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  • Figure 1.3 Levels of life’s organization.
  • Figure 1.3 Levels of life’s organization.
  • Figure 1.3 Levels of life’s organization.
  • Figure 1.3 Levels of life’s organization.
  • Figure 1.3 Levels of life’s organization.
  • Figure 1.3 Levels of life’s organization.
  • Figure 1.3 Levels of life’s organization.
  • Figure 1.2 Example of how different objects can be assembled from the same parts. Roundness is an emergent property of the rightmost object.
  • Figure 1.4 The one-way flow of energy and the cycling of materials in the world of life. The photo shows a producer acquiring energy and nutrients from the environment, and consumers acquiring energy and nutrients by eating the producer.
  • Figure 1.6 Representatives of life’s diversity. A Bacteria are the most numerous organisms on the planet. All are single-celled, but different types vary in shape and size. Clockwise from upper left , a bacterium with a row of iron crystals that acts like a tiny compass; Helicobacter , a common resident of cat and dog stomachs; spiral cyanobacteria; E. coli , a beneficial resident of human intestines; types found in dental plaque; Lactobacillus cells in yogurt.
  • Figure 1.6 Representatives of life’s diversity. A Bacteria are the most numerous organisms on the planet. All are single-celled, but different types vary in shape and size. Clockwise from upper left , a bacterium with a row of iron crystals that acts like a tiny compass; Helicobacter , a common resident of cat and dog stomachs; spiral cyanobacteria; E. coli , a beneficial resident of human intestines; types found in dental plaque; Lactobacillus cells in yogurt.
  • Figure 1.6 Representatives of life’s diversity. A Bacteria are the most numerous organisms on the planet. All are single-celled, but different types vary in shape and size. Clockwise from upper left , a bacterium with a row of iron crystals that acts like a tiny compass; Helicobacter , a common resident of cat and dog stomachs; spiral cyanobacteria; E. coli , a beneficial resident of human intestines; types found in dental plaque; Lactobacillus cells in yogurt.
  • Figure 1.6 Representatives of life’s diversity. A Bacteria are the most numerous organisms on the planet. All are single-celled, but different types vary in shape and size. Clockwise from upper left , a bacterium with a row of iron crystals that acts like a tiny compass; Helicobacter , a common resident of cat and dog stomachs; spiral cyanobacteria; E. coli , a beneficial resident of human intestines; types found in dental plaque; Lactobacillus cells in yogurt.
  • Figure 1.6 Representatives of life’s diversity. A Bacteria are the most numerous organisms on the planet. All are single-celled, but different types vary in shape and size. Clockwise from upper left , a bacterium with a row of iron crystals that acts like a tiny compass; Helicobacter , a common resident of cat and dog stomachs; spiral cyanobacteria; E. coli , a beneficial resident of human intestines; types found in dental plaque; Lactobacillus cells in yogurt.
  • Figure 1.6 Representatives of life’s diversity. A Bacteria are the most numerous organisms on the planet. All are single-celled, but different types vary in shape and size. Clockwise from upper left , a bacterium with a row of iron crystals that acts like a tiny compass; Helicobacter , a common resident of cat and dog stomachs; spiral cyanobacteria; E. coli , a beneficial resident of human intestines; types found in dental plaque; Lactobacillus cells in yogurt.
  • Figure 1.6 Representatives of life’s diversity. B Archaeans resemble bacteria, but are more closely related to eukaryotes. Left, an archaean from volcanic ocean sediments. Right, two types of archaeans from a hydrothermal vent on the sea floor.
  • Figure 1.6 Representatives of life’s diversity. B Archaeans resemble bacteria, but are more closely related to eukaryotes. Left, an archaean from volcanic ocean sediments. Right, two types of archaeans from a hydrothermal vent on the sea floor.
  • Figure 1.6 Representatives of life’s diversity. protists are a group of extremely diverse eukaryotes that range from giant multicelled seaweeds to microscopic single cells. Many biologists are now viewing “protists” as several major groups.
  • Figure 1.6 Representatives of life’s diversity. protists are a group of extremely diverse eukaryotes that range from giant multicelled seaweeds to microscopic single cells. Many biologists are now viewing “protists” as several major groups.
  • Figure 1.6 Representatives of life’s diversity. protists are a group of extremely diverse eukaryotes that range from giant multicelled seaweeds to microscopic single cells. Many biologists are now viewing “protists” as several major groups.
  • Figure 1.6 Representatives of life’s diversity. protists are a group of extremely diverse eukaryotes that range from giant multicelled seaweeds to microscopic single cells. Many biologists are now viewing “protists” as several major groups.
  • Figure 1.6 Representatives of life’s diversity. protists are a group of extremely diverse eukaryotes that range from giant multicelled seaweeds to microscopic single cells. Many biologists are now viewing “protists” as several major groups.
  • Figure 1.6 Representatives of life’s diversity. protists are a group of extremely diverse eukaryotes that range from giant multicelled seaweeds to microscopic single cells. Many biologists are now viewing “protists” as several major groups.
  • Figure 1.6 Representatives of life’s diversity. Fungi are eukaryotes. Most are multicelled. Different kinds are parasites, pathogens, or decomposers. Without decomposers such as fungi, communities would be buried in their own wastes
  • Figure 1.6 Representatives of life’s diversity. Fungi are eukaryotes. Most are multicelled. Different kinds are parasites, pathogens, or decomposers. Without decomposers such as fungi, communities would be buried in their own wastes
  • Figure 1.6 Representatives of life’s diversity. plants are multicelled eukaryotes, most of which are photosynthetic. Nearly all have roots, stems, and leaves. Plants are the primary producers in land ecosystems.
  • Figure 1.6 Representatives of life’s diversity. plants are multicelled eukaryotes, most of which are photosynthetic. Nearly all have roots, stems, and leaves. Plants are the primary producers in land ecosystems.
  • Figure 1.6 Representatives of life’s diversity. Animals are multicelled eukaryotes that ingest tissues or juices of other organisms. All actively move about during at least part of their life.
  • Figure 1.6 Representatives of life’s diversity. Animals are multicelled eukaryotes that ingest tissues or juices of other organisms. All actively move about during at least part of their life
  • Figure 1.6 Representatives of life’s diversity. Animals are multicelled eukaryotes that ingest tissues or juices of other organisms. All actively move about during at least part of their life
  • Figure 1.6 Representatives of life’s diversity. Animals are multicelled eukaryotes that ingest tissues or juices of other organisms. All actively move about during at least part of their life

Chapter1 sections 1-4 Chapter1 sections 1-4 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 1 Invitation to Biology (Sections 1.1 - 1.4)
  • 1.1 The Secret Life of Earth
    • Biology is the systematic study of life
    • We have encountered only a fraction of the organisms that live on Earth, in part because we have explored only a fraction of its inhabited regions
  • New Species
    • Hundreds of new species are discovered each year – but thousands become extinct due to activities of man
    View slide
  • 1.2 The Science of Nature
    • Biologists think about life at different levels of organization
    • Emergent properties appear at successively higher levels
    • Life emerges at the cellular level
    View slide
  • Key Terms
    • biology
      • The scientific study of life
    • emergent property
      • A characteristic of a system that does not appear in any of the system’s component parts
  • A Pattern in Life’s Organization
    • All matter consists of atoms , which combine as molecules
    • Organisms are individuals that consist of one or more cells
    • Cells of larger multicelled organisms are organized as tissues , organs , and organ systems
  • Key Terms
    • atom
      • Fundamental building block of all matter
    • molecule
      • An association of two or more atoms
    • cell
      • Smallest unit of life
    • organism
      • Individual that consists of one or more cells
  • Key Terms
    • tissue
      • In multicelled organisms, specialized cells organized in a pattern that allows them to perform a collective function
    • organ
      • In multicelled organisms, a grouping of tissues that perform a collective function
    • organ system
      • In multicelled organisms, set of tissues and cells engaged in a collective function that keeps the body functioning properly
  • Organization Among Organisms
    • A population is a group of individuals of a species in a given area
    • A community is all populations of all species in a given area
    • An ecosystem is a community interacting with its environment
    • The biosphere includes all regions of Earth that hold life
  • Levels of Life’s Organization
  • Fig. 1.3, p. 4 molecule Atoms joined in chemical bonds. This is a model of a water molecule. The molecules of life are much larger and more complex than water. organ Structural unit of interacting tissues. Flowers are the reproductive organs of many plants. atom Atoms are fundamental units of all substances, living or not. This image shows a model of a single atom. organ system A set of interacting organs. The shoot system of this poppy plant includes its aboveground parts: leaves, flowers, and stems. cell The cell is the smallest unit of life. Some, like this plant cell, live and reproduce as part of a multicelled organism; others do so on their own. tissue Organized array of cells and substances that interact in a collective task. This is epidermal tissue on the outer surface of a flower petal. 1 2 3 4 5 6
  • Fig. 1.3.1, p. 4 atom Atoms are fundamental units of all substances, living or not. This image shows a model of a single atom. 1
  • Fig. 1.3.2, p. 4 molecule Atoms joined in chemical bonds. This is a model of a water molecule. The molecules of life are much larger and more complex than water. 2
  • Fig. 1.3.3, p. 4 cell The cell is the smallest unit of life. Some, like this plant cell, live and reproduce as part of a multicelled organism; others do so on their own. 3
  • Fig. 1.3.4, p. 4 tissue Organized array of cells and substances that interact in a collective task. This is epidermal tissue on the outer surface of a flower petal. 4
  • Fig. 1.3.5, p. 4 organ Structural unit of interacting tissues. Flowers are the reproductive organs of many plants. 5
  • Fig. 1.3.6, p. 4 organ system A set of interacting organs. The shoot system of this poppy plant includes its aboveground parts: leaves, flowers, and stems. 6
  • ANIMATION: Life's levels of organization To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode PC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play Mac Users: CLICK HERE
  • Different Objects Assembled From the Same Parts
  • Fig. 1.2, p. 4 Stepped Art Different Objects Assembled From the Same Parts
  • ANIMATION: Building blocks of life To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode PC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play Mac Users: CLICK HERE
  • Key Concepts
    • The Science of Nature
      • We understand life by studying it at different levels of organization, which extend from atoms and molecules to the biosphere
      • The quality we call “life” emerges at the level of cells
  • 1.3 How Living Things Are Alike
    • Life has underlying unity: All living things have similar characteristics
      • Continual inputs of energy and cycling of materials maintain life’s complex organization
      • Organisms sense and respond to change
      • All organisms use information in DNA inherited from parents to function and reproduce
  • (1) Organisms Require Energy and Nutrients
    • All organisms require energy and nutrients to sustain themselves
    • energy
      • The capacity to do work
    • nutrient
      • Substance that an organism needs for growth and survival, but cannot make for itself
  • Producers and Consumers
    • Producers harvest energy from the environment to make their own food by processes such as photosynthesis
    • Consumers eat other organisms, or their wastes and remains
  • Key Terms
    • producer
      • Organism that makes its own food using energy and simple raw materials from the environment
    • photosynthesis
      • Process by which producers use light energy to make sugars from carbon dioxide and water
    • consumer
      • Organism that gets energy and nutrients by feeding on tissues, wastes, or remains of other organisms
  • Energy, Producers, and Consumers
    • Energy flows one way
    • Materials recycle
  • Fig. 1.4b, p. 6 C All of the energy that enters the world of life eventually flows out of it, mainly as heat released back to the environment. Stepped Art Energy, Producers, and Consumers sunlight energy A Producers harvest energy from the environment. Some of that energy flows from producers to consumers. Producers plants and other self-feeding organisms Consumers animals, most fungi, many protists, bacteria B Nutrients that become incorporated into the cells of producers and consumers are eventually released by decomposition. Some cycle back to producers.
  • ANIMATION: One-way energy flow and materials cycling To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode PC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play Mac Users: CLICK HERE
  • (2) Organisms Sense and Respond to Change
    • Organisms keep conditions in their internal environment within ranges cells tolerate—a process called homeostasis
    • homeostasis
      • Set of processes by which an organism keeps its internal conditions within tolerable ranges
      • Includes body fluid composition and temperature
  • Stimulation and Response
    • Every organism senses and responds to conditions inside and outside itself
  • (3) Organisms Use DNA
    • DNA contains information that guides all of an organism’s metabolic activities, including growth , development , and reproduction
    • Small variations in DNA structure give rise to differences between species and individuals
    • The passage of DNA from parents to offspring is inheritance
  • Key Terms
    • DNA
      • Deoxyribonucleic acid; carries hereditary information that guides growth and development
    • growth
      • In multicelled species, an increase in the number, size, and volume of cells
    • development
      • Multistep process by which the first cell of a new individual becomes a multicelled adult
  • Key Terms
    • reproduction
      • Processes by which parents produce offspring
    • inheritance
      • Transmission of DNA from parents to offspring
  • Key Concepts
    • Life’s Unity
      • All organisms consist of one or more cells that take in energy and raw materials to stay alive
      • All sense and respond to stimuli
      • All function and reproduce with the help of DNA
  • 1.4 How Living Things Differ
    • Different types of organisms differ greatly in details of body form and function
    • Biodiversity is the sum of differences among living things
    • biodiversity
      • Variation among living organisms
  • Diversity of Life
    • Bacteria and archaeans are single-celled, and their DNA is not contained within a nucleus
    • Eukaryotes ( protists , plants , fungi , and animals ) can be single-celled or multicelled, and their DNA is contained within a nucleus
  • Key Terms
    • bacterium
      • Member of a large group of single-celled organisms
    • archaean
      • Member of a group of single-celled organisms that differ from bacteria
    • nucleus
      • Double-membraned sac that encloses a cell’s DNA
    • eukaryote
      • Organism whose cells characteristically have a nucleus
  • Eukaryotes
    • Protists are the simplest eukaryotes, ranging from amoebas to giant kelps
    • Many fungi are decomposers, including mushrooms
    • Most plants are photosynthetic producers that provide food for most other organisms
    • Animals eat other organisms; they include herbivores, carnivores, scavengers, and parasites
  • Key Terms
    • protist
      • Diverse group of simple eukaryotes
    • fungus
      • Type of eukaryotic consumer that obtains nutrients by digestion and absorption outside the body
    • plant
      • A multicelled, typically photosynthetic producer
    • animal
      • Multicelled consumer that develops through a series of stages and moves about during part or all of its life cycle
  • Bacteria
  • Fig. 1.6a1, p. 8
  • Fig. 1.6a2, p. 8
  • Fig. 1.6a3, p. 8
  • Fig. 1.6a4, p. 8
  • Fig. 1.6a5, p. 8
  • Fig. 1.6a6, p. 8
  • Archaeans
  • Fig. 1.6b1, p. 8
  • Fig. 1.6b2, p. 8
  • Protists
  • Fig. 1.6c1, p. 9
  • Fig. 1.6c2, p. 9
  • Fig. 1.6c3, p. 9
  • Fig. 1.6c4, p. 9
  • Fig. 1.6c5, p. 9
  • Fig. 1.6c6, p. 9
  • Fungi
  • Fig. 1.6c9, p. 9
  • Fig. 1.6c10, p. 9
  • Plants
  • Fig. 1.6c7, p. 9
  • Fig. 1.6c8, p. 9
  • Animals
  • Fig. 1.6c11, p. 9
  • Fig. 1.6c12, p. 9
  • Fig. 1.6c13, p. 9
  • Fig. 1.6c14, p. 9
  • ANIMATION: Life's diversity To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode PC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play Mac Users: CLICK HERE
  • Key Concepts
    • Life’s Diversity
      • Observable characteristics vary tremendously among organisms
      • Various classification systems help us keep track of the differences
  • ANIMATION: Three Domains To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode PC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play Mac Users: CLICK HERE