11 Peritoneal Dialysis

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  • Název Autor Pracoviště Datum zpracování přednášky
  • Category: Peritoneal Membrane Preservation This slide shows the beneficial effects of the newer PD solutions containing alternate buffers and osmotic agents. All three solutions reduce levels of GDPs and AGEs. With Physioneal, it is because glucose is sterilized at a very low pH. With Extraneal and Nutrineal, it is because there is no glucose in either solution. Additional benefits of Physioneal : Physiologic pH and pCO 2 , reduced lactate levels. Additional benefit of Extraneal: Same osmolarity as plasma. As a result of its unique properties, each solution has been shown to improve membrane and peritoneal immune cell function. Skoufos L, Topley N, Cooker L, et al. The in vitro biocompatibility performance of a 25 mmol/L bicarbonate/10 mmol/L lactate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluid. Kidney Int . 2003;64(suppl 88):S94-S99. Vardhan A, Zweers MM, Gokal R, Krediet RT. A solutions portfolio approach in peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int . 2003;64(suppl 88):S114-S123.
  • Category: Peritoneal Membrane Preservation This slide shows the beneficial effects of the newer PD solutions containing alternate buffers and osmotic agents. All three solutions reduce levels of GDPs and AGEs. With Physioneal, it is because glucose is sterilized at a very low pH. With Extraneal and Nutrineal, it is because there is no glucose in either solution. Additional benefits of Physioneal : Physiologic pH and pCO 2 , reduced lactate levels. Additional benefit of Extraneal: Same osmolarity as plasma. As a result of its unique properties, each solution has been shown to improve membrane and peritoneal immune cell function. Skoufos L, Topley N, Cooker L, et al. The in vitro biocompatibility performance of a 25 mmol/L bicarbonate/10 mmol/L lactate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluid. Kidney Int . 2003;64(suppl 88):S94-S99. Vardhan A, Zweers MM, Gokal R, Krediet RT. A solutions portfolio approach in peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int . 2003;64(suppl 88):S114-S123.
  • This slide summarizes the clinical benefits of Physioneal, Extraneal, and Nutrineal as described in the articles by Pecoits-Filho, et al (S100) and Vardhan, et al (S114). Pecoits-Filho R, Tranaeus A, Lindholm B. Clinical trial experiences with Physioneal™. Kidney Int . 2003;64(suppl 88):S100-S104. Vardhan A, Zweers MM, Gokal R, Krediet RT. A solutions portfolio approach in peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int . 2003;64(suppl 88):S114-S123.
  • 11 Peritoneal Dialysis

    1. 1. Peritoneal dialysis <ul><li>Jana Fialová </li></ul><ul><li>Martina Peiskerová </li></ul><ul><li>Klinika nefrologie 1. LF a VFN </li></ul><ul><li>Praha </li></ul><ul><li>10/2007 </li></ul>
    2. 2. Ramesh Khanna & Karl D. Nolph Modalities of renal replacement therapy Interchangeable, depends on residual renal function
    3. 3. Peritoneal dialysis - outline <ul><li>Principles of PD </li></ul><ul><li>PD solutions </li></ul><ul><li>PD catheter </li></ul><ul><li>Indication / contraindication of PD </li></ul><ul><li>PD schemes : CAPD, CCPD </li></ul><ul><li>Assessement of PD adequacy, ultrafiltration </li></ul><ul><li>Assessement of peritoneal function </li></ul><ul><li>Complications </li></ul><ul><li>Perspectives – new dialysis solutions </li></ul>
    4. 4. Peritoneal dialysis – introduction <ul><li>method of RRT for 100.000 patients worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>complementary to hemodialysis </li></ul><ul><li>Principles: </li></ul><ul><li>peritoneum (capillary endothelium, matrix, mesothelium) = semipermeable dialysis membrane through which fluid and solute move from blood to dialysis solution via diffusion and convection </li></ul><ul><li>effective peritoneal surface area = perfused capillaries closed to peritoneum ( ↓ in peritonitis) </li></ul><ul><li>ultrafiltration (movement of water) enabled by osmotic gradient generated by glucose or glucose polymers (isodextrin) </li></ul>
    5. 5. Principles of peritoneal dialysis
    6. 6. Scheme of peritoneal solute transport by diffusion through the pores of capillary wall
    7. 7. Ramesh Khanna & Karl D. Nolph Model of transport - 3 sorts of pores
    8. 8. Ramesh Khanna & Karl D. Nolph Na 132 mmol/l Ca 1,25mmol/l Mg 0,5 mmol/l Cl 100 mmol/l lactate 35 mmol/l ev. lactate/bicarbonate glukose 1,36-4,25 g/dl osmolarity 347-486 pH 5,2 GDP (degradation products of glucose) Composition of standard peritoneal dialysis solution
    9. 9. Urea concentration in dialysate , rate of equalization of solute concentration depends on molecular size of solute
    10. 10. Concentration of Creatinin in dialysate equilibrium of concentrations between dialysate and blood is slower than for urea
    11. 11. Peritoneal catheter <ul><li>implanted via laparoscopy, punction or laparotomy (total anesthesy) </li></ul><ul><li>PD is started 3 weeks following the impantation of catheter </li></ul>
    12. 12. Types of peritoneal catheters
    13. 13. Why to start with PD ? 1. better maintenance of residual renal function
    14. 14. Why to start with PD ? <ul><li>clinical outcomes comparable to HD, no difference in 2 year and 5 year mortality vs. HD (study NECOSAD) </li></ul><ul><li>saves vascular access </li></ul><ul><li>preferred for children (APD) </li></ul><ul><li>modality choice is a lifestyle issue </li></ul>
    15. 15. Ramesh Khanna & Karl D. Nolph 80% of patients have no contra-indication to any of the dialysis methods and may choose according to their life style between HD a PD Absolute contra-indications of PD: 1.peritoneal fibrosis and adhesions following intraabdominal operations 2.inflammatory gut diseases Indication / Contraindications of PD
    16. 16. <ul><li>pleuro-peritoneal leakage </li></ul><ul><li>hernias </li></ul><ul><li>significant loin pain </li></ul><ul><li>big polycystic kidneys </li></ul>Relative contraindications of PD <ul><li>severe deformant arthritis </li></ul><ul><li>psychosis </li></ul><ul><li>significant decrease of lung functions </li></ul><ul><li>* diverticulosis </li></ul><ul><li>colostomy </li></ul><ul><li>obesity </li></ul><ul><li>blindness </li></ul>
    17. 17. CAPD – continual ambulatory peritoneal dialysis <ul><li>manual exchanges </li></ul>
    18. 18. NIPD – night intermitent peritoneal dialysis (cycler)
    19. 19. CCPD – continual cyclic PD
    20. 20. Assessement of PD adequacy PET (peritoneal equilibrium test) 1 <ul><li>determines quick or slow passage of toxins from the blood into the dialysis fluid </li></ul><ul><li>‘ high-fast transporters’ v.s. ‘low-slow transporters’ </li></ul><ul><li>helps to decide about the PD scheme (dwell duration and intervals, CAPD vs. CCPD) </li></ul><ul><li>performed in hospital, takes 5 hours </li></ul><ul><li>involves doing a CAPD exchange using a 2.27% G, samples of PD fluid and blood are taken at set times </li></ul>
    21. 21. PET (peritoneal equilibration test) 2 CAPD, 5 exchanges daily + 1 exchange at night Good Slow Slow CAPD or APD OK OK Average Frequent exchanges, short dwells – APD Poor Fast High Best type of PD Water removal Waste removal Transporter
    22. 22. Interpretation of peritonal equilibration test ??
    23. 23. Ramesh Khanna & Karl D. Nolph Results of baseline PET
    24. 24. Choice of PD scheme depends of BSA and type of transport
    25. 25. <ul><li>PET- peritoneal equilibration test (type of transport and ultrafiltration after 4 hours) </li></ul><ul><li>weekly clearance of creatinine and urea </li></ul><ul><li>daily UF </li></ul><ul><li>dicrease of Na in dialysis fluid after 60 minutes using 3,8% G (test of aquaporines) </li></ul>Assessement of peritoneal function
    26. 26. Ratio D/P for Na , upper curve – 1,27% glucose, lower curve - 3,86% G (initial drop due to transcellular UF of water through aquaporins)
    27. 27. <ul><li>Depends on: </li></ul><ul><li>- type of transporter – low transporters have better UF </li></ul><ul><li>- concentration and type of osmotic agent in PD fluid: </li></ul><ul><li>Fluids with glucosis (1,27%, 2,5% a 3,8% ), higher concentration – higher osmotic pressure and UF </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid with icodextrin (Extraneal) = glucose polymer with a large molecule, resorbs only 10-20%, offers longtime UF, suitable for long night exchanges, 8-12 hours) </li></ul><ul><li>- time between exchanges, using glucose-based fluids, maximal UF obtained after 2-3 hours, using longer spaces UF dicreases. </li></ul>Ultrafiltration during PD
    28. 28. Ultrafiltration in different types of PD solutions
    29. 29. Criteria of PD adequacy
    30. 30. <ul><li>Infectious: </li></ul><ul><li>exit-site inflammation (flare, suppurative secretion, </li></ul><ul><li>granulation) </li></ul><ul><li>peritonitis (turbid dialysate, abdominal pain, fever) </li></ul><ul><li>Non-infectious: </li></ul><ul><li>hernias </li></ul><ul><li>hydrothorax </li></ul><ul><li>sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (rare, life threatening complication, mostly after ≥ 6 years on PD, peritoneum is massively thickened and calcificated, leading to intestinal obstruction) </li></ul>Complications of PD 1
    31. 31. <ul><li>Non-infectious: </li></ul><ul><li>Leakage of dialysate along the peritoneal catheter </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage failure of dialysate (dislocation or catheter obstruction by fibrin) </li></ul><ul><li>Morphologic changes of peritoneum following long-lasting PD (peritoneal fibrisis, mesotelial damage, vasculopathy and neo-angiogenesis) leading to loss of UF capacity – reason for PD cessation in 24% of all patients, and in 51% of patients treated above 6 years. </li></ul>Complications of PD 2
    32. 32. <ul><li>Large vascular surface of peritoneum (due to neo-angiogenesis, vasodilation), leading to high (fast) type of transport including fast loss of osmotic glucose pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased function of aquaporins </li></ul><ul><li>High lymfatic absorption </li></ul>Causes of UF failure
    33. 33. Morphologic changes of peritoneum due to PD (1) Obr.1-before starting PD, norm. peritoneum (omentum)
    34. 34. Morphologic changes of peritoneum due to PD (2) Obr.2-after 3 years of PD, submesotelial fibrosis and neo-angiogenesis (enlargement of vascular surface of peritoneum)
    35. 35. Peritonitis <ul><li>Clinical features : cloudy PD effluent, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory : leucocytosis, CRP, > 100wbc/ mm3, PD fluid culture </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteriology : Gram + cocci (incl. S.aureus) in 75%, Gram – (incl. Pseudomonas) in 25%, culture negative, mycobacterial (1%), fungal (3%), allergic (Icodextrin) </li></ul><ul><li>Complications: relapses, antibiotic treatment failure, acute and chronic UF failure </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment for. 14-21 days : Gram + cocci: Vankomycin / cephalosporin, Gram -: aminoglycoside / cephalosporin III. Generation (+ antimycotics, metronidazole) </li></ul><ul><li>Goal : < peritonitis / 18 months </li></ul>
    36. 36. From PD gudelines (ISPD) <ul><li>biocompatible PD solutions - normal pH, low concentration of glucose </li></ul><ul><li>insertion of PD catheter – 10 days-6 weeks before RRT </li></ul><ul><li>urea / creatinine clearance measured every 6 months </li></ul><ul><li>PET: 6 weeks after commencing treatment + annually </li></ul><ul><li>avoid routine use of high glucose concentrations )use of icodextrin, aminoacids instead) </li></ul><ul><li>preserve residual diuresis, obtain UF above 750 ml/day </li></ul><ul><li>peritonitis and exit-site infection rates, regular revision of technique </li></ul><ul><li>invasive procedures cover by ATB prophylaxis </li></ul><ul><li>topical ATB administration if needed (S.aureus, Ps. aeruginosa) </li></ul><ul><li>beware central obesity </li></ul>
    37. 37. <ul><li> GDPs and AGEs </li></ul><ul><li> Lactate </li></ul><ul><li>Physiologic pH and pCO 2 </li></ul><ul><li> Membrane and immune cell function </li></ul>Perspectives - New dialysis solutions protect peritoneal membrane Physioneal 1 1 Skoufos, et al. Kidney Int . 2003;64(suppl 88):S94-S99. 2 Vardhan, et al. Kidney Int. 2003;64(suppl 88):S114-S123. <ul><li>Nutrineal 2 </li></ul><ul><li>No glucose exposure </li></ul><ul><li>No GDPs or AGEs </li></ul><ul><li> Membrane and immune cell function </li></ul><ul><li>Isosmolar to plasma </li></ul><ul><li>No glucose exposure </li></ul><ul><li> GDPs and AGEs </li></ul><ul><li> Membrane and immune cell function </li></ul>Extraneal 2
    38. 38. Physioneal  Infusion pain  Peritonitis  Glycemic control  Appetite  Patient acceptance No  UF Clinical advantages of new dialysis solutions Extraneal  Glucose load  Glycemic control  UF, control of fluid status  Dyslipidemia  Quality of life  Time on PD Pecoits-Filho, et al. Kidney Int . 2003;64(suppl 88):S100-S104. Vardhan, et al. Kidney Int. 2003;64(suppl 88):S114-S123. Nutrineal  Glucose load  Glycemic control  Protein intake, nutritional status
    39. 39. Absorbtion of glucose from peritoneal solutions <ul><li>Solutions containing glucose (green) lead to significant glucose absorbtion </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions based on another osmotic agent (blue, violet) do not lead to glucose absorbtion, so decrease total daily glucose load). </li></ul>1 2 2.5 L Physioneal 1.36% 2.5 L Physioneal 1.36% 2.5 L Physioneal 1.36% 2.5 L Physioneal 3.86% Glucose absorbed = 159 g/day 2.5 L Physioneal 1.36% 2.5 L Nutrineal 2.5 L Physioneal 1.36% 2.5 L Extraneal Glucose absorbed = 50 g/day

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