Biology
Key WordsSOME THINGS YOU NEED TO KNOW
Cell Basic structural and functional unit of living organisms Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic    Prokaryotes don’t have a re...
Regulation & Feed Back Regulation   The adaptation of form or    behavior of an organism to    changed conditions. Feed...
Reproduction The creation of a new organism from a “parent.” The known methods of reproduction are broadly grouped into ...
Enzymes Catalyst in chemical reactions The purpose of an enzyme in a cell is to allow the cell to carry out chemical rea...
Emergent Property & Homeostasis Emergent Property   The emergence of    properties at each step of    the levels of orga...
Deoxyribonucleic Acid Contains the genetic information used in the development and growth of an organism. Made up of nuc...
Metabolism A set of chemical  reactions that occur                          to sustain  life. Catabolism   A set of met...
Biodiversity The degree of variety of organisms in a given specific area or location. Biodiversity includes genetic vari...
Evolution Any change between successive generations in the inherited traits of populations.
Open System & Stimuli Open System   A system that exchanges energy and materials with its    outside environment. Stimu...
Taxonomy The science of            Taxa: identifying, naming, and classifying organisms. Uses Binomial Nomenclature   ...
Characteristics of Life     WHAT MAKES LIFE, LIFE.
Cellular and Organized Single-cell  organisms have  everything they  need to be self-  sufficient. In multicellular  org...
Reproduces Reproduction is not essential for the survival of individual organisms, but must occur for a species to surviv...
Genetic Code Offspring resemble parents because they inherit their traits. Nucleic acids is life’s manual, its blueprint...
Grows and Develops An organism develops when it matures. Cell division is the orderly formation of new cells. Cell enla...
Energy Living things take in energy and use it for maintenance and growth.
Responds Living things will make changes in response to a stimulus in their environment. A behavior is a complex set of ...
Adapts and Evolves Adaptations are traits giving an organism an advantage in a certain environment. Variation of individ...
Homeostasis The ability of a system or living organism to adjust its internal environment  to maintain a stable equilibri...
“CHARRGED” C – Cellular and Organized H – Homeostasis A – Adapts and Evolves R – Responds R – Reproduces G – Grows a...
Themes of Biology    THE MAIN POINTS
Cell Cells are every organism’s basic units of structure and function. The two main types of cells are Prokaryotic cells ...
Heritable Information The continuity of life depends on the inheritance of biological information in the form of DNA mole...
Emergent Properties The living world has a hierarchical organization, extending from molecules to the biosphere. With eac...
Regulation Feedback mechanisms regulate biological systems. In some cases, the regulation maintains a relatively steady s...
Interaction with the Environment Organisms are open systems that exchange materials and energy with their surroundings. A...
Energy and Life All organisms must perform work, which requires energy. Energy flows from sunlight to producers to consum...
Unity and Diversity Biologists group the diversity of life into three  domains: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. As  diver...
Evolution Evolution, biology’s core theme, explains both the unity and diversity of life. The Darwinian theory of natural...
Structure and Function Form and function are correlated at all levels of biological organization
Scientific Inquiry The process of science includes observation- based discovery and the testing of explanations through h...
“LUDEECRISS” L – Life and Energy U – Unity and Diversity D – DNA E – Evolution E – Emergent Property C – Cell R – R...
Levels of Organization      MICRO TO MACRO
 Molecules Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems Organism Population, same species, area, & time Community Ecosystem...
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Biology as the Study of Life

  1. 1. Biology
  2. 2. Key WordsSOME THINGS YOU NEED TO KNOW
  3. 3. Cell Basic structural and functional unit of living organisms Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic  Prokaryotes don’t have a real nucleus  Eukaryotes have a nucleus with a double membrane Plant vs. Animal  Plant cells have a rigid cell wall and chloroplasts  Animal cells have lysosomes
  4. 4. Regulation & Feed Back Regulation  The adaptation of form or behavior of an organism to changed conditions. Feedback  A cause and effect chain that loops back to the beginning.
  5. 5. Reproduction The creation of a new organism from a “parent.” The known methods of reproduction are broadly grouped into two main types: sexual and asexual.
  6. 6. Enzymes Catalyst in chemical reactions The purpose of an enzyme in a cell is to allow the cell to carry out chemical reactions very quickly.
  7. 7. Emergent Property & Homeostasis Emergent Property  The emergence of properties at each step of the levels of organization. Homeostasis  The tendency of a system to stay under stable conditions.
  8. 8. Deoxyribonucleic Acid Contains the genetic information used in the development and growth of an organism. Made up of nucleotides which are formed from a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and one of 4 nitrogen bases (Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine.)
  9. 9. Metabolism A set of chemical reactions that occur to sustain life. Catabolism  A set of metabolic reactions that break down big, complex molecules. Anabolism  A set of metabolic reactions that synthesize larger, more complex compounds.
  10. 10. Biodiversity The degree of variety of organisms in a given specific area or location. Biodiversity includes genetic variation within species and the variety of habitat types
  11. 11. Evolution Any change between successive generations in the inherited traits of populations.
  12. 12. Open System & Stimuli Open System  A system that exchanges energy and materials with its outside environment. Stimuli  A change that elicits or causes a response.
  13. 13. Taxonomy The science of  Taxa: identifying, naming, and classifying organisms. Uses Binomial Nomenclature  Uses two names
  14. 14. Characteristics of Life WHAT MAKES LIFE, LIFE.
  15. 15. Cellular and Organized Single-cell organisms have everything they need to be self- sufficient. In multicellular organisms, specialization increases until some cells do only certain things.
  16. 16. Reproduces Reproduction is not essential for the survival of individual organisms, but must occur for a species to survive. All living things reproduce in one of the following ways:  Asexual reproduction - Producing offspring without the use of gametes.  Sexual reproduction - Producing offspring by the joining of sex cells.
  17. 17. Genetic Code Offspring resemble parents because they inherit their traits. Nucleic acids is life’s manual, its blueprint to make an organism.
  18. 18. Grows and Develops An organism develops when it matures. Cell division is the orderly formation of new cells. Cell enlargement is the increase in size of a cell. Cells grow to a certain size and then divide. An organism gets larger as the number of its cells and size of its cells increases.
  19. 19. Energy Living things take in energy and use it for maintenance and growth.
  20. 20. Responds Living things will make changes in response to a stimulus in their environment. A behavior is a complex set of responses.
  21. 21. Adapts and Evolves Adaptations are traits giving an organism an advantage in a certain environment. Variation of individuals is important for a healthy species.
  22. 22. Homeostasis The ability of a system or living organism to adjust its internal environment to maintain a stable equilibrium.
  23. 23. “CHARRGED” C – Cellular and Organized H – Homeostasis A – Adapts and Evolves R – Responds R – Reproduces G – Grows and Develops E – Energy D – DNA, Genetic Code
  24. 24. Themes of Biology THE MAIN POINTS
  25. 25. Cell Cells are every organism’s basic units of structure and function. The two main types of cells are Prokaryotic cells (in Bacteria and Archaea) and Eukaryotic cells (in Protists, Plants, Fungi, and Animals).
  26. 26. Heritable Information The continuity of life depends on the inheritance of biological information in the form of DNA molecules. This genetic information is encoded in the nucleotide sequences of the DNA.
  27. 27. Emergent Properties The living world has a hierarchical organization, extending from molecules to the biosphere. With each step upward in level, system properties emerge as a result of interactions among components at the lower levels.
  28. 28. Regulation Feedback mechanisms regulate biological systems. In some cases, the regulation maintains a relatively steady state for internal factors such as body temperature.
  29. 29. Interaction with the Environment Organisms are open systems that exchange materials and energy with their surroundings. An organism’s environment includes other organisms as well as nonliving factors.
  30. 30. Energy and Life All organisms must perform work, which requires energy. Energy flows from sunlight to producers to consumers.
  31. 31. Unity and Diversity Biologists group the diversity of life into three domains: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. As diverse as life is, we can also find unity, such as a universal genetic code. The more closely related two species are, the more characteristics they share.
  32. 32. Evolution Evolution, biology’s core theme, explains both the unity and diversity of life. The Darwinian theory of natural selection accounts for adaptation of populations to their environment through the differential reproductive success of varying individuals.
  33. 33. Structure and Function Form and function are correlated at all levels of biological organization
  34. 34. Scientific Inquiry The process of science includes observation- based discovery and the testing of explanations through hypothesis-based inquiry. Scientific credibility depends on the repeatability of observations and experiments.
  35. 35. “LUDEECRISS” L – Life and Energy U – Unity and Diversity D – DNA E – Evolution E – Emergent Property C – Cell R – Regulation I – Interacts with its Environment S – Structure and Function S – Scientific Inquiry
  36. 36. Levels of Organization MICRO TO MACRO
  37. 37.  Molecules Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems Organism Population, same species, area, & time Community Ecosystem Biosphere Cosmos

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