Sample Free Response Question:<br />The rate of photosynthesis may vary with changes that occur in environment temperature...
Figure 1.1<br />What is Life?  <br />The phenomenon we call life<br />Defies a simple, one-sentence definition<br />We rec...
(b) Evolutionary       adaptation <br />(a) Order<br />(c) Response to the        environment<br />(e) Energy      process...
Biologists explore life from the microscopic to the global scale<br />The study of life<br />Extends from the microscope s...
1  The biosphere <br />Figure 1.3<br />From the biosphere to organisms<br />
9Organelles<br />1 µm<br />Cell<br />8Cells<br />Atoms<br />10Molecules<br />10 µm<br />7Tissues<br />50 µm<br />6Organs a...
A Closer Look at Ecosystems<br />Each organism<br />Interacts with its environment<br />Both organism and environment<br /...
Ecosystem Dynamics<br />The dynamics of any ecosystem include two major processes<br />Cycling of nutrients, in which mate...
Energy Conversion<br />Activities of life<br />Require organisms to perform work, which depends on an energy source<br />T...
Sunlight<br />Ecosystem<br />Producers<br />(plants and other <br />photosynthetic<br />organisms)<br />Heat<br />Chemical...
25 µm<br />Figure 1.5<br />A Closer Look at Cells<br />The cell<br />Is the lowest level of organization that can perform ...
Sperm cell<br />Nuclei<br />containing<br />DNA<br />Embyro’s cells with copies of inherited DNA<br />Fertilized egg<br />...
Nucleus<br />DNA<br />Cell<br />A<br />C<br />Nucleotide<br />T<br />A<br />T<br />A<br />C<br />C<br />G<br />T<br />A<br...
Two Main Forms of Cells<br />All cells share certain characteristics<br />They are all enclosed by a membrane<br />They al...
Eukaryotic cells<br />Are subdivided by internal membranes into various membrane-enclosed organelles<br />
EUKARYOTIC CELL<br />PROKARYOTIC CELL<br />DNA <br />(no nucleus)<br />Membrane<br />Membrane<br />Cytoplasm<br />Organell...
Biological systems are much more than the sum of their parts<br />A system<br />Is a combination of components that form a...
The Power and Limitations of Reductionism<br />Reductionism<br />Involves reducing complex systems to simpler components t...
The study of DNA structure, an example of reductionism<br />Has led to further study of heredity, such as the Human Genome...
In feedback regulation<br />The output, or product, of a process regulates that very process<br />
A<br />A<br />Negative feedback<br />Enzyme 1<br />Enzyme 1<br />B<br />B<br />Enzyme 2<br />C<br />C<br />Enzyme 3<br />D...
W<br />W<br />Enzyme 4<br />Enzyme 4<br />Positivefeedback<br />X<br />X<br />Enzyme 5<br />Enzyme 5<br />Y<br />Y<br />En...
Figure 1.13<br />Biologists explore life across its great diversity of species<br />Diversity is a hallmark of life<br />
Grouping Species: The Basic Idea<br />Taxonomy<br />Is the branch of biology that names and classifies species according t...
Species   Genus   Family     Order      Class     Phylum    Kingdom    Domain <br />Ursusameri-<br />canus<br />(American<...
The Three Domains of Life<br />At the highest level, life is classified into three domains<br />Bacteria<br />Archaea<br /...
Domain Bacteria and domain Archaea<br />Consist of prokaryotes<br />Domain Eukarya, the eukaryotes<br />Includes the vario...
Kingdom Plantae consists of multicellula eukaryotes that carry out photosynthesis, the conversion of light energy to food....
15  µm<br />1.0  µm<br />Cilia of Paramecium.The cilia of Parameciumpropel the cell throughpond water.<br />5  µm<br />Cro...
Continuity and Discontinuity<br />God created organisms with enough continuity (similarities) to know that only ONE God wa...
Figure 1.18<br />The evolutionary view of life<br />Came into sharp focus in 1859 when Charles Darwin published On the Ori...
Figure 1.19<br />The Origin of Species articulated two main points<br />Descent with modification<br />Natural selection<b...
1    Populations with varied inherited traits<br />2 Elimination of individuals with certain traits.<br />3   Reproduction...
Large ground finch<br />Large tree finch<br />Smallground<br />finch<br />Large cactus<br />ground finch<br />Camarhynchus...
Creation and Evolution: Major Beliefs <br />
Creation and Evolution: Major Beliefs <br />
Creation and Evolution: Major Beliefs <br />
Creation and Evolution: Major Beliefs <br />
My Presupposition<br />1 The heavens declare the glory of God;        the skies proclaim the work of his hands. <br /> 2 D...
Table 1.1<br />Eleven themes that unify biology<br />
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Basic Biology, Characteristics of Life

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01 exploring biology text

  1. 1. Sample Free Response Question:<br />The rate of photosynthesis may vary with changes that occur in environment temperature, wavelength of light, and light intensity. Using a photosynthetic organism of your choice, choose only ONE of the three variables (temperature, wavelength of light, or light intensity) and for this variable<br />Design a scientific experiment to determine the effect of the variable on the rate of photosynthesis for the organism;<br />Explain how you would measure the rate of photosynthesis in your experiment;<br />Describe the results you would expect. Explain why you would expect these results. <br />
  2. 2. Figure 1.1<br />What is Life? <br />The phenomenon we call life<br />Defies a simple, one-sentence definition<br />We recognize life<br />By what living things do<br />
  3. 3. (b) Evolutionary adaptation <br />(a) Order<br />(c) Response to the environment<br />(e) Energy processing<br />(d) Regulation<br />(f) Growth and development<br />(g) Reproduction<br />Figure 1.2<br />Some properties of life<br />
  4. 4. Biologists explore life from the microscopic to the global scale<br />The study of life<br />Extends from the microscope scale of molecules and cells to the global scale of the entire living planet<br />The hierarchy of life<br />Extends through many levels of biological organization<br />
  5. 5. 1 The biosphere <br />Figure 1.3<br />From the biosphere to organisms<br />
  6. 6. 9Organelles<br />1 µm<br />Cell<br />8Cells<br />Atoms<br />10Molecules<br />10 µm<br />7Tissues<br />50 µm<br />6Organs and organ systems<br />Figure 1.3<br />From cells to molecules<br />
  7. 7. A Closer Look at Ecosystems<br />Each organism<br />Interacts with its environment<br />Both organism and environment<br />Are affected by the interactions between them<br />
  8. 8. Ecosystem Dynamics<br />The dynamics of any ecosystem include two major processes<br />Cycling of nutrients, in which materials acquired by plants eventually return to the soil<br />The flow of energy from sunlight to producers (autotrophs) to consumers (heterotrophs)<br />
  9. 9. Energy Conversion<br />Activities of life<br />Require organisms to perform work, which depends on an energy source<br />The exchange of energy between an organism and its surroundings<br />Often involves the transformation of one form of energy to another<br />
  10. 10. Sunlight<br />Ecosystem<br />Producers<br />(plants and other <br />photosynthetic<br />organisms)<br />Heat<br />Chemical energy<br />Consumers<br />(including animals)<br />Figure 1.4<br />Heat<br />Energy flows through an ecosystem<br />Usually entering as sunlight and exiting as heat<br />
  11. 11. 25 µm<br />Figure 1.5<br />A Closer Look at Cells<br />The cell<br />Is the lowest level of organization that can perform all activities required for life<br />
  12. 12. Sperm cell<br />Nuclei<br />containing<br />DNA<br />Embyro’s cells with copies of inherited DNA<br />Fertilized egg<br />with DNA from<br />both parents<br />Offspring with traits<br />inherited from<br />both parents<br />Egg cell<br />Figure 1.6<br />The Cell’s Heritable Information<br />Cells contain chromosomes made partly of DNA, the substance of genes<br />Which program the cells’ production of proteins and transmit information from parents to offspring<br />
  13. 13. Nucleus<br />DNA<br />Cell<br />A<br />C<br />Nucleotide<br />T<br />A<br />T<br />A<br />C<br />C<br />G<br />T<br />A<br />G<br />T<br />A<br />(a) DNA double helix. This model shows each atom in a segment of DNA.Made up of two long chains of building blocks called nucleotides, a DNA molecule takes the three-dimensional form of a double helix.<br />(b) Single strand of DNA. These geometric shapes and letters are simple symbols for the nucleotides in a small section of one chain of a DNA molecule. Genetic information is encoded in specific sequences of the four types of nucleotides (their names are abbreviated here as A, T, C, and G). <br />Figure 1.7<br />The molecular structure of DNA<br />Accounts for it information-rich nature<br />
  14. 14. Two Main Forms of Cells<br />All cells share certain characteristics<br />They are all enclosed by a membrane<br />They all use DNA as genetic information<br />There are two main forms of cells<br />Eukaryotic<br />Prokaryotic<br />
  15. 15. Eukaryotic cells<br />Are subdivided by internal membranes into various membrane-enclosed organelles<br />
  16. 16. EUKARYOTIC CELL<br />PROKARYOTIC CELL<br />DNA <br />(no nucleus)<br />Membrane<br />Membrane<br />Cytoplasm<br />Organelles<br />1 µm<br />Figure 1.8<br />Nucleus (contains DNA)<br />Prokaryotic cells<br />Lack the kinds of membrane-enclosed organelles found in eukaryotic cells<br />
  17. 17. Biological systems are much more than the sum of their parts<br />A system<br />Is a combination of components that form a more complex organization<br />
  18. 18. The Power and Limitations of Reductionism<br />Reductionism<br />Involves reducing complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study<br />Irreducibly Complexity or WPP (Whole Package Phenomenon) <br />
  19. 19. The study of DNA structure, an example of reductionism<br />Has led to further study of heredity, such as the Human Genome Project<br />Figure 1.9<br />
  20. 20. In feedback regulation<br />The output, or product, of a process regulates that very process<br />
  21. 21. A<br />A<br />Negative feedback<br />Enzyme 1<br />Enzyme 1<br />B<br />B<br />Enzyme 2<br />C<br />C<br />Enzyme 3<br />D<br />D<br />D<br />D<br />D<br />D<br />D<br />D<br />D<br />D<br />D<br />Figure 1.11<br />In negative feedback<br />An accumulation of an end product slows the process that produces that product<br />In Biology, this process (generally biochemical) is often referred to as Homeostasis; from the regulating of body temperature, to the regulating of blood glucose levels. <br />
  22. 22. W<br />W<br />Enzyme 4<br />Enzyme 4<br />Positivefeedback<br />X<br />X<br />Enzyme 5<br />Enzyme 5<br />Y<br />Y<br />Enzyme 6<br />Enzyme 6<br />Z<br />Z<br />Z<br />Z<br />Z<br />Z<br />Z<br />Z<br />Z<br />Z<br />Z<br />Z<br />Z<br />Z<br />Z<br />Z<br />Z<br />Z<br />Z<br />Figure 1.12<br />In positive feedback<br />The end product speeds up production<br />For another example, imagine an ecosystem with only one species and an unlimited amount of food. The population will grow at a rate proportional to the current population, which leads to an accelerating increase, i.e., positive feedback. This has a de-stabilizing effect, so left unchecked, does not result in homeostasis. In some cases (if not controlled by negative feedback), a positive feedback loop can run out of control, and can result in the collapse of the system. <br />
  23. 23. Figure 1.13<br />Biologists explore life across its great diversity of species<br />Diversity is a hallmark of life<br />
  24. 24. Grouping Species: The Basic Idea<br />Taxonomy<br />Is the branch of biology that names and classifies species according to a system of broader and broader groups<br />
  25. 25. Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Domain <br />Ursusameri-<br />canus<br />(American<br />black bear)<br />Ursus<br />Ursidae<br />Carnivora<br />Mammalia<br />Chordata<br />Animalia<br />Eukarya<br />Figure 1.14<br />Classifying life<br />
  26. 26. The Three Domains of Life<br />At the highest level, life is classified into three domains<br />Bacteria<br />Archaea<br />Eukarya<br />
  27. 27. Domain Bacteria and domain Archaea<br />Consist of prokaryotes<br />Domain Eukarya, the eukaryotes<br />Includes the various protist kingdoms and the kingdoms Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia<br />
  28. 28. Kingdom Plantae consists of multicellula eukaryotes that carry out photosynthesis, the conversion of light energy to food.<br />Bacteria are the most diverse and widespread prokaryotes and are now divided among multiple kingdoms. Each of the rod-shapedstructures in this photo is a bacterial cell.<br />Protists (multiple kingdoms)<br />are unicellular eukaryotes and their relatively simple multicellular relatives.Pictured here is an assortment of protists inhabiting pond water. Scientists are currently debating how to split the protistsinto several kingdoms that better represent evolution and diversity. <br />4 µm<br />100 µm<br />DOMAIN ARCHAEA<br />Kindom Animalia consists of multicellular eukaryotes thatingest other organisms.<br />Kindom Fungi is defined in part by thenutritional mode of its members, suchas this mushroom, which absorb nutrientsafter decomposing organic material.<br />Many of the prokaryotes known <br />as archaea live in Earth‘s extreme environments, such as salty lakes and boiling hot springs. Domain Archaea includes multiple kingdoms. The photoshows a colony composed of many cells.<br />0.5 µm<br />Figure 1.15<br />Life’s three domains<br />
  29. 29. 15 µm<br />1.0 µm<br />Cilia of Paramecium.The cilia of Parameciumpropel the cell throughpond water.<br />5 µm<br />Cross section of cilium, as viewed<br />with an electron microscope<br />Cilia of windpipe cells. The cells that line the human windpipe are equipped with cilia that help keep the lungs clean by moving a film of debris-trapping mucus upward.<br />Figure 1.16<br />Unity in the Diversity of Life<br />As diverse as life is<br />There is also evidence of remarkable unity<br />
  30. 30. Continuity and Discontinuity<br />God created organisms with enough continuity (similarities) to know that only ONE God was the Creator, yet with enough discontinuity (differences) to know that organisms could not have created (or evolved) themselves. <br />
  31. 31. Figure 1.18<br />The evolutionary view of life<br />Came into sharp focus in 1859 when Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection<br />
  32. 32. Figure 1.19<br />The Origin of Species articulated two main points<br />Descent with modification<br />Natural selection<br />
  33. 33. 1 Populations with varied inherited traits<br />2 Elimination of individuals with certain traits.<br />3 Reproduction of survivors.<br />Figure 1.21<br />4 Increasing frequency of traits that enhance survival and reproductive success. <br />Natural selection is the evolutionary process that occurs<br />When a population’s heritable variations are exposed to environmental factors that favor the reproductive success of some individuals over others<br />
  34. 34. Large ground finch<br />Large tree finch<br />Smallground<br />finch<br />Large cactus<br />ground finch<br />Camarhynchuspsitacula<br />Greenwarbler finch<br />Graywarbler finch<br />Geospiza<br />magnirostris<br />Geospizafuliginosa<br />Mediumtree finch<br />Sharp-beaked<br />ground finch<br />Woodpecker<br />finch<br />Mediumground<br />finch<br />Geospiza<br />conirostris<br />Certhideaolivacea<br />Certhideafusca<br />Geospiza<br />difficilis<br />Camarhynchuspauper<br />Cactusground finch<br />Cactospizapallida<br />Mangrovefinch<br />Geospiza<br />fortis<br />Small tree finch<br />Geospizascandens<br />Camarhynchusparvulus<br />Cactospiza<br />heliobates<br />Vegetarianfinch<br />Cactus flowereater<br />Seed eater<br />Seed eater<br />Platyspizacrassirostris<br />Insect eaters<br />Bud eater<br />Ground finches<br />Tree finches<br />Warbler finches<br />Common ancestor fromSouth American mainland<br />Figure 1.23<br />Darwin proposed that natural selection<br />Could enable an ancestral species to “split” into two or more descendant species, resulting in a “tree of life”<br />Macro vs. Micro Changes <br />
  35. 35. Creation and Evolution: Major Beliefs <br />
  36. 36. Creation and Evolution: Major Beliefs <br />
  37. 37. Creation and Evolution: Major Beliefs <br />
  38. 38. Creation and Evolution: Major Beliefs <br />
  39. 39.
  40. 40.
  41. 41. My Presupposition<br />1 The heavens declare the glory of God;        the skies proclaim the work of his hands. <br /> 2 Day after day they pour forth speech;        night after night they display knowledge. <br /> 3 There is no speech or language        where their voice is not heard.<br /> 4 Their voice goes out into all the earth,        their words to the ends of the world. <br />Psalm 19: 1-4<br />
  42. 42. Table 1.1<br />Eleven themes that unify biology<br />

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