UNIT 10 & 11: ORGANISM’S VITAL FUNCTIONS
WHAT TO LEARN <ul><li>Main types of cells; organelles and cellular regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular nutrition. Autotrop...
MAIN FEATURES OF ORGANISMS <ul><li>All the living beings have in common: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same matter (biomolecules) ...
THE CELL <ul><li>The cell is the smallest unit of living matter that can exist freely and can carry out all the vital func...
<ul><li>Organisms can be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicellular organism , that consists of only one cell. </li></ul></ul><ul>...
TYPES OF CELLS <ul><li>There are two main groups of cells,  prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryoti...
 
ACTIVITIES <ul><li>The following sentences are false, correct them in your notebook. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a)All the livin...
AUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION-PLANTS <ul><li>Autotrophs  produce their own food. They produce  organic nutrients from inorganic su...
<ul><li>Where does the photosynthesis take place in plants? </li></ul>
 
HETEROTROPHIC NUTRICION-ANIMALS <ul><li>It consists of obtaining organic nutrients by  feeding  on other living things. </...
ACTIVITIES <ul><li>1.Match the following terms to their definition: </li></ul><ul><li>a)Breathing  1.Eliminating waste sub...
WHAT IS REPRODUCTION? <ul><li>Reproduction  is the ability to create other beings similar or identical to them. </li></ul>...
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN ANIMALS <ul><li>Fragmentation:  Division of the parent’s body into several parts, each part create...
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN ANIMALS <ul><li>It consists of  gamete formation ,  fertilisation , and  developement of the zygote...
ACTIVITIES <ul><li>1.Match each organism with the type of  reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Gemmation  1) Starfish </li></ul...
<ul><li>4.Asexual or sexual reproduction? </li></ul><ul><li>a)A mushroom  b)An oak  c)An elephant  d)A beetle  e)A paramec...
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Unit 10 & 11: Organism's vital functions

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Unit 10 & 11: Organism's vital functions

  1. 1. UNIT 10 & 11: ORGANISM’S VITAL FUNCTIONS
  2. 2. WHAT TO LEARN <ul><li>Main types of cells; organelles and cellular regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular nutrition. Autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition. Photosynthesis and respiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular reproduction: main general types. </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular interaction. </li></ul>
  3. 3. MAIN FEATURES OF ORGANISMS <ul><li>All the living beings have in common: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same matter (biomolecules) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They have cells </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. THE CELL <ul><li>The cell is the smallest unit of living matter that can exist freely and can carry out all the vital functions (nutrition, reproduction, interaction). </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Organisms can be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicellular organism , that consists of only one cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicellular organism , that consists of many cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thanks to electron microscope we can observe different types of cells, its nucleus and organelles. </li></ul>
  6. 6. TYPES OF CELLS <ul><li>There are two main groups of cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic cells: They don't have a membrane-bound nucleus. Ex. Bacteria (Monera kingdom) </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic cells have a membrane-bound nucleus and contain many internal membrane-bound structures called organelles . (Protista, Fungi, Plantae,Animalia kingdoms) </li></ul><ul><li>They can be animal and </li></ul><ul><li>plant cells . Plant cells </li></ul><ul><li>have mitochondrions . </li></ul>
  7. 8. ACTIVITIES <ul><li>The following sentences are false, correct them in your notebook. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a)All the living things except bacteria are made of cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b)All cells have plasmatic membrane, cytoplasm and a nucleus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c)Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus, but they do not have any other organelles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d)Eukaryotic plant cells have chloroplasts, but they do not have mitochondria. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why was the microscope important in the discovery of cells? </li></ul>
  8. 9. AUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION-PLANTS <ul><li>Autotrophs produce their own food. They produce organic nutrients from inorganic substances . </li></ul><ul><li>Plants make organic nutrients through photosynthesis . They need water, mineral salts, carbon dioxide and sunlight. </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts . </li></ul><ul><li>Respiration: To respire the plant absorbs oxygen and uses it in the mitochondria to get energy. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Where does the photosynthesis take place in plants? </li></ul>
  10. 12. HETEROTROPHIC NUTRICION-ANIMALS <ul><li>It consists of obtaining organic nutrients by feeding on other living things. </li></ul><ul><li>Living things take oxygen from the environment to obtain energy in a cellular process called respiration . </li></ul><ul><li>The nutrition process in animals have some parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeding: ingestion of food. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestion: transformation of food into smaller components. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation of substances: circulation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elimination of waste substances: Excretion. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. ACTIVITIES <ul><li>1.Match the following terms to their definition: </li></ul><ul><li>a)Breathing 1.Eliminating waste substances </li></ul><ul><li>b) Photosynthesis 2.Transforming the food into </li></ul><ul><li>c) Circulation nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>d) Digestion 3.Transportation of nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>e) Excretion 4.Taking oxygen to obtain energy </li></ul><ul><li>5.It takes place in the chloroplasts of cells. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Give an example of ecological pyramid. </li></ul>
  12. 14. WHAT IS REPRODUCTION? <ul><li>Reproduction is the ability to create other beings similar or identical to them. </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES OF REPRODUCTION: </li></ul><ul><li>Asexual: produces identical copies of itself. Ex: bacteria, some plants… </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual: Two living things join and provide gametes . The union forms a zygote . Ex: animals. </li></ul>
  13. 15. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN ANIMALS <ul><li>Fragmentation: Division of the parent’s body into several parts, each part creates a new organism. Ex:Planarian, Starfish </li></ul><ul><li>Gemmation: Formation of buds on the surfaceof the parent creating a new organism. Ex; Hydra </li></ul>
  14. 16. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN ANIMALS <ul><li>It consists of gamete formation , fertilisation , and developement of the zygote . </li></ul><ul><li>Testicles produce spermatozoa . </li></ul><ul><li>Ovaries produce ova . </li></ul><ul><li>The species can be: unisexual (male and female) or hermaphrodite (both) </li></ul><ul><li>The fertilisation is the union of the spermatozoa and the ova. </li></ul>
  15. 17. ACTIVITIES <ul><li>1.Match each organism with the type of reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Gemmation 1) Starfish </li></ul><ul><li>Fragmentation 2) Hydra </li></ul><ul><li>2. Give three examples of hermaphrodite species and unisexual species. </li></ul><ul><li>3.Complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction can be_________ or _________. </li></ul><ul><li>In sexual reproduction, the___________ join and produce a ________. </li></ul><ul><li>The _________is the union of the _____ and the ____. </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>4.Asexual or sexual reproduction? </li></ul><ul><li>a)A mushroom b)An oak c)An elephant d)A beetle e)A paramecium </li></ul><ul><li>f)A kangaroo g)Algae </li></ul><ul><li>5. Complete the diagram. </li></ul><ul><li>Ovule-petal-pistil-stamen-sepal </li></ul>

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