Smart ScienceGRADE 5TEXTBOOKPhilippine Copyright 2009 by DIWA LEARNING SYSTEMS INCAll rights reserved. Printed in the Phil...
To the Learner      Do you ask yourself questions about the world you live in? Do youwonder about what lies beyond the blu...
Unit 1          The Reproductive, Respiratory, and Urinary SystemsChapter 1       The Human Reproductive System  Lesson 1 ...
Think Back    ...............................................................................................................
Lesson 3                Sedimentary Rocks: The “Cool” or “Wet” Rocks......................................199    Lesson 4 ...
Unit 1                                  The Reproductive,                                           Respiratory, and      ...
Chapter 1                         The Human Reproductive System         Have you ever wondered how a new human being devel...
Each reproductive organ has a specific function in the reproductive process.Table 1.1 lists the parts of the male reproduct...
Explore    The Male Reproductive System          Look at the diagram of the male reproductive system. Identify the differe...
Table 1.2       Parts of the Female Reproductive System and Their Functions          Organ                  Description/Lo...
There are two ovaries where theova develop and mature. Each ovary is            Languageconnected to the ends of the fallo...
Smart Science Grade 5
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  1. 1. Smart ScienceGRADE 5TEXTBOOKPhilippine Copyright 2009 by DIWA LEARNING SYSTEMS INCAll rights reserved. Printed in the PhilippinesEditorial, design, and layout by University Press of First AsiaNo part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any meanselectronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage andretrieval systems, without permission in writing from the copyright owner. Exclusively distributed by DIWA LEARNING SYSTEMS INC 4/F SEDCCO 1 Bldg. 120 Thailand corner Legazpi Streets Legaspi Village, 1229 Makati City, Philippines Tel. No.: (632) 893-8501 * Fax: (632) 817-8700 ISBN: 978–971–46–0093–5REVIEWERMarina Balce was a former assistant dean and associate professor at the College of Education, LaSalle College–Antipolo. She taught biological sciences for Psychology students and thesis writing forgraduating Education students in the same college. She was also a Trainee of the Japan InternationalCooperation Agency (JICA) at the Aichi University in Nagoya, Japan, where she attended a specialtraining on Practical Work in Elementary School Science. Dr. Balce finished her bachelor’s degree inSecondary Education major in Biology at the University of the East–Manila. She has a master’s degreein Biology Education from the De La Salle University–Manila and a doctorate in Science Educationmajor in Biology from the University of the Philippines–Diliman.
  2. 2. To the Learner Do you ask yourself questions about the world you live in? Do youwonder about what lies beyond the blue skies or what rests below theseas? Do you ask questions about the blooming trees and colorful flowersyou see, the heat and cold you feel, or the various scents you smell? Doyou wonder about the sun, the moon, and the stars? Your young, activemind has so many questions because you are curious about so manythings. This book will help you discover the answers to the questions youhave about yourself, the world, and everything beyond it. This book willbe your constant companion as you unlock the many mysteries of lifethrough various learning experiences. Moreover, this book will teach youhow to apply the wonders of science to your day-to-day activities. Let this book help you find the answers to the questions you haveabout yourself, your world, and your universe. Let this take you a stepcloser to understanding life and in discovering the wonders of science!
  3. 3. Unit 1 The Reproductive, Respiratory, and Urinary SystemsChapter 1 The Human Reproductive System Lesson 1 The Male and the Female Reproductive Systems .........................................2 Lesson 2 Changes during Puberty ..............................................................................7 Lesson 3 Menstrual Cycle ........................................................................................11 Lesson 4 Taking Care of Your Reproductive Organs ................................................15 Think Back .................................................................................................................17 Measure Up! .................................................................................................................18Chapter 2 The Human Respiratory System Lesson 1 Parts and Functions of the Human Respiratory System ..............................19 Lesson 2 Inhalation and Exhalation ..........................................................................25 Lesson 3 Common Respiratory Ailments..................................................................29 Think Back .................................................................................................................33 Measure Up! .................................................................................................................33Chapter 3 The Human Urinary System Lesson 1 Parts and Functions of the Human Urinary System ....................................35 Lesson 2 How the Urinary System Works ................................................................39 Lesson 3 Some Urinary Ailments .............................................................................43 Think Back .................................................................................................................47 Measure Up! .................................................................................................................47Unit 2 Animal and Plant GroupsChapter 4 The Animal Group Lesson 1 What Animals Eat .....................................................................................50 Lesson 2 Body Parts That Animals Use in Eating ......................................................54 Lesson 3 Animal Adaptations ..................................................................................58 Lesson 4 Vertebrates................................................................................................63 Lesson 5 Invertebrates .............................................................................................70 Think Back .................................................................................................................76 Measure Up! .................................................................................................................76Chapter 5 The Plant Group Lesson 1 The Needs of Plants to Produce Food ........................................................78 Lesson 2 Photosynthesis ..........................................................................................85 Lesson 3 Importance of Plants .................................................................................89 Lesson 4 Plant Adaptations ......................................................................................93 Lesson 5 Classifying Plants ......................................................................................97
  4. 4. Think Back ...............................................................................................................101 Measure Up! ...............................................................................................................102Unit 3 Matter, Energy, and MachinesChapter 6 Changes in Matter Lesson 1 Physical Changes ....................................................................................106 Lesson 2 Chemical Changes ..................................................................................114 Lesson 3 Agents Causing Changes in Matter ..........................................................118 Lesson 4 The Changing Environment .....................................................................122 Lesson 5 Controlling the Destructive Changes in the Environment.........................127 Think Back ...............................................................................................................131 Measure Up! ...............................................................................................................131Chapter 7 Electric Energy Lesson 1 Static Electricity.......................................................................................133 Lesson 2 Electric Circuit ........................................................................................139 Lesson 3 Series Connection and Parallel Connection .............................................143 Lesson 4 Generation of Electric Energy ..................................................................147 Lesson 5 Electricity and Magnetism .......................................................................151 Lesson 6 Using Electric Energy Wisely ...................................................................155 Think Back ...............................................................................................................158 Measure Up! ...............................................................................................................159Chapter 8 Machines Lesson 1 Levers .....................................................................................................161 Lesson 2 Classes of Levers .....................................................................................166 Lesson 3 Inclined Planes .......................................................................................170 Lesson 4 Wedges ..................................................................................................173 Lesson 5 Screws ....................................................................................................176 Lesson 6 Wheel and Axle ......................................................................................179 Lesson 7 Pulleys ....................................................................................................182 Lesson 8 Proper Use of Machines ..........................................................................185 Think Back ...............................................................................................................187 Measure Up! ...............................................................................................................187Unit 4 Earth and Its WeatherChapter 9 Rocks and Soil Lesson 1 Characteristics of Rocks ..........................................................................190 Lesson 2 Igneous Rocks: The “Hot” Rocks .............................................................195
  5. 5. Lesson 3 Sedimentary Rocks: The “Cool” or “Wet” Rocks......................................199 Lesson 4 Metamorphic Rocks: The “Changed” Rocks ............................................204 Lesson 5 Rock Cycle .............................................................................................207 Lesson 6 Weathering and Soil Formation ...............................................................211 Think Back ...............................................................................................................214 Measure Up! ...............................................................................................................214Chapter 10 Weather Conditions Lesson 1 Water Cycle ............................................................................................216 Lesson 2 Sunlight and Weather .............................................................................220 Lesson 3 Tropical Cyclones ...................................................................................225 Lesson 4 Before, During, and After a Cyclone .......................................................230 Lesson 5 Public Storm Warning Signals .................................................................233 Lesson 6 Safety Precautions ...................................................................................237 Think Back ...............................................................................................................240 Measure Up! ...............................................................................................................240Unit 5 Our Solar SystemChapter 11 About the Sun Lesson 1 The Sun, a Star ........................................................................................244 Lesson 2 Sunspots .................................................................................................249 Lesson 3 Uses of Solar Energy ...............................................................................251 Think Back ...............................................................................................................253 Measure Up! ...............................................................................................................254Chapter 12 The Solar System Lesson 1 Members of the Solar System ..................................................................255 Lesson 2 The Planets in Orbit ................................................................................260 Lesson 3 Planets and Their Distances from the Sun................................................263 Lesson 4 Planets and Their Periods of Revolution ..................................................266 Lesson 5 Asteroids, Meteoroids, and Comets .........................................................269 Think Back ...............................................................................................................273 Measure Up! ...............................................................................................................274Glossary .............................................................................................................................. 276Bibliography ........................................................................................................................ 279Index ................................................................................................................................... 281
  6. 6. Unit 1 The Reproductive, Respiratory, and Urinary Systems The human body is able to perform many tasks. These tasks aremade possible by the different body systems. Although each body systemperforms a specific function, the different body systems work in closecoordination with one another. They sustain and regulate different lifeprocesses such as reproduction, adaptation, growth, and development. In this unit, you will study three important body systems—thereproductive, respiratory, and urinary systems. You will study the parts ofthese body systems and their functions. You will also learn how to takegood care of them.
  7. 7. Chapter 1 The Human Reproductive System Have you ever wondered how a new human being develops inside the femalebody? As you proceed with the lessons in this unit, you will be amazed to find outthat life starts out as a fertilized cell. This cell is the result of the union of the male andfemale sex cells. Lesson 1 The Male and the Female Reproductive Systems Find Out1. What are the parts of the male and the female reproductive systems?2. What are the functions of each part? Humans, being living things, are able to reproduce offspring of their own kind.No two offspring, however, are the same. The ability of humans to reproduce ensurestheir continued existence on Earth. Humans have body parts called organs that enable us to reproduce. These organshave coordinated functions that form a body system, called the reproductive system.In this lesson, you will learn about the structures of the reproductive organs and theirspecific functions. The reproductive system of males differs from that of females. Look at the twoillustrations below. ureter bladder ovum inside fallopian tube the ovary ovary seminal vesicle prostate gland penis Cowper’s gland urethra wall of endometrium foreskin epididymis uterus uterus scrotum sperm inside sperm cervix ovum the testis vaginaMale reproductive system Female reproductive system2 Smart Science 5
  8. 8. Each reproductive organ has a specific function in the reproductive process.Table 1.1 lists the parts of the male reproductive system.Table 1.1 Parts of the Male Reproductive System and Their Functions Organ Description/Location Function Testis (plural: testes) usually consists of a pair; each testis produces sperm cells and consists of many highly coiled tubes secretes the male sex or ducts surrounded by several hormone (testosterone) layers of connective tissues; found inside the scrotal sac or scrotumScrotal sac or external saclike structure with holds the testesscrotum temperature slightly lower than that of the rest of the bodyPenis composed of spongy, erectile deposits sperm into the tissues; its head is covered by a vagina foreskin, which can be removed during circumcisionUrethra a duct that runs through the length serves as a passageway for of the penis and opens to the both sperm and urine; has outside an opening that closes to allow sperm and urine to pass one at a timeEpididymis long, narrow, flattened, highly stores mature sperm and is coiled convoluted ducts lying on the the site where the sperm edge of the posterior border of the cells gain the ability to testes move, which is necessary for fertilizationVas deferens a short muscular duct passageway of the sperm(plural: vas deferentia) from the epididymis to the urethra; stores spermProstate gland thumb-sized gland; consists of secretes a fluid that muscular and glandular tissues that neutralizes the acidity of lie around the base of the bladder the vagina to ensure the survival of the sperm; aids in sperm motilityCowper’s glands a pair of pea-sized glands found secrete a fluid that may(bulbourethral glands) along the urethra and below the serve as a lubricant and prostate gland urine neutralizerSeminal vesicles a pair of glands found between the secrete a fluid that bladder and the rectum contains fructose (energy source for sperm) The Reproductive, Respiratory, and Urinary Systems 3
  9. 9. Explore The Male Reproductive System Look at the diagram of the male reproductive system. Identify the different organs of the system. Try to trace the path that sperm cells take as they travel from the testes to the outside of the body. Write your answers on the blanks. Head – bears half from the testes of the male’s characteristics Midpiece – contains substances that provide the sperm cells energy for swimming outside Tail – for moving the sperm to reach the egg The male reproductive system is made up of different organs and glands. Some ofthese parts are involved in the production of sperm cells, while some are involved inthe delivery of the sperm cells to the female reproductive system. The human testes produce the male sex cells called the sperm. Sperm cells arestored in the epididymis. Three glands provide secretions that mix with the sperm cellsto form the semen. These glands are the seminal vesicles, the prostate gland, and theCowper’s glands. The ability to produce sperm cells does not necessarily mean the ability toproduce a new individual. The number and the quality of sperm cells also determinethe capability of sperm cells to unite with female egg cells. Smoking, excessive alcoholintake, emotional stress, substance abuse, malnutrition, heredity, and exposure to toxinsand chemicals are some of the factors that affect sperm number and quality. At present,there are products available to test sperm number and sperm quality. These productscan be administered at home without the aid of a physician. The parts of the female reproductive system differ from those of the male. Theseparts and their corresponding functions are listed in Table 1.2 on the following page.4 Smart Science 5
  10. 10. Table 1.2 Parts of the Female Reproductive System and Their Functions Organ Description/Location FunctionOvaries small, flattened, elongated organs alternately produce the female on both sides of the uterus sex cells (eggs or ova) and secrete the female hormones (estrogen and progesterone)Fallopian tubes a pair of ducts leading from the serve as pathways where ovaor oviducts ovaries to the uterus travel from the ovary to the uterusUterus pear-shaped muscular organ found receives and holds the in the pelvic cavity fertilized ovum that eventually develops into a fetusCervix neck of the uterus that opens to serves as the passageway for the vagina menstrual flow; serves as a passageway for spermVagina a thin-walled passageway through serves as a passageway for(also called the birth which the sperm can enter and menstrual flow; serves ascanal) swim to the fallopian tube the passageway of the baby during birth How much have you learned about the female reproductive system? Find out inthe next activity. Explore The Female Reproductive System a.__________ b.__________ c.__________ d.__________ e.__________ 1. Use the illustration to identify the organs of the female reproductive system. 2. Tell the function of each part. 3. Using a marker, trace the path of the egg cell from the ovary to the uterus. Draw arrows to indicate direction. The Reproductive, Respiratory, and Urinary Systems 5
  11. 11. There are two ovaries where theova develop and mature. Each ovary is Languageconnected to the ends of the fallopian The word reproduce is a combinationtubes. The lower end or “neck” of the of the prefix re-and the root word produce.uterus is the cervix. The vagina is the birth Re-means “again.” For example, to reproducecanal through which a baby is normally means “to produce again,” as in “reproducedelivered. the sound” or “reproduce the page.” Note that when something is reproduced, the resulting object is usually the same as the original. In the life sciences, to reproduce means to produce individuals of the same kind. Keep in Mind You will later encounter scientific terms with the prefix re-like regenerate and recycle. Use context clues to determine their meanings.• The fundamental male reproductive Also, try to make a list of scientific words with organs are the testes. Other organs of the prefix re-. the male reproductive system merely store and transport sperm, which include the following: scrotal sac, epididymis, vas deferens, prostate gland, Cowper’s gland, urethra, and penis.• The testes produce sperm.• The fundamental female reproductive organs are the ovaries. Other organs of the female reproductive system are the following: fallopian tubes or oviducts, uterus, cervix, and vagina.• The ovaries produce eggs. Challenge Yourself Your teacher will group the class into two. Each group will be given about twoto three illustrations of the male and female reproductive systems. You will also begiven a set of name cards of the female and the male reproductive organs. Find theparts in each of the given illustrations. The first group to correctly sort them out will bethe winner.6 Smart Science 5

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