20081124 iso review-02


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20081124 iso review-02

  1. 1. I N TE RN ATI O NALQuality management in traininggeneric or sector-specific ?This article includes several country reports on the use – or lack of it – made of ISO 10015,Quality management – Guidelines for training. It is not restricted to description alone,since the principal author argues against “ the party line ” which defends generic standardsand advocates a sector-specific approach to training quality standards without which, hemaintains, the customer may no longer shop at ISO.Market value of training BY D R . R AYMOND S ANER Rapid technological change, con- Dr. Raymond Saner, (secondtinuous product improvement and from right) author of therelentless competition require compa- ISO 10015 overview whichnies continuously to upgrade the com- makes up the first part of thispetence levels of their human article and the country reportresources. As a consequence, consider- on Switzerland, is former Swissable amounts of money are spent on member of ISO/TC 176/ SC 3/ WG 4, which developed the ISOtraining worldwide. For example, US 10015 guidelines for qualityemployers in the private sector spent management in training, and aUSD 55,3 billion on formal training member of SNV, the Swissin 1995, representing USD 569 per national standards institute.employee annually. In 2001, the figure results: acquisition of skills and He is Director of the Centre forwas USD 677 per employee 1). know-how, improved company per- Socio-Eco-Nomic Development Within the context of the interna- (CSEND). formance and productivity, andtional trade in services, the estimated increased behavioural competencies Centre for Socio-Eco-Nomicglobal market for international high- of students and trainees – not simple Development (CSEND),er education in 1995 was estimated at output figures, e.g. the number of P.O. Box 1498, Mont Blanc,USD 27 billion 2). These figures would employees trained. 1211 Geneva 1, Switzerland.be considerably higher if other sub- In the end, it is the outcome meas- Tel. + 41 22 906 1720.sectors such as primary, secondary, ures which determine whether or not Fax + 41 22 738 1737.tertiary and adult education were a given education and training system E-mail saner@csend.orgincluded. is effective or ineffective – reflected Web www.csend.org or not in the increase of economic and social development at national level,Assuring quality in training 1) American Society for Training & or the increase of productivity at Experts know the difficulties of enterprise level. Development (ASTD), Washington,determining return on investment Faced with increasingly scarce www.astd.org(ROI) in the field of training and training budgets and growing demands 2) Educational Services, backgroundeducation. Efficient, yet ineffective for training and retraining, it appears note by WTO Secretariat, Geneva, September 1998.systems of education and in-service evident to employers, employees andtraining exist in many countries providers of training and educational 3) Saner, Raymond; Strehl, Franz; Yiu, Lichia; “In-Service Training as(Saner, Strehl, Yiu, 1997) 3). It would services that the quality of training an instrument for Organisationalbe misleading to look at the educa- needs to be assured in order to achieve Change in Public Administration”,tion and training sector as if it were a the highest possible ROI from train- International Institute of Adminis-beauty contest. What matters are the ing programmes and activities and, in trative Sciences, Brussels, 1997. ISO Management Systems – July-August 2002 53
  2. 2. INTERNATIONAL turn, a higher certainty of business sus- Foundation for Quality Management tainability. (EFQM) Model, or others ?” Each country has its own histori- cal development with regard to qual- ISO 10015 : an initiative ity standards and this is especially within the ISO 9000 family true in the training and education In early 1992, the South sector. Still, the following two ques- African delegation put a tions need to be put to public debate, proposal to ISO technical namely : “ Is ISO 9001:2000 the best committee ISO/TC 176, standard to ensure the quality of which is responsible for the training ?” and, related to this, “ Is the ISO 9000 family of quality current ISO 10015 a sufficiently management standards, on developed standard to satisfy the “ continuing education and needs and aspirations of the training training ”, pointing out the market and its customers ?” Each country has its own difficulties of understanding how to To provide the elements of historical development with fulfil the requirements of ISO answers to these questions, some ofregard to quality standards and 9001:1987 clause 4.18 relating to train- the experts who participated in the this is especially true in the ing. At the proposal stage, a simple development of ISO 10015 have con- training and education sectors. majority of the national delegations tributed the following country reports participating in the describing quality sys- committee is required tems and standards – in the event, South It would be misleading used in training in Africa got 86 % in their respective coun- favour. The new work to look at the education tryies. item was allocated to The reports show and training sector Subcommittee (SC) 3, great diversity in the Supporting technolo- as if it were a beauty current use of quality gies, and the Working standards for training. Group (WG) 4 subse- contest. What matters However, a movement quently formed began are the results can be discerned away operating as ISO/TC from generic ISO 9000 176/SC 3/WG 4 at the standards towards sec- September 1993 meeting of ISO/TC tor-specific ones. The sample of coun- 176 in Budapest, Hungary, with repre- try reports is of course non-exhaustive sentatives from 20 countries. and hence not equal to an objective After several drafts which, despite survey of all countries concerned with many comments won increasingly the quality assurance of training. It is favourable votes, the work culminat- up to the reader to draw conclusions ed at the September 1999 meeting of and to the ISO community to reassess ISO/TC 176 in San Francisco, USA, the situation. Despite that, assuming a where an overwhelming majority continuity of the trend described voted in favour of publishing the above, it would be damaging to the resulting document as the Inter- ISO standards community if remedial national Standard, ISO 10015, Quality actions were not entertained.4) Committed and active management – Guidelines for training 4).membership of WG 4 averaged Options for the futurearound 14 participants. Support byMr. Alexander Gorchkov, a Customer preferences ? The author’s view is that ISOTechnical Programme Manager The crucial question is, “What urgently needs to close the “ anti-pro-at ISO Central Secretariat was quality system could best support a liferation ” chapter (bias towardsimportant at crucial development company or government organization generic standards) and quickly startstages of the standard. AFNOR(ISO member for France) provided in improving the efficiency and effec- with the development of sector-spe-the Secretariat and Convenor, tiveness of training : should it be cific standards that can complementMr. Frédéric Séchaud. based on ISO 9000, the European and support the ISO 9000:200054 ISO Management Systems – July-August 2002
  3. 3. INTERNATIONALgeneric standards. The paralysingstruggle between “ anti-prolifera-tionists ” and “ sectoralists ” forcedWG 4 representatives to invest ener- COUNTRY REPORTSgy in ideological battles leading tounnecessary delays and bad feeling. For example, representatives fromdeveloping and transition economiesstated clearly that relegation of ISO10015 to Technical Report (TR) orTechnical Specification (TS) status,instead of having the full S w i t z e r l a n dInternational Standard status, doesnot correspond to their countries’needs. They need an InternationalStandard in order to strengthen thequality assurance of their training andeducation. A TR or TS would be tooinsignificant and too weak for govern- Switzerland is a small, landlockedmental policy-related decisions. country without significant raw materi- These expressed wishes did not als. The current competitive advantagedeter some “ anti-proliferationists ” of its chemical, banking, insurance, BY D R . R AYMOND S ANERfrom trying to kill the standard even watch and mechanical engineeringthough the trends in their own coun- industries are based on human andtries show a movement away from social capital accumulated over timeISO 9000, despite the availability of and honed through a well organizedthe revised ISO 9000:2000 series. education and training regime. The reasons for moving away from Sensing that the current educationISO 9000 and towards sectoral stan- and training is no longer sufficient todards are multiple and have been meet the challenges of globalization, The Swiss authoritiesreported elsewhere (e.g. high costs, the Swiss authorities have undertak-perceived bureaucratic approach, en a fundamental reassessment of have undertakennon-responsiveness to sectoral needs, Swiss vocational and professionalinsecurity about interpretation of education and training, leading to the a fundamental9001:2000 standards). principal initiatives described here. reassessment of Swiss ISO 10015 offers partial help to All polytechnics (Fachhochschulen)stem the haemorrhage – however, it considered key elements of the Swiss vocational andremains insufficiently sector specific. apprenticeship system have been vis- professional educationThe reason for this is simple : sector- ited by peer review teams, comprisingspecific text had to be deleted to both Swiss and foreign experts, who and trainingaccommodate the views of the “ anti- assessed the quality of the schools.proliferationists ”. To reverse the This fundamental assessment tooktrend, it might therefore be best to one year and involved more than 300expand ISO 10015 to a full sectoral experts. It represents the biggest peerand requirement standard – as review of higher vocational schoolsopposed to its current guideline sta- ever undertaken in Europe.tus – at the time of its first review, Most polytechnics were found toscheduled for 2005. use the EFQM Model, and a minority Without such an upgrade to a ISO 9000 or total quality manage-requirements standard, the likeli- ment (TQM). After completion of thehood increases that more countries analysis, the polytechnics will be reor-and customers will vote with their ganized and the Swiss Governmentfeet and move to alternative training will establish a new, mandatory, sec-quality assurance standards outside tor-specific accreditation during 2002the ISO 9000 family. (www.swiss-science.org). ISO Management Systems – July-August 2002 55
  4. 4. INTERNATIONAL The Swiss Association of Swiss of ISO 9001:2000 was discontinued Universities, regrouping all such by the Swiss Government as of establishments, decided on 15 June December 2001. 2000 to create an accreditation and Swiss training providers (inde- quality assurance unit whose task is pendent companies or in-house train- to prepare accreditation and quality ing departments) can apply for quali- control of all Swiss universities. The ty certification offered by EduQua, accreditation criteria and procedures which is a private, non-ISO 9000- will be sector specific, and not based based certification organization on ISO 9000 (www.shk.ch). operating nationwide since January Swiss vocational high schools have 2001. The competent Swiss authori- been offered non-mandatory oppor- ties have accredited EduQua to con- tunities to obtain ISO 9000 certifica- duct this certification. It offers a tion based on a one-off subsidy by quality certification based on criteria the Federal Office of Vocational encompassing pedagogical require- Training as a means of encouraging ments and the professional qualifica- them to improve the quality of their tions of trainers corresponding to teaching. Judging from field visits by Swiss training market considerations the author, sustainability of ISO 9000 (www.eduqua.ch). is not certain due to reported cost The Swiss Association for concerns, perceived bureaucratic Standardization (SNV – www.snv.ch) approach and resistance by teaching adopted ISO 10015 on 1 September faculties, especially in light of the fact 2001. that this subsidized support in favour understanding of ISO 10015 and how to link it to the overall business process of an organization. S w e d e n The Swedish Standards Institute (www.sis.se) has established a new technical committee for “ competence management systems ” with the task of developing a requirements stan- dard to be published in the third quarter of 2002. This new national standard will have direct links to ISO 10015. The work on the requirements ISO 10015 was translated and a standard is being carried out in close bilingual (Swedish and English) doc- cooperation with the Swedish accred- BY T OMMIE J. J OHANSSON ument was published in May 2000 itation body, Swedac (www.swedac.se), and introduced to the market in to make sure that accreditation will Stockholm and Gothenburg. The be available for interested certifiers. reception was beyond expectations. Other models are being used in During the remaining seven months the Sweden besides ISO 9000, as is of the year, ISO 10015 reached a sales the case in other OECD countries. figure 10 % higher than that of ISO There is the Swedish Quality Award 9001 during the same period. (SQA), managed by the Swedish To help us bring the standard to the Institute for Quality (www.siq.se), market’s attention, one of the major and, to an increasing extent following training providers in Scandinavia – Sweden’s entry into the European STF of Sweden (www.stf.se) – has Union, the European EFQM Model. been running a succession of two-day Based on the SQA model, there is training programmes to increase also a quality award for the national56 ISO Management Systems – July-August 2002
  5. 5. INTERNATIONALeducational system of Tommie J. Johansson,local schools, man- (previous page) former Swedishaged by the Swedish member of the ISO/TC 176/Association of Local SC 3/WG 4, is a member of the Swedish delegationAuthorities. to TC 176 since 1993 and his participation has included membership of the Chair’s Strategic Planning Task Group. ISO 10015 reached He is Senior Adviser with STF, a sales figure the leading Scandinavian provider of training and 10 % higher than education to all major lines of business. that of ISO 9001 during the same Tel. + 46 31 700 9399. Fax + 46 31 700 9320. period E-mail tommie.johansson@stf.se Russia’s transition to a marketeconomy requires effective labourmarkets and effective humanresource development strategies.However, the corresponding regula- R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o ntion is missing to support this transi-tion and the personnel policy of themajority of Russian enterprises doesnot conform to the strategy of marketreforms. In order to bridge the gap betweenthe old and the new, a new strategyand complementary programme has of personnel at the work-place. Anbeen created, the “ Programme for a increasing number of RussianQuality Work Force ”, which aims at a enterprises have used parts of the BY D R . N ADEJDA V OLKOVAlarge-scale reform of Russia’s voca- ISO 10015 standard since 1997tional training. This new strategy was (even before its finalization). At the Dr. Nadejda Volkova is formerlaunched in the mid- same time, the Russian Federation member90’s with the support Russian Federation of ISO/TC 176/SC 3/WG 4 and An increasing numberof the Russian Gov- Ministry of Labour a member of GOSSTANDART,ernment and is now of Russian enterprises and Social Develop- the Russian national standardsbased on the ISO ment has develop- institute. She is Director of9000:2000 series and have used parts of the ed an instrument the Testing and Diagnostics Research-Training Center inTQM and EFQM ISO 10015 standard called, “ Methods Moscow, Russia.tools. In addition, and recommenda-there is a growing since 1997 tions for in-houseparticipation of enter- personnel training E-mail testdiag@df.ruprises in the Russian Quality Award, organizations ”, based on ISOwhich is a counterpart of the 10015. The new instrument will beEuropean Quality Award. put into practice in 2002 by the Parts of the ISO 10015 standard Russian national standards insti-have been used to develop a work- tute, GOSSTANDART.ing tool to ensure the development ISO Management Systems – July-August 2002 57
  6. 6. INTERNATIONAL ISO 10015 is expected to achieve provide support for work-force the following objectives : training leading to greater job mobility. improve the quality of Russia’s work force; The potential contribution of ISO 10015 is highly esteemed today by serve as a basis for the creation of Russian enterprises that consider it a foundation for vocational stan- an up-to-date tool for training and dards ; management development. guide the government’s regula- tion of vocational education and training, and of standard-setting in the field of continuous education and training. Many sector-specific standards, G e r m a n y guidelines, and projects have been initiated in order to assess and improve the quality both of training providers and of training activities. All these sector-specific documents and projects are independent of the ISO 9000 family. A brief description of some examples follows. The Federal Institute for Germany has attached significant Vocational Training (BIBB – importance to education and train- www.bibb.de) has published a BY D R . K ARL-H EINZ B REHM ing. However, in the final ballot on “ Quality Checklist of Vocational ISO 10015, Germany cast the only Training ” in order to offer guidance negative vote of all participating ISO to potential customers interested in Dr. Karl-Heinz Brehm, former German member of member delegations. purchasing training that would be ISO/TC 176/SC 3/WG 4, is a The negative vote was cast by a appropriate to the trainees’ needs freelance expert, consultant, narrowly composed committee of the and adequate enough to guarantee trainer and author in the field German Institute for high quality. This of quality in education and Standardization, DIN, institute has also training. mostly consisting of ISO 10015 is practically developed a cata- engineers, who sub- unknown in Germany logue of require-E-mail karl-heinz.brehm@web.de sequently decided ments for training that the standard and rarely mentioned providers and voca- should not be pub- tional training serv- even in specialist lished as German ices. The catalogue is standard. They were literature used by the Federal of the opinion that Employment Service the content of this to assess training document at best merited the status of providers and their courses in order an ISO Technical Report. In conse- to decide whether or not to offer quence, ISO 10015 is practically financial support. unknown in Germany and rarely The Federal Ministry of Education mentioned even in specialist literature. and Research (www.bmbf.de) is at the In contrast to this decision by a moment favouring the development specialized committee, Germany, in and implementation of comparative general, has seen a rapid expansion quality tests in selected fields of58 ISO Management Systems – July-August 2002
  7. 7. INTERNATIONALfurther education. In addition, awhole host of projects relevant toquality assurance and developmentare being financed: for example, a fea-sibility study titled, “ FoundationEducation (Quality) Test ”. U n i t e d K i n g d o m Since the election of the New BY J OHN T IDBALL Labour Government in 1997 on the slogan, “ Education, education, edu- John Tidball is former cation ”, there has been a huge num- United Kingdom member of ber of initiatives designed to improve ISO/TC 176/SC 3/WG 4 and a Siemens AG has developed, the United Kingdom’s performance member of BSI. in achieving educational standards, He is Chief Executive of The implemented and QUIET Associates (QUality In compared to its world competitors. Education and Training) published a set of So far, these initiatives have an international network sector-specific requirements focussed primarily on setting targets of education, training and for attainment at age 7, 11, 16, 19 and personal developmentfor training in order to assess 21+ ; and the subsequent publication consultants and trainers. of “ league tables ” comparing and improve the company’s schools’, colleges’ and universities’ Tel. + 44 1226 700318. E-mail tqma@supanet.com in-house courses relative success in achieving these targets at each relevant age level, backed up with inspections for all these phases e.g. for schools and col- The Standing Conference of leges under the auspices of OFSTEDEducation Ministers of the German (the Office for Standards inLänder, together with the Standing Education).Conference of Vice-Chancellors and One of these targets has also beenPrincipals, is currently implementing to encourage a certain proportion ofprocedures for the accreditation of small and large businesses to achieveschools and universities (www. the “ Investors in People ” (IiP) stan-akkreditierungsrat.de). A core ele- dard which originated in Britain andment of this assessment process is the is increasingly adopted worldwide. Ituse of peer reviews to evaluate the is awarded to organizations of allquality level of teaching courses. types – public and private sector, vol- Siemens AG, one of the foremost untary and commercial – which meetinternational companies in the field the criteria of good practice in deter-of electrical and electronics engineer- mining the mission of the organiza-ing, has developed, implemented, and tion, developing an appropriatepublished a set of sector-specific strategic plan, and identifying therequirements for training in order to human resource gaps in competenceassess and improve the company’s in- between current capacity and thehouse courses. The company awards skills required to achieve organiza-courses which meet the scheme’s tional purpose.requirements with a quality label Where this competence gap can be(www.sqt.siemens.de/qib). met through training (as opposed to recruitment), the standard requires ISO Management Systems – July-August 2002 59
  8. 8. INTERNATIONAL the organization to demonstrate that Telecom, 127 000 people. A substan- it arranges for the training need to be tial proportion of educational institu- met and its effectiveness evaluated. tions has achieved this standard. The British contribution to the In addition to ISO 10015’s compe- development of ISO 10015 since 1993 tition from IiP (though the low sales consequently focussed on ensuring may also be a function of poor mar- that as many elements as possible of keting by the BSI), public sector edu- this good practice were incorporated cation organizations are also encour- into ISO 10015 in aged to : achieve the order to avoid prolif- Charter Mark (an eration and duplica- There has been a huge award won by public tion. This is the con- number of initiatives sector organizations text in which to meeting relevant report that since ISO designed to improve criteria focussing 10015 was published United Kingdom’s on customer satis- in December 1999, faction) ; benchmark the British Standards performance in achieving themselves against Institution (BSI) has the Business Excel- educational standards, sold only 100 copies lence/EFQM Model; to 91 different organ- compared to its world and achieve ISO izations – only four 9000 certification. of which were educa- competitors Finally, at least tional. every four years, In contrast, in June 2001, 45 071 public sector schools, colleges and organizations in the United Kingdom universities undergo inspection had achieved “ Commitment to IiP ”. against the standards implied by the Of these, 49 % comprise fewer than inspection framework relative to the 50 people, 32 % 50-199, and 19 % primary, secondary, tertiary and 200 +. The smallest, a local church, has higher education phases. two people and the largest, British and training – about USD 25 billion of public money and a comparable investment from the private sector. N e t h e r l a n d s The introduction of formal quality systems is seen as providing a means of improving quality without increas- ing government intervention. Dutch universities and polytech- nics already have a well functioning quality assurance system based on the use of peer reviews for both edu- cation and research, supported by the The Netherlands is a densely pop- Dutch Association of Universities ulated country with an economy (www.vsnu.nl). Even so, in light of BY P ETER N OORDHOEK strongly dependent on trade and the coming master/bachelor struc- services. In order to remain competi- ture, an institute for the accreditation tive, a consensus belief holds that the of higher education establishments level of education needs to match has been announced. that of the best countries. In the Its criteria will be based on a mix Netherlands, many think that not of education-specific quality criteria enough is being invested in education and those of the EFQM Model. In60 ISO Management Systems – July-August 2002
  9. 9. INTERNATIONALbasic education and high schools, a tutes, including an extensive customer Dr. Peter Noordhoek isfew schools are implementing some survey. Few institutes can do without Managing Director ofform of ISO 9001 and ISO 9004 (1994 an official CEDEO recognition. Northedge and President of theversions). Many experts see the need ISO 10015 was adopted by the government section of the Dutch Quality Association, afor much greater use of the EFQM national standards institute, NEN, in member of the board of theModel, along with league tables with April 2000, but it has not been pro- Dutch Society for Oversight andperformance indicators. moted and consequently receives too Evaluation and a member of little attention. the Dutch branch of the EFQM. Last but not least, the Organization of Education Professionals (www. Northedge, Oosthaven 15-16, nvvo.nl) regularly organizes debates 2801 PC Gouda, Netherlands. on professional standards. The debate Tel. + 31 (0)182 68 45 45. on whether or not there should be a Fax + 31 (0)182 68 45 42. form of certification for professionals E-mail info@northedge.nl has ended in a draw between those in favour and those against. In the Netherlands, there is aIn order to remain competitive, large, independent education inspec- In basic educationa consensus belief holds that the level torate. This inspectorate used to beof education needs to match that involved in all aspects of publicly and high schools,of the best countries. funded schooling. There is now a shift a few schools are towards a more results-based form of Dutch training providers are very inspection. This body will also look at implementing someactive in the field of quality. For exam- the quality system the schools are form of ISO 9001 andple, there is the Organization of Large using. The inspectorate itself is alsoPostgraduate Institutes which requires reviewing its own processes better to ISO 9004all to be certified, based on estab- carry out its new functions. For this, itlished quality systems. There is also is using an adaptation of the ISO (1994 versions)the CEDEO institute (www.cedeo.nl), 17020 criteria for the operation ofwhich offers quality tests for all insti- inspection bodies. The People’s Republic of China isthe world’s most populated countrywith 1 300 million inhabitants, andcovers an area of 9, 6 million sq km.China has competitive advantages C h i n alike significant raw materials (coal,oil, metal etc.), a huge work-forceand open policies for foreign invest-ment. Realizing that the current lev-els of training and education are nottoo adequate to meet the great chal-lenges of globalization and member-ship of the World Trade Organization state universities, colleges, primary(WTO), the Chinese authorities have and secondary schools etc.. However,initiated a series of fundamental these quality standards will not be BY Y U J IANFUactions, described here, to improve based either on ISO 9000 or ISOtheir quality. 10015. The Education Ministry (www. The China Training Centre formoe.edu.cn) has developed a series Senior Personnel Managementof rules for assessment of China’s Officials (CTCSPMO) has developed ISO Management Systems – July-August 2002 61
  10. 10. INTERNATIONAL Yu Jianfu, Chinese member a quality assurance assessment sys- The China National Institute of of ISO/TC 176/SC 3/WG 4 tem for civil service training centers. Standardization (CNIS) and the is International Section Chief It is currently re-thinking this assess- SETC Training Center are preparing and Associate Professor, ment system, but it is already known a series of joint measures to implement SETC Training Center. that it will not be ISO 10015 in the based on ISO stan- training departmentsSETC Training Center, dards. The Chinese authorities of large state enter-N°26 Xuanwumen Xidajie, The State Econo- prises and the SETCBeijing 100053, China. have initiated a series mic and Trade Com- Training Center isTel. + 86 10 63 19 37 87. mission of CHINA of fundamental actions designing a pilotFax + 86 10 63 19 38 81. (SETC – www.setc. project to apply theE-mail yujianfu@SOHU.com to improve the quality gov.cn) has estab- standard in the Haier lished an assessment of training and and Zhongyuan in- system for about 30 dustrial groups. The management train- education partners have held a ing colleges and conference on the training centers which belong to it. relevance and application of ISO Part of these quality requirements 10015 in China’s enterprises. In addi- are based on ISO 9000, others are tion, the SETC Training Center plans based on existing training and man- seminars on ISO 10015, including agement practices of these centers. training of trainers seminars aimed The State Administration of at Chinese enterprises. Lastly, China for Standardization (SACS – Chinese experts in quality manage- formerly CSBTS – www.csbts.cn.net) ment and management training are has translated ISO 10015 into Chinese editing a series of books on ISO and approved it as a national stan- 10015. dard in September 2001. A train the trainers workshop in progress, provided by the SETC Training Center for the Hubei (China) Power Company.62 ISO Management Systems – July-August 2002
  11. 11. Note: This publication has been made available by CSEND.org with the agrement of the author. The Centre for Socio-Eco-Nomic Development (CSEND) aims atpromoting equitable, sustainable and integrated development through dialogue andinstitutional learning.Diplomacy Dialogue is a branch of the Centre for Socio-Eco-Nomic Development(CSEND), a non-profit R&D organization based in Geneva, Switzerland since 1993.