2009 Quiz Shows

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Detailed TV Quiz Overview

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2009 Quiz Shows

  1. 1. QUIZ SHOWS GCSE Controlled Conditions Test 2009
  2. 2. - A television or radio programme in which individuals or teams compete to demonstrate either general knowledge or knowledge of a specific topic
  3. 3. Genre conventions <ul><li>Show will follow the same format each week, often consisting of ‘rounds’ which may vary in question type or response needed </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Rules’ dictate the boundaries of even comedy quiz shows </li></ul><ul><li>Often have celebrated hosts with a charismatic presence </li></ul><ul><li>Filmed or recorded with a live studio audience </li></ul><ul><li>Share a similar mise-en-scene with panel games and other traditional gameshows, although often less gaudy and glitzy. </li></ul><ul><li>May offer prizes, may not </li></ul><ul><li>Participants may be ordinary members of the public, experts or celebrities depending on the show. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Popular sub-genres
  5. 5. Real past and present ‘specialist show’ themes <ul><li>SHAKESPEARE / GARDENING / TV / SCIENCE FICTION / CLASSIC LITERATURE / CONSUMER GOODS / ANIMALS / NATURAL HISTORY / NOSTALGIA / ART / FILMS / FOOD AND DRINK / GEOGRAPHY / CELEBRITIES / MOTORING / ADVERTISING / EASTENDERS / TRAVEL / SEX / GLAM ROCK AND THE ’70’s / ANTIQUES / HARRY POTTER / RELIGION / POLITICS / SCIENCE AND INVENTIONS / ITV SOAP OPERAS / THE LAW / THE BIZARRE / ASIAN CULTURE / THE BIBLE / THE SIMPSONS / MUSICALS / HISTORY / MEDICAL / STAR TREK / THEATRE / CRIME AND DETECTIVES / WILDLIFE / GREAT SCANDALS </li></ul>
  6. 6. Genre hybridisation <ul><li>Many of the most popular quiz shows are comedy ones; in fact, the comedy often predominates over the factual content. </li></ul><ul><li>Comedians are often guests or hosts </li></ul>
  7. 7. Hybridisation with the GAMESHOW <ul><li>The most common form of quiz show hybrid </li></ul><ul><li>GAMESHOWS differ from quizzes in that they do not expect or test prior knowledge of a subject and are task or puzzle-based </li></ul><ul><li>GAMESHOWS sometimes test a physical or mental SKILL rather than KNOWLEDGE </li></ul>
  8. 8. Institution: Facts <ul><li>All of the terrestrial and many cable and satellite channels have produced or commissioned and shown their own quiz shows over the years </li></ul>
  9. 9. Institution: facts <ul><li>Longest running TV quiz show in the UK is A Question of Sport , which first aired on 5 th January 1970, and has run to over 800 shows. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Institution: Histories <ul><li>The American quiz show scandals of the 1950s were the result of the revelation that contestants of several popular TV quiz shows were secretly given assistance by the producers to arrange the outcome of a supposedly fair competition. </li></ul><ul><li>The 1994 film ‘Quiz Show’ is based on one of the shows involved, the Twenty One show </li></ul>
  11. 11. Institution: Histories <ul><li>We had our own more recent quiz show scandal in the UK, resulting in the prosecution of the ‘coughing Major’ Charles Ingram for cheating in the popular show Who Wants to be a Millionaire? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Institutions <ul><li>Most developed and developing countries with a TV network have their own quiz shows, some of which may look strange initially but actually follow very similar genre conventions. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Media Language: The Host <ul><li>Host addresses camera directly; personal mode of address which encourages audience participation at home as well as on set </li></ul><ul><li>Host or regulars will tend to dress conservatively – the dress code is quite formal on many game shows but may be personalised, for example with loud ties </li></ul><ul><li>The host will often repeat scripted catchphrases to increase audience participation with the show. </li></ul><ul><li>Often male. Notable exceptions: Anne Robinson (The Weakest Link) Sue Barker (A Question of Sport) </li></ul><ul><li>Often authoritarian in manner </li></ul>
  14. 14. Notorious hosts… Many hosts deliberately cultivate an outrageous persona to add to the entertainment
  15. 15. Media Language: The ingredients of Quiz Show mise-en-scene <ul><li>Bright lighting centred on guests and hosts </li></ul><ul><li>Brightly lit predominantly blue and grey or themed backgrounds, according to the nature of the show </li></ul><ul><li>Formal and extrovert dress codes </li></ul><ul><li>Guests and host seated behind desks or on spot-lit chair </li></ul><ul><li>Studio audience lit more subtly </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally, host positioned between two panels of teams </li></ul>
  16. 26. Media Language: Shot types <ul><li>ESTABLISHING / LONG SHOT </li></ul><ul><li>Usually shows the whole set at the beginning of the show. May be from a studio audience perspective (makes audience at home feel involved). Can be cut in throughout show as a reminder. </li></ul>
  17. 27. Media Language: Shot types <ul><li>MEDIUM SHOT </li></ul><ul><li>Often a ‘group’ shot which shows a whole team, or a ‘two-shot’ which shows two team members </li></ul>
  18. 28. Media Language: Shot types <ul><li>MEDIUM CLOSE-UP </li></ul><ul><li>Often used to show host and remind the audience of their central importance to the show. Also used to focus on individual contestants </li></ul>
  19. 29. Media Language: Shot types <ul><li>CLOSE-UP </li></ul><ul><li>Often used to emphasise tension and show the effects of pressure on contestants </li></ul>
  20. 30. Media Language: Camera Techniques and Editing <ul><li>SLOW ZOOMS from MCU to XCU build tension, and move away from set at the end </li></ul><ul><li>REACTION SHOTS of both contestant and studio audience enhance our sense of engagement with the show </li></ul><ul><li>Shot reverse shot between host and contestant allows us to follow the logic of the show’s format </li></ul><ul><li>Audience may be shown visual clues used by contestant on full screen </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics may show questions. Timers or other information to the audience at home </li></ul>MOST TRANSITIONS ARE STRAIGHT CUTS IN QUIZ SHOWS* * But some, like The Weakest Link , may use other movements such as the whip pan for dramatic effect
  21. 31. Media Language: Aural codes <ul><li>Recognisable and catchy up-beat theme tunes </li></ul><ul><li>Music sometimes used to signify progress through rounds </li></ul><ul><li>In music, dramatic chords, rising scales, increased pace and low-toned ‘heartbeat’ sounds used to escalate tension </li></ul><ul><li>SFX such as buzzers </li></ul><ul><li>Applause and reactions such as groans, cheers and sighs from studio audience </li></ul>
  22. 32. Narratives <ul><li>BINARY OPPOSITIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>contestant v. host </li></ul><ul><li>team v. team </li></ul><ul><li>winning v. losing </li></ul><ul><li>elation v. sorrow </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge v. ignorance </li></ul><ul><li>public recognition v. public shaming </li></ul>
  23. 33. Narratives <ul><li>The narrative structure of a quiz show is closely linked to its FORMAT . This could be thought of as the sequence of events used to structure the quiz, such as rounds </li></ul><ul><li>Each new stage of the format is signified by a combination of graphics, aural codes such as audience applause , music and dialogue from the host , whose job it is to convey the format clearly partly to the contestants but mainly to the audience at home. This means an audience can be casual viewers , dropping in on any edition of the show. </li></ul>
  24. 34. Audience <ul><li>Studio audiences often reflect demographic being targeted by producers at home </li></ul><ul><li>Studio audience response helps shape response of audience at home </li></ul><ul><li>Audiences at home interact a great deal with quiz shows, often verbally and with each other to a greater extent than is usual during TV viewing </li></ul>
  25. 35. Audience Types <ul><li>Many quiz shows have traditionally been considered family viewing and listening </li></ul>
  26. 36. Audience Types <ul><li>But many less widely-known quiz shows on both radio and TV cater for more eccentric tastes – for a NICHE audience who have an interest in a specialised topic </li></ul>
  27. 37. Audience Types <ul><li>There have been many quiz shows over the years which target children… </li></ul><ul><li>… and the 15-25’s. </li></ul>
  28. 38. Audience Theory: Dyer’s Utopian Solutions <ul><li>Richard Dyer theorised that media audiences consume media products to make up for five things which might be missing from their daily lives because of the pressures of modern society: transparency, energy, community, abundance and intensity . </li></ul><ul><li>This theory fits well with quiz shows, some of which seem to provide all five solutions… </li></ul>
  29. 39. TRANSPARENCY <ul><li>The format of the show demonstrates little variation and provides security for the audience </li></ul>
  30. 40. ENERGY <ul><li>The fast-paced nature of the format, the sometimes garish mise-en-scene, and the ‘heightened’ atmosphere contributed to by sound and lighting </li></ul>
  31. 41. COMMUNITY <ul><li>Apparent in team co-operation, regular hosts and captains with whom the audience develop a ‘relationship’. Also relevant here is reception – audiences may consume as a family </li></ul>
  32. 42. ABUNDANCE <ul><li>Cash or other prizes may be on offer – or simply the prestige of winning </li></ul>
  33. 43. INTENSITY <ul><li>The final round or moments of the show often provide heightened emotional tension and drama </li></ul>
  34. 44. Representations: The following are the main areas… <ul><li>Host </li></ul><ul><li>Enclosed world of show signified by its set </li></ul><ul><li>Contestants, both regular and not </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed through mise-en-scene, camerawork and aural codes </li></ul>
  35. 45. … but have you considered these? <ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul><ul><li>Niche interests </li></ul><ul><li>… how are representations of these constructed? Are a range of social groups represented? Why are quiz show hosts mainly male? Have you ever seen someone with a disability appear on a quiz show? </li></ul>
  36. 46. Values and Ideologies <ul><li>Knowledge is valuable – in some cases, acclaim is the only prize </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Human instinct to compete </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrates human knowledge, culture and history </li></ul><ul><li>Team co-operation AND individualism </li></ul>

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