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Unit1 Lecture1


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Unit1 Lecture1

  1. 1. BIO 3 Introduction to Biology Instructor: Francisca Herrera
  2. 2. Course Syllabus <ul><li>Course Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unit Reviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forums </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. What is a living thing? <ul><li>What are the characteristics of life? </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Living organisms are a carbon- and water-based cellular form with complex organization and heritable genetic information. </li></ul><ul><li>They undergo metabolism, possess a capacity to grow, respond to stimuli, reproduce, and, through natural selection, adapt to their environment in successive generations. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Properties of life <ul><li>Living organisms are: </li></ul><ul><li>a carbon- and water-based cellular form </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells are basic structural and physiological units of all living organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells are both distinct entities and building block of more complex organisms </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Properties of life <ul><li>Living organisms: </li></ul><ul><li>undergo metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Require Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells use nutrients to supply energy and build new structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolism: the sum total of chemical reactions that occur in an organism </li></ul></ul>Figure 1.2 Acquiring nutrient material and energy
  7. 8. Properties of life <ul><li>Living organisms: </li></ul><ul><li>respond to stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Respond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>helps ensure the survival of an organism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows an organism to carry on daily activities </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Properties of life <ul><li>Living organisms: </li></ul><ul><li>possess a capacity to grow… reproduce </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduce and Develop: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>asexual reproduction (clonal): produce exact replica of themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sexual reproduction (many strategies): exchange of genetic material between organisms </li></ul></ul>Figure 1.3 A Human Family
  9. 10. Properties of life <ul><li>Living organisms have: </li></ul><ul><li>heritable genetic information… through natural selection, adapt to their environment </li></ul><ul><li>Heredity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>genome – all DNA molecules in a cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adaptation – an organism’s modification in structure, function, or behavior suitable to the environment </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Properties of life <ul><li>Living organisms have: </li></ul><ul><li>complex organization </li></ul><ul><li>Life Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>biology is the scientific study of life </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Life is complex! <ul><li>There are levels of life: </li></ul>Figure 1.1 Levels of biological organization Small Molecules Large Molecules Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems Complex Organisms
  12. 13. Life is complex! <ul><li>There is diversity of life: </li></ul>Animals Fungi Plants Protists Archaea Bacteria 0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 Billions of Years Ago (BYA) BACTERI A ARCHAE A EUKA R Y A Figure 1.4 Evolutionary tree
  13. 14. Figure 1.6 Domain Bacteria Figure 1.5 Domain Archaea <ul><li>Prokaryotes: </li></ul><ul><li>single-celled organisms </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Eukaryotes: </li></ul><ul><li>multi-celled organisms </li></ul>Figure 1.8 Kingdom Fungi Figure 1.9 Kingdom Plantae Figure 1.10 Kingdom Animalia Figure 1.7 Kingdom Protista
  15. 16. Life is complex! <ul><li>There is taxonomic order to life: </li></ul>
  16. 17. Life is complex! <ul><li>There is ecological order to life: </li></ul>
  17. 18. Life is complex! <ul><li>Life is interconnected and interdependent: </li></ul>Heat Heat Heat Chemicals Chemicals Decomposers Consumers Producers Solar energy Figure 1.12 A grassland, a terrestrial ecosystem
  18. 19. The scientific process <ul><li>To understand such a complex subject, scientists developed the scientific method : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allows scientists to modify and correct their beliefs as new observations and information becomes available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>if well supported > theory! </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Core Ideas of Biology <ul><li>A theory is a unifying explanation that has been well supported time and time again. </li></ul><ul><li>There are four major unifying themes in the study of life. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Core Ideas of Biology <ul><li>The Cell Theory: </li></ul><ul><li>All organisms are composed of cells </li></ul><ul><li>All cells come from other cells </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Robert Hooke – named cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anton van Leeuwenhoek – </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“wee animalcules” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Core Ideas of Biology <ul><li>The Gene Theory: </li></ul><ul><li>All organisms have a genome </li></ul><ul><li>An organism’s genes determine what it will be like (secret code!) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>James Watson and Francis Crick – discovered DNA structure </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Core Ideas of Biology <ul><li>The Theory of Heredity: </li></ul><ul><li>The genes of any organism are inherited as discrete units </li></ul><ul><li>Those genes are packaged up in chromosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gregor Mendel – Mendelian segregation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Core Ideas of Biology <ul><li>The Theory of Evolution: </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms that can respond to the challenges of living will leave more offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Descent with modification! </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Darwin – living organisms are related to one another </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 26. Today’s Journal Entry <ul><li>Under the activities menu of the virtual classroom, click on the Journals link </li></ul><ul><li>Topic 1 – Introduction to Biology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are no wrong answers in the journal entries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer in complete sentences, in a clear and concise manner. </li></ul></ul>