It is the first major American novel to feature an African-American hero and becomes one of the most influential works to stir anti-slavery sentiments by shedding light on the horrors of slavery. Uncle Tom's Cabin is the best-selling novel of the 19th century and the second best-selling novel of the century, with the Bible holding steady at number one. </li></ul></ul>1852 An initial publication of “Uncle Tom’s Cabin”
  14. 14. <ul><li>1857: The Dred Scott Decision. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dred Scott appeals to the U.S. Supreme Court for his freedom , arguing that during his travels with his master he had been living in free states in the Dred Scott vs. Sanford case. Scott was unsuccessful and as a result the Court ordered that slaves could not be citizens and therefore did not have the right to bring a case to court . The case is also known as the &quot;Dred Scott Decision.&quot; </li></ul></ul>1857 Dred Scott (1795-1858)
  15. 15. <ul><li>1861: The Civil War Begins. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Civil War begins when South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas secede from the Union and form the Confederate States of America with Jefferson Davis as their president. Later in the year Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina and Virginia join them. Virginia was divided up - with the eastern portion seceding to the Confederacy and West Virginia remaining with the Union. It is the bloodiest war in American history, being fought entirely on American soil and resulting in the death of about 600,000. </li></ul></ul>1861 Pictorial representation of the Civil War (1861-1865)
  16. 16. <ul><li>1863: The Emancipation Proclamation Issued. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abraham Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation, a presidential order declaring the freedom of the slaves and makes the end of slavery a major goal of the Civil War. It was issued in two parts -the preliminary document on September 22, 1862 and the second on January 1 st , 1863 . </li></ul></ul>1863 A Reproduction of the Emancipation Proclamation
  17. 17. <ul><li>1865: Civil War Ends/Lincoln Assassinated. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1865 the Civil War ends and the 13th Amendment to the Constitution abolishes slavery . Abraham Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confederate spy, during a play at Ford's Theatre. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also This Year: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Reconstruction Era begins , a 12 year span where important laws and gains were made to improve the lives of newly freed slaves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress establishes The Freedmen's Bureau to protect the rights of newly emancipated slaves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1865, southern states passed Black Codes , laws to restrict the civil rights and liberties of newly freed African-Americans. </li></ul></ul>1865 Abraham Lincoln (1809 – 1865) 16 th President of the United States
  18. 18. <ul><li>1866-1875 Civil Rights Act Passed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Act of 1866 sought to protect freedmen and grant full citizenship to those born on U.S. soil, except Indians. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Act of 1871 also known as the &quot;Ku Klux Klan Act&quot; sought to protect southern blacks from the KKK by providing a civil remedy for abuses then being committed in the south. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Act of 1875 guaranteed blacks the same treatment as whites in certain public places. This bill was ruled unconstitutional by the Civil Rights Cases. Subsequently legislation has used the interstate commerce clause as the basis for legislation. </li></ul></ul>1866-75 Passed by the 39th United States Congress 1866, 1871 & 1875
  19. 19. <ul><li>1881: The Tuskegee Institute was Founded. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Tuskegee institute is founded by former slaves Lewis Adams and George W. Campbell under the leadership of Booker T. Washington as a teachers training school. </li></ul></ul>1881 Tuskegee Institute Campus (1916) History Class at Tuskegee (1902) Booker T. Washington (1856-1915)
  20. 20. <ul><li>1896: Segregation Legalized. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Supreme Court decides in the Plessy vs. Ferguson case that &quot;separate but equal&quot; satisfies the 14th amendment which gives legal sanction to &quot;Jim Crow&quot; segregation laws. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also This Year: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>George Washington Carver is appointed director of agricultural research at Tuskegee Institute . His innovations with peanuts, soybeans and sweet potatoes, helped to revolutionize agriculture in the South. He received the NAACP Spingarn Medal in 1923. </li></ul></ul>1896 George Washington Carver (1864-1943) Plessy vs. Ferguson a. April 30 th 1896 d. May 18 th 1896
  21. 21. The Harlem Renaissance Period 1900’s – 1940’s Black History IS American History A Celebration of the African American Experience in America
  22. 22. <ul><li>1909: NAACP was Founded. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, NAACP, is founded by W.E.B Dubois , Ida B. Wells-Barnett, Henry Moscowitz , Mary White Covington, Oswald Garrison Villard, and William English Walling as an interracial organization . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its purpose &quot;to promote equality of rights and to eradicate caste or race prejudice among the citizens of the United States; to advance the interest of colored citizens; to secure for them impartial suffrage; and to increase their opportunities for securing justice in the courts, education for the children, employment according to their ability and complete equality before law.&quot; </li></ul></ul>1909 Founded February 12, 1909 Co-Founder NAACP W. E. B. Dubois (1868-1963)
  23. 23. <ul><li>1919: Harlem Renaissance Begins. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harlem Renaissance marks a period of almost fifteen years when some of the most important and prolific writers, artists and musicians such as Zora Neale Hurston , Langston Hughes , and Eugene O'Neill, to name a few, emerged in the African-American community and took up residence in New York's Harlem district. </li></ul></ul>1919 Alain LeRoy Locke (1886 –1954) “Father of the Harlem Renaissance” Zora Neale Hurston (1891-1960) Langston Hughes (1902-1967)
  24. 24. <ul><li>1932: The Tuskegee Experiment Begins. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Tuskegee Experiment, a forty year-long experiment in which 399 African-American men infected with Syphilis , near Tuskegee, Alabama are denied treatment in order to study the effects of the disease begins. The experiment is leaked to the press by Peter Buxton, a Public Health Service investigator and is subsequently ended in 1972. </li></ul></ul>1932 Tuskegee Group Clinicians Subjects Administered Treatment
  25. 25. <ul><li>1941: Buddy Johnson begins career as composer – BHM 2009 Spotlight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Born Woodrow Wilson Johnson (January 10, 1915 – February 9, 1977) was an influential jazz and New York blues pianist and bandleader, active from the 1930s to the 1960s . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His songs were initally performed by his sister Ella Johnson, until they increased in popularity and were covered by other artists becoming jazz standards . </li></ul></ul>Discography Singles &quot;Please, Mr. Johnson,” (1941). &quot;In There,&quot;, (1941). &quot;I'm My Baby's Boy,&quot; (1941). &quot;Trilon Swing/Southern Exposure,&quot;(1941). &quot;I Still Love You,&quot; (1944). &quot;That's the Stuff You Gotta Watch,&quot; (1944). &quot;Opus Two,&quot; (1945). &quot;Walk 'Em,&quot; (1945). &quot;Li'l Dog,&quot; (1947). &quot;Pullamo,&quot; (1947). &quot;Shake 'em Up,&quot; (1950). &quot; Stormy Weather,&quot; (1951). &quot; Am I Blue?,&quot; (1951). &quot;Till My Baby Comes Back,&quot; (1951). &quot;Shufflin' and Rollin',&quot; (1951). Albums Rock 'n Roll Stage Show, (1956). Buddy Johnson Wails, (1957). Swing Me, (1958). Rock and Roll with Buddy Johnson, (1958). Go Ahead and Rock and Roll, (1958). Buddy and Ella Johnson 1953-64, (1995). Rockin' n' Rollin' featuring Ella Johnson, ( 1995). Walk 'Em: Decca Sessions, (1996)
  26. 26. <ul><li>1945: Buddy Johnson’s most famous song “ Since I Fell For You ” was penned </li></ul><ul><ul><li>and was first popularized by Johnson and his sister, Ella Johnson. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a jazz standard it has been covered by many artists even until this day. (See List) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most notably, Lenny Welch performed a version that reached #3 on the US Billboard HOT 100 Chart in 1963 . </li></ul></ul>Covers Eartha Kitt (1950) Lee Morgan (1957) Stanley Turrentine (1960) Dinah Washington (1961) Vince Guaraldi (1962) Lenny Welch (1963) biggest pop version, reaching # 3 on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100 chart. The Sonics (1966) The Rascals (1967) Barbra Streisand (1971) David Wiffen (1971) Bonnie Raitt (1971) Laura Lee (1972) Count Basie & Joe Turner (1974) Renée Geyer (1974; 1982) Charlie Rich (1976) Con Hunley (1979) Tom Waits (1979) Al Jarreau, Bob James, and David Sanborn (1986)* Nina Simone Natalie Cole and Reba McEntire (1993) Steve Turre (1995) Jennifer Garner (2002 Alias episode)
  27. 27. The Civil Rights Period 1950’s – 1970’s Black History IS American History A Celebration of the African American Experience in America
  28. 28. <ul><li>1954: Brown vs. Board of Education. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka case, in which thirteen parents in Topeka, Kansas file a class action law suit against the Board of Education , results in the Supreme Court decision to outlaw segregation in public schools . </li></ul></ul>1954 George E.C. Hayes, Thurgood Marshall, and James Nabrit, congratulating each other, following Supreme Court decision declaring segregation unconstitutional Brown vs. Board Ed a. Dec. 9 th 1952 re. Dec. 8 th 1953 d. May 17 th 1954
  29. 29. <ul><li>1955: Rosa Parks Arrested. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rosa Parks, a seamstress and NAACP secretary, refuses to give up her seat to a white patron on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama . She is arrested and tried sparking a much publicized and highly organized year-long boycott of the Montgomery buses. </li></ul></ul>1955 Rosa Parks Arrest (1955)
  30. 30. <ul><li>1957: Little Rock Nine Protected. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nine African-American students were prevented from attending Little Rock Central High School . Under protection of the U.S. Army they were admitted to the school but suffered physical and verbal abuse. After much conflict in the ensuing days the students finally entered the school without incident Wednesday September 25, 1957 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>1957 Little Rock Nine & Teacher - 1957
  31. 31. <ul><li>1960: SNCC Founded / Freedom Riders. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The SNCC The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee is founded at Shaw University in Raleigh, N.C. with a grant of $800 from the SLCC, The Southern Christian Leadership Conference, with a purpose of organizing non-violent actions to combat racism and segregation . </li></ul></ul>1960 CORE - Freedom Riders Map Greensboro Sit-In - 1960
  32. 32. <ul><li>1963: March on Washington for Jobs & Freedom Occurs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 200,000 people March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, convening at the Lincoln Memorial where Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. makes a famous speech about racial harmony that begins with &quot;I have a dream…&quot; </li></ul></ul>1963 March on Washington August 28, 1963 Dr. King gives famous “I Have a Dream” speech.
  33. 33. <ul><li>1965: Malcolm X Assassinated. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malcolm X is assassinated on Feb. 21st 1965 at the Audubon ballroom in Harlem, New York. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also This Year: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On March 7, 1965 Martin Luther King Jr. along with the SCLC leads protestors in support of voting rights , across a bridge in Selma AL. and are attacked -police use tear gas, whips and clubs - it is remembered as Bloody Sunday . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President Johnson -issues Executive Order 11246 in 1965 , which enforces Affirmative Action for the first time, asserting that civil rights laws alone are not enough to remedy discrimination. </li></ul></ul>1965 Malcolm X (1925-1965) MLK & Malcolm X Malcolm X on a stretcher, en route from the Audubon Ballroom to Columbia Presbyterian Hospital.
  34. 34. <ul><li>1966-1967: Thurgood Marshall Appointed to the Supreme Court. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1967 Thurgood Marshall, formerly an NAACP attorney, is appointed to the Supreme Court becoming the first black justice . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also This Year: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1966 the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense is founded by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland Ca. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kwanzaa , a week-long holiday honoring African heritage, started by Dr. Maulana Karengais is first celebrated in Los Angeles, CA. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stokely Carmichael of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) coins the phrase &quot;black power&quot; in a speech in Seattle on April 19th. </li></ul></ul>1966-67 Thurgood Marshall (1908-1993) Black Panther Party (1966) Kwanzaa celebrated for the first time – Dec. (1966)
  35. 35. <ul><li>1968: Martin Luther King Jr. Assassinated. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated in Memphis TN. marking the end of the Civil Rights era . President Johnson signs the Civil rights Act of 1968 , prohibiting discrimination in housing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also This Year: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shirley Chisholm becomes the first African-American woman elected to Congress. </li></ul></ul>1968 Martin Luther King (1929-1968) MLK at Lorraine Motel April 4, 1968 Lorraine Motel & Museum Memphis, TN MLK Memorial Atlanta, GA Wife, Coretta at funeral
  36. 36. <ul><li>1972: Shirley Chisholm makes bid for the Democratic nomination for President. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On January 23, 1972, she became the first major party African American candidate for President of the United States. She won 162 delegates ultimately losing the nomination to South Dakota Senator George McGovern. Other women who ran in 1972 include Linda Jenness and Evelyn Reed. </li></ul></ul>1972 Shirley Chisholm (1924-2005)
  37. 37. The Great Achievements Period 1980’s – 1990’s Black History IS American History A Celebration of the African American Experience in America
  38. 38. <ul><li>1980: Robert Johnson Launches BET. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Robert L. Johnson launches Black Entertainment Television (BET) on cable which airs in Washington DC - he later sells the cable station to Viacom and becomes the first African-American billionaire . WHMM-TV in Washington D.C. becomes the first African-American owned public broadcasting station in the U.S. </li></ul></ul>1980 Robert L. Johnson (1946 -)
  39. 39. <ul><li>1984: Jesse Jackson makes bid for the Democratic nomination for President. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jackson became the second African American to campaign for President of the United States , as a Democrat in 1984. Former Vice President Walter Mondale won the nomination and made history choosing the first woman vice presidential candidate Geraldine Ferraro. He bids in 1988 as well. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also This Year </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jackson also organized the Rainbow Coalition , that later merged, with the 1971 Operation PUSH he organized. </li></ul></ul>1984 Jesse Jackson (1941 - ) Time Cover (1984) Rainbow/PUSH Coalition (1996)
  40. 40. <ul><li>1986: Oprah Winfrey Debuts. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oprah Winfrey becomes the first African-American woman to host a nationally syndicated talk show when &quot;The Oprah Winfrey Show&quot; debuts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also This Year: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Martin Luther King Jr. day is celebrated as a national federal holiday in the U.S. The bill in favor of honoring King's birthday was originally introduced four days after his assassination in 1968 and was signed by Ronald Reagan in 1983. </li></ul></ul>1986 Oprah Winfrey (1954 -)
  41. 41. <ul><li>1989: Colin Powell Appointed Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General Colin Powell is appointed Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, becoming the first African-American to achieve the highest military ranking in the U.S. Armed Forces. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also This Year: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ronald H. Brown is elected as the first African-American chair-person of the Democratic National Committee . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lawrence Douglas Wilder becomes the first elected African-American Governor . (Virginia) </li></ul></ul>1989 Colin Powell (1937 -) Ron H Brown (1941-1996) L. Douglas Wilder (1931 -)
  42. 42. <ul><li>1991: Clarence Thomas Appointed to the Supreme Court. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarence Thomas is appointed Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also This Year: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whoopi Goldberg, an actress and comedian, wins an Academy Award for her supporting role in the film &quot;Ghost&quot;. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rodney King is beaten by four Los Angeles police officers , after being stopped for a speeding violation. The incident is captured on videotape by a bystander and is shown on national television sparking outrage. </li></ul></ul>1991 Clarence Thomas (1948 -) Whoopi Goldberg (1955 -) Rodney King (1965 -)
  43. 43. <ul><li>1992: Carol Moseley Braun is elected to the US Senate. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carol Moseley Braun of Illinois becomes the first African-American woman elected to the United States Senate . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also This Year: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mae Jemison, astronaut on the Space Shuttle Endeavor becomes the first African-American woman to orbit space . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A 23 year old John Singleton becomes the first African-American director and youngest person to be nominated for an Academy Award for best direction for his film, &quot;Boyz N the Hood&quot;. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Race riots erupt in South Central L.A. after a jury acquits four white police officers for the videotaped beating of Rodney King Jr. </li></ul></ul>1992 Carol Moseley Braun (1947 -) Mae Jemison (1956 -) John Singleton (1968 -) LA Riots (1992)
  44. 44. <ul><li>1993: Toni Morrison is Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toni Morrison is awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature becoming the first African-American to win the highest literary honor in the world. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also this Year: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. M. Joycelyn Elders becomes the first African-American and the first woman to be named United States Surgeon General . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rita Dove is named Poet Laureate of the United States, becoming the youngest to hold that position. </li></ul></ul>1993 Joycelyn Elders (1933 -) Rita Dove (1952 -) Toni Morrison (1931 -)
  45. 45. <ul><li>1995: Million Man March Occurs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Million Man March, organized by Louis Farrakhan, brings together thousands of African-Americans to the National Mall in Washington, D.C. for a day of unity and a show of strength of character. Despite the name, women are present both in the crowd and on the podium, including civil rights pioneer Rosa Parks. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also This Year </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NASA astronaut Bernard Harris becomes the first African-American to walk in space . </li></ul></ul>1995 Million Man March October 16, 1995 Louis Farrakhan (1933 -) Bernard Harris Jr. (1956 -)
  46. 46. <ul><li>1997: Holder Named Deputy Attorney General. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1997, Eric H. Holder Jr. was named by President Clinton to be the Deputy Attorney General, the first African-American named to that post. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2009: Holder Sworn in as Attorney General </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mr. Holder was sworn in as the 82nd Attorney General of the United States on February 3, 2009 by Vice-President Joe Biden. President Barack Obama announced his intention to nominate Mr. Holder on December 1, 2008. </li></ul></ul>1997 Eric H. Holder (1951 - ) Holder sworn in February 3, 2009 as 82 nd Attorney General of the United States
  47. 47. The New Leadership Period 2000’s – Today Black History IS American History A Celebration of the African American Experience in America
  48. 48. <ul><li>2001: Colin Powell Appointed Secretary of State. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colin Powell is appointed Secretary of State , the becoming the first African-American to ever hold that position. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condoleezza Rice takes the position of National Security Advisor for the Bush administration. This is the first time either of these posts is held by an African-American. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robert Johnson becomes the first black billionaire in America in 2001. </li></ul></ul>2001 Colin Powell (1937 -) Condoleezza Rice (1954 -)
  49. 49. <ul><li>2002: Halle & Denzel win top honors at Academy Awards. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Halle Berry and Denzel Washington win Academy Awards for best actress in &quot;Monster's Ball&quot; and best actor in &quot;Training Day&quot; respectively. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also This Year: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Slavery Reparations Coordinating Committee, led by prominent African-American lawyers and activists, announce plans to sue companies that profited from slavery. </li></ul></ul>2002 Halle Berry (1966 -) Denzel Washington (1954 -)
  50. 50. <ul><li>2004: Barack Obama Elected Senator. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illinois State Senator Barack Obama is elected to the United States Senate , becoming only the fifth African-American to serve in the U.S. Senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also This Year: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phylicia Rashad wins a Tony Award for her role in A Raisin in the Sun - the first time an African American woman wins for a dramatic leading role on Broadway. </li></ul></ul>2004 Barack Obama (1961 -) Phylicia Rashad (1948 -)
  51. 51. <ul><li>2005: Condoleezza Rice Appointed Secretary of State </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Condoleezza Rice is appointed Secretary of State . She is the first African-American woman , second African-American (after Powell), and second woman (after Madeleine Albright) to serve as Secretary of State. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also This Year: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rosa Parks , a key figure in the civil rights movement, dies at the age of 92 on October 24th. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The U.S. Postal Service issues a stamp in honor of contralto singer, Marian Anderson. </li></ul></ul>2005 Condoleezza Rice (1954-) Marian Anderson (1897-1993) Rosa Parks (92)
  52. 52. <ul><li>2006: Coretta Scott King Dies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coretta Scott King, civil rights activist and widow of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., dies at the age of 78 , on January 30th, 2006. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also This Year: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>James Brown, the singer, songwriter and entertainer commonly referred to as 'The Godfather of Soul' dies at the age of 67 on December 25 th , 2006. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oprah Winfrey signs a $55 million 3-year contract with XM Satellite Radio for a new talk radio channel called 'Oprah and Friends' that began airing on September 25th 2006. </li></ul></ul>2006 Coretta Scott King & Memorial (78) James Brown & Memorial (67)
  53. 53. <ul><li>2007: Oprah Winfrey opens School in South Africa. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oprah Winfrey opens the Oprah Winfrey Leadership Academy for Girls in South Africa. It is a state-of-the-art 28-building, independent school that focuses on developing girls to become future leaders of South Africa. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also This Year: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barack Obama, Junior U.S. Senator from Illinois announces his bid for the 2008 U.S. Presidential election in February. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As of the end of 2007, Robert Johnson & Oprah Winfrey are recognized as the two African American billionaires in The US, according to Forbes magazine. </li></ul></ul>2007 Obama initiating bid for 2008 Democratic Nomination for President Oprah opening school in S. Africa
  54. 54. <ul><li>2008: Obama Gains Support for the Democratic nomination for President. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Super Tuesday elections (CA), February 5 th 2008, Senator Obama was in close competition with Senator Hillary Clinton for the democratic nomination for president. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 2008 Democratic nomination made history as Obama became the first African American nominee in the race for the 2008 Presidential election. </li></ul></ul>2008 Obama‘s ‘08 Campaign Trail 18% 43% McCain the “Favorite” over Huckabee Romney Dropped Out 2/7/08 The Republicans McCain Huckabee 42% 45% Clinton & Obama in “ Close Race” As of 2/7/08. The Democrats Clinton Obama
  55. 55. <ul><li>January 20 th 2009 Barack Hussein Obama is inaugurated the 44 th President of the United States. </li></ul>2009
  56. 56. <ul><li>February 12, 2009 the NAACP Celebrated its 100 th Year Anniversary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The NAACP Headquarters, based in Baltimore, MD, along with its 1,700 units nationwide, will host celebrations and observances throughout the year ending with the 2010 Annual Convention highlighting the significant role the organization has played in leading social change in America. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Civil Rights Century: The NAACP at 100 </li></ul><ul><li>Founder’s Day Services Nationwide </li></ul><ul><li>The 40th Annual NAACP Image Awards </li></ul><ul><li>NAACP Annual Meeting </li></ul><ul><li>NAACP Leadership Summit </li></ul><ul><li>Thurgood Marshal Day </li></ul><ul><li>NAACP 100 th Annual Convention </li></ul>2009 2/06 2/12 2/21 5/09 7/11 7/02 Calendar
  57. 57. <ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African American Odyssey online at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aointro.html Accessed February 5, 2008. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biography.com. Black History Timeline at http://www.biography.com/blackhistory/black-history-timeline.jsp Accessed January 31, 2008. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia online at http://en.wikipedia.org Accessed February 1, 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikipedia, Free Online Encyclopedia Buddy Johnson at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddy_Johnson Accessed January 9, 2009. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikipedia, Free Online Encyclopedia “Since I Fell For You” at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Since_I_Fell_for_You Accessed January 9, 2009. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NAACP website at http://www.naacp.org/news/press/2008-12-03/index.htm Accessed January 27, 2009. </li></ul></ul>

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