Chapter 1An Introduction to Life on Earth
What is Biology?--- The science of living organisms         and life processes.
So what exactly is life?
Life: An evanescent phenomenon dependent for its continued existence, andperpetuation, on cyclic enzymatic reactions in an...
The characteristics of life:1. Complex, organized structure2. Response to stimuli                                   - a ch...
Complex, organized structure     The complexity of life is built in levels.                                    Fig. 1-8
Each level has ingredients or componentswhich interact to make something greater        than the sum of the parts.        ...
That part of Earth inhabitedBiosphere by living organisms; includes both          the living and nonliving          compon...
Multicellular An individual living thing composedOrganism of many cells                                                   ...
A structure within a cell thatOrganelle            performs a specific function                                           ...
If you put a plant in your window, the stem    will lean in the direction of the sun. This is    an example of which chara...
Response to stimuli Organisms react to external and        internal stimuli.Some reactions are slow and can’t            b...
Our body works to keep our temperature atabout 98.6ºF. This is an example of which      characteristic of living things?• ...
Homeostasis-the ability to maintain the structure and   regulate the internal environment.   In order to stay alive and fu...
Ability to acquire material and energy  The material and energy are often            transformed .  Energy is used to main...
Organisms can take in nutrients (food) forraw materials and energy (heterotrophs)   Or they can use sunlight for energy  (...
The word heterotroph means         “other-feeder” or:•   Able to photosynthesize.•   Able to make its own food.•   Must re...
Metabolism changes the raw material and energy into the forms which are  needed for maintenance, growth,          reproduc...
GrowthAll organisms grow during their life
ReproductionIndividuals reproduce their own kind.
The genetic information for “How to build anoffspring” is stored in the DNA of the parent(s)    and that information is pa...
Evolution If the environment changes, then thepopulation of organisms must change    to fit the environment or face the   ...
The evolutionary changes are usually slow,taking several generations and occur by the  accumulation of DNA changes known a...
All life forms have these characteristics in      common, yet there is an amazingdiversity in the forms of life on the pla...
All living organisms are organized into                groups.   Each of the major organizational      groups are called d...
There are two prokaryotic domains;Bacteria and Archaea and a eukaryotic          domain; Eukarya.                         ...
In the figure, which organism ismost closely related to humans?•   Bacterium•   Protist•   Archaean•   Tree               ...
Within the domains are at least 6 groups          known as kingdoms  Each kingdom has different attributes   which define ...
The first difference is cell type  PROKARYOTES               EUKARYOTESNo nucleus or nuclear Nucleus with a nuclear       ...
Kingdom       Cell TypeBacteria      ProkaryoticArchaea       ProkaryoticProtista      Eukaryotic    Fungi Eukaryotic    P...
The next property is how many cells the            organism has    Single cell (unicellular) or many          cells (multi...
Kingdom    Cell Type     Cell NumberBacteria   Prokaryotic   UnicellularArchaea    Prokaryotic   UnicellularProtista   Euk...
The third attribute in the classification of  organisms at the kingdom levels is how the      organism obtains nutrients/e...
Kingdom    Cell Type     Cell Number     Nutritional MethodBacteria   Prokaryotic   Unicellular     Absorp./photosyn.Archa...
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Chapter 1 intro to life on earth

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  • Figure :1-1 part c Title: Life is both complex and organized part c Organized and complex Caption: Living things have both complexity and organization. The waterflea, Daphnia pulex , is only 1 millimeter long (1/1000 meter; smaller than the letter “i”), yet it has legs, a mouth, a digestive tract, reproductive organs, light-sensing eyes, and even a rather impressive brain in relation to its size.
  • Figure :1-2 top Title: Levels of organization of matter top Caption: All life has a chemical basis, but the quality of life itself emerges on the cellular level. Interactions among the components of each level and the levels below it allow the development of the next-higher level of organization. Exercise Think of a scientific question that can be answered by investigating at the cell level, but that would be impossible to answer at the tissue level. Then think of a question answerable at the tissue level but not the cell level. Repeat the process for two other pairs of adjacent levels of organization.
  • Figure :1-2 middle Title: Levels of organization of matter middle Caption: All life has a chemical basis, but the quality of life itself emerges on the cellular level. Interactions among the components of each level and the levels below it allow the development of the next-higher level of organization. Exercise Think of a scientific question that can be answered by investigating at the cell level, but that would be impossible to answer at the tissue level. Then think of a question answerable at the tissue level but not the cell level. Repeat the process for two other pairs of adjacent levels of organization.
  • Figure :1-2 bottom Title: Levels of organization of matter bottom Caption: All life has a chemical basis, but the quality of life itself emerges on the cellular level. Interactions among the components of each level and the levels below it allow the development of the next-higher level of organization. Exercise Think of a scientific question that can be answered by investigating at the cell level, but that would be impossible to answer at the tissue level. Then think of a question answerable at the tissue level but not the cell level. Repeat the process for two other pairs of adjacent levels of organization.
  • Question: 1-11 Answer: 2 Diff: Moderate Text Ref: Section 1.3 Skill: Conceptual Also relates to: Chapter 7 Notes: Students tend to think of a response to a stimulus as a quick movement, such as dodging a ball thrown at their head. It is good to point out that while plants do not seem very active, they do indeed respond to stimuli.
  • Question: 1-10 Answer: 3 Diff: Moderate Text Ref: Section 1.3 Skill: Conceptual Also relates to: Chapter 6 Notes: This question provides students with an example of a biological property that is actively regulated during the life of the organisms; that is, the maintenance of a constant body temperature. This process is an example of homeostatic control.
  • Question: 1-13 Answer: 3 Diff: Moderate Text Ref: Section 1.3 Skill: Conceptual Notes: Mode of energy acquisition will come up in many chapters in the book. It is important for students to understand the difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph.
  • Figure :1-6 Title: Living things reproduce Caption: As they grow, these polar bear cubs will resemble, but not be identical to, their parents. The similarity and variability of offspring are crucial to the process of evolution.
  • Figure :1-6 Title: Living things reproduce Caption: As they grow, these polar bear cubs will resemble, but not be identical to, their parents. The similarity and variability of offspring are crucial to the process of evolution.
  • Question: 1-14 Answer: 4 Diff: Moderate Text Ref: Section 1.4 Skill: Conceptual Notes: The first three choices are unicellular organisms and are generally primitive compared to a tree, which is a multicellular organism with a complex physiology, similar to these properties seen in humans.
  • Chapter 1 intro to life on earth

    1. 1. Chapter 1An Introduction to Life on Earth
    2. 2. What is Biology?--- The science of living organisms and life processes.
    3. 3. So what exactly is life?
    4. 4. Life: An evanescent phenomenon dependent for its continued existence, andperpetuation, on cyclic enzymatic reactions in an environment consistingprincipally of protein and water. Student Dictionary of Biology.(1972) Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York.Life: the property by which living organisms are distinguished from deadOrganisms or inanimate matter. Websters II New Riverside Dictionary. These definitions suck terribly. Neither of the Biology texts (for majors or non-majors) that we use include the term “life” in their glossaries.
    5. 5. The characteristics of life:1. Complex, organized structure2. Response to stimuli - a change outside (or inside) leads to another change3. Homeostasis - the ability to maintain the structure and regulate the internal environment.4. Ability to acquire material and energy -The material and energy are often transformed5. Growth6. Reproduction - either sexual or asexual DNA is genetic information, the “blueprint” for the offspring7. Ability to evolve - to change to fit the environment
    6. 6. Complex, organized structure The complexity of life is built in levels. Fig. 1-8
    7. 7. Each level has ingredients or componentswhich interact to make something greater than the sum of the parts. Emergent PropertiesExample: NaCl (Sodium Chloride)Sodium = solid metalChlorine = poisonous gasPut them together = table salt
    8. 8. That part of Earth inhabitedBiosphere by living organisms; includes both the living and nonliving components Earths surface A community together with itsEcosystem nonliving surroundings snake, antelope, hawk, bushes, grass, rocks, stream Two or more populations of differentCommunity species living and interacting in the same area snake, antelope, hawk, bushes, grass Very similar, potentially interbreedingSpecies organisms Members of one species inhabitingPopulation the same area herd of pronghorn antelope Fig. 1-1
    9. 9. Multicellular An individual living thing composedOrganism of many cells pronghorn antelopeOrgan Two or more organs working together in the execution ofSystem a specific bodily function the nervous system A structure usuallyOrgan composed of several tissue types that form a functional unit the brain A group of similar cells that performTissue a specific function nervous tissueCell The smallest unit of life nerve cell Fig. 1-1
    10. 10. A structure within a cell thatOrganelle performs a specific function mitochondrion chloroplast nucleusMolecule A combination of atoms water glucose DNA The smallest particle of an elementAtom that retains the properties of that element hydrogen carbon nitrogen oxygenSubatomic Particles that make up an atomParticle proton neutron electron Fig. 1-1
    11. 11. If you put a plant in your window, the stem will lean in the direction of the sun. This is an example of which characteristic of life?• Living things are organized.• Living things respond to stimuli.• Living things maintain homeostasis.• Living things need energy.
    12. 12. Response to stimuli Organisms react to external and internal stimuli.Some reactions are slow and can’t be seen.
    13. 13. Our body works to keep our temperature atabout 98.6ºF. This is an example of which characteristic of living things?• Living things are organized.• Living things respond to stimuli.• Living things maintain homeostasis.• Living things need energy.
    14. 14. Homeostasis-the ability to maintain the structure and regulate the internal environment. In order to stay alive and function, organisms must keep the conditions within their bodies fairly constant.
    15. 15. Ability to acquire material and energy The material and energy are often transformed . Energy is used to maintain a high level of complexity and organization, to grow, and to reproduce.
    16. 16. Organisms can take in nutrients (food) forraw materials and energy (heterotrophs) Or they can use sunlight for energy (photosynthesis) to produce energy- rich sugar molecules (autotrophs)
    17. 17. The word heterotroph means “other-feeder” or:• Able to photosynthesize.• Able to make its own food.• Must rely on other organisms for energy.• Make its own energy.
    18. 18. Metabolism changes the raw material and energy into the forms which are needed for maintenance, growth, reproduction, etc .Metabolism is basically the sum total ofall of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism.
    19. 19. GrowthAll organisms grow during their life
    20. 20. ReproductionIndividuals reproduce their own kind.
    21. 21. The genetic information for “How to build anoffspring” is stored in the DNA of the parent(s) and that information is passed on to the offspring. Fig. 1.6
    22. 22. Evolution If the environment changes, then thepopulation of organisms must change to fit the environment or face the possibility of extinction.This process of survival of the fittest is natural selection
    23. 23. The evolutionary changes are usually slow,taking several generations and occur by the accumulation of DNA changes known as mutations.
    24. 24. All life forms have these characteristics in common, yet there is an amazingdiversity in the forms of life on the planet.
    25. 25. All living organisms are organized into groups. Each of the major organizational groups are called domains
    26. 26. There are two prokaryotic domains;Bacteria and Archaea and a eukaryotic domain; Eukarya. Fig. 1.11
    27. 27. In the figure, which organism ismost closely related to humans?• Bacterium• Protist• Archaean• Tree Figure 1-11
    28. 28. Within the domains are at least 6 groups known as kingdoms Each kingdom has different attributes which define them. (See table 1-1)
    29. 29. The first difference is cell type PROKARYOTES EUKARYOTESNo nucleus or nuclear Nucleus with a nuclear envelope envelopeGenetic material in a Genetic material within “nucleoid region” the nucleus No organelles or Contains cytosol with internal membranes membrane-bound organelles
    30. 30. Kingdom Cell TypeBacteria ProkaryoticArchaea ProkaryoticProtista Eukaryotic Fungi Eukaryotic PlantaeEukaryoticAnimalia Eukaryotic
    31. 31. The next property is how many cells the organism has Single cell (unicellular) or many cells (multicellular)
    32. 32. Kingdom Cell Type Cell NumberBacteria Prokaryotic UnicellularArchaea Prokaryotic UnicellularProtista Eukaryotic UnicellularFungi Eukaryotic MulticellularPlantae Eukaryotic MulticellularAnimalia Eukaryotic Multicellular
    33. 33. The third attribute in the classification of organisms at the kingdom levels is how the organism obtains nutrients/energyThree basic methods Make food using sunlight - photosynthesis Uptake of nutrients by absorption Uptake by eating or ingestion
    34. 34. Kingdom Cell Type Cell Number Nutritional MethodBacteria Prokaryotic Unicellular Absorp./photosyn.Archaea Prokaryotic Unicellular Absorp./photosyn.Protista Eukaryotic Unicellular Absorp./photosyn./ingestionFungi Eukaryotic Multicellular AbsorptionPlantae Eukaryotic Multicellular PhotosynthesisAnimalia Eukaryotic Multicellular Ingestion

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