What did you say? interculture communication [HICSS 45 2012-01-04


Published on

Intercultural communications workshop at the 45th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences 04 Jan 2012.

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

What did you say? interculture communication [HICSS 45 2012-01-04

  1. 1. What Did You Say?Intercultural Expectations, Misunderstandings, and Communication Greetings! I am pleased to see that we are different. May we together become greater than the sum of both of us. Surak in the Savage Curtain episode of Star Trek Frederick Zarndt
  2. 2. The problem
  3. 3. What did you say?• I most enthusiastically recommend this candidate with no qualifications whatsoever.
  4. 4. What did you say?• In my opinion you will be very fortunate to get this person to work for you.
  5. 5. What did you say?• Press ANY key to continue...
  6. 6. What did you say?• Please revert as soon as possible.
  7. 7. What does this mean? Fine for Parking Here
  8. 8. What do you see?The young girl The old womanis turning away... is very sad...
  9. 9. What do you see?
  10. 10. Why (better) communication is necessaryA recent survey of 752 IEEE members conducted by IEEE Spectrum and The New York Timesdiscovered that "just 9 percent of 133 respondents whose organizations currently offshore R&Dreported No problem. The biggest headache was Language, communication, or culture barriers, asreported by 54.1 percent of respondents." (http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/feb07/4881)In a March 2007 web poll conducted by the Computing Technology Industry Association "nearly 28percent of the more than 1,000 respondents singled out poor communications as the number onecause of project failure". (http://www.comptia.org/pressroom/get_pr.aspx?prid=1227)Nilay Oza et. al. in their study Critical Factors in Software Outsourcing: A Pilot Study of top Indianoutsourcing firms named cultural differences and language as the 2 most difficult among the 5 difficultyfactors identified in outsourcing relationships.In their 2006 study Crticial factors in establising and maintaing trust in software outsourcingrelationships presented at the International Conference on Software Engineering, Nguyen, Babar, andVerner identified communication and cultural understanding as the 2 factors most critical to maintainingtrust relationships.Huang and Trauth identified three themes as major cross-cultural challenges: "...the complexity oflanguage issues in global virtual work, culture and communication styles and work behaviors, andcultural understandings at different levels." (Cultural influences and globally distributed informationsystems development: Experiences from chinese IT professionals)
  11. 11. Why (better) communication is necessaryNo communication ...Little communication ...Poor communication ...Reduced communication ... ... all result in more assumptions about intent!
  12. 12. Why (better) communication is necessary
  13. 13. Why (better) communication is necessary• Because effective communication results in better understanding and ...• Better understanding of each other’s personal / business needs leads to ...• Better personal / business relationships which in turn leads to ...• More harmony in personal / business relationships, and ...• Understanding is more fun than misunderstanding!
  14. 14. Exercise: Introductions• Introduce yourself and give your nationality• Say one thing about you that you really like• Say one thing about you that you don’t so much like• Tell one unique thing shared by all / most members of your native culture that is different from other cultures• Do this is 2 minutes or less!
  15. 15. What we will talk about ...• Human basics• How perception works• Influence of parents, family, culture, ...• Definitions of culture• Frameworks to understand cultures• Specific cultural differences• Influence of culture (software of the mind)• Simple principles for effective communication
  16. 16. Goals• Personal goal: Through my behaviour in thought, word, and deed to be and to become a better person• Business goal: Measured by the 4 way test • Is it the truth? • Is it fair to all concerned? • Will it build goodwill and better friendships? • Will it be beneficial to all concerned? Your goals?
  17. 17. Wiios laws: How  all  human  communica-on  fails   except  by  accident 1. Communication usually fails, except by accident 1.1 If communication can fail, it will 1.2 If communication cannot fail, it still most usually fails 1.3 If communication seems to succeed in the intended way, theres a misunderstanding 1.4 If you are content with your message, communication certainly fails 2. If a message can be interpreted in several ways, it will be interpreted in a manner that maximizes the damage 3. There is always someone who knows better than you what you meant with your message 4. The more we communicate, the worse communication succeeds 4.1 The more we communicate, the faster misunderstandings propagateOsmo A Wiio in “Wiion lait - ja vähän muidenkin” cf. http://www.cs.tut.fi/~jkorpela/wiio.html
  18. 18. Simple principles • Be impeccable with your word • Don’t take anything personally • Don’t make assumptions • Always do your best • Be mindfulAdapted from The Four Agreements by don Miguel Ruiz
  19. 19. The basic human
  20. 20. Genetic difference at most 0.5%
  21. 21. Genes, neurons, and synapses: How humans are alike• Humans have about 3,000,000 nucleotides. Maximum genetic variation based on • single nucleotide polymorphism is 0.1% or 1 difference in 1000 base pairs • copy number variation resulting from deletions, insertions, inversions, and duplications is 0.4%• Total maximum genetic difference between two randomly selected humans is ~0.5%.• Genetic difference between human and chimpanzee is ~4%.
  22. 22. Purkinje neuron in cerebellar cortex
  23. 23. Genes, neurons, and synapses: How humans are different• Estimated number of neurons in an adult human brain 10,000,000,000 (1011)*• Estimated number of synapses in an adult human brain: 100,000,000,000,000 (1014)• Estimated number of synaptic connections for each neuron: 7,000• Number of combinations of n (1011) neurons with s (7000) synapses C (n, s) = C (1011, 7000) is very large (for example, the number of combinations of n (52) cards taken 5 at a time C (52,5) is 2,598,960* Anotherestimate is 86 x 109 total neurons, 16.3 x 109 in the cerebral cortexand 69 x 109 in the cerebellum.
  24. 24. Connectome map of nematode (roundworm) caenorhabditiselegans : ~302 neurons with 7000 neural connections
  25. 25. Basic human natureRegardless of culture, humans have 4 basic natures. Withonly slight racial and geographic differences, the physicalbody is the same for all cultures. How humans meet theirphysical needs -- water, food, shelter, procreation -- andfulfill their emotional, mental, and spiritual natures differsfrom culture to culture and from person to person.Physical Vehicle comprised of “meat” body and its needs. (Latin physica ‘things relating to nature’.)Emotional Motivational force for human activities. (Latin emovere ‘move’.)Mental Sets goals, creates problems, solves problems. (Latin mens ‘mind’, Indo-European / Sanskrit ‘revolve in the mind, think’.)Spiritual Relationship to creator. (Latin spirare ‘breathe’.)
  26. 26. Basic human activitiesBasic physical needs -- water, food, shelter, procreation --are fulfilled in variety of culture specific ways. Once theseneeds are met, humans from every culture engage in 4fundamental activities.Relationship Manner in which one connects to and interacts with other humans. (Latin referre ‘bring back’.)Work Physical and mental activity intended to achieve a purpose or result or to create something.Recreation Activities done for enjoyment and to re - create oneself. (Latin recreare ‘to create again, renew’.)Devotion Activities to fulfill and develop spiritual nature. (Latin devotionem ‘to dedicate by a vow’.)
  27. 27. PerceptionTo become conscious of or aware of through the senses(Latin perceptiōn or perciptio: comprehension, taking in)
  28. 28. Reticular activating systemThe Reticular Activating System(RAS) is a structure common tomammals that is necessary forconsciousness to occur.RAS filters data coming to yourmind so that your perception ofevents agrees with your pastexperience. MidbrainEverything you see, hear, smell,feel and touch is a message Ponsentering your brain. RAS filters RAS Noise (+)through all these messages and Medulladecides which ones will get Exercise (+)attention from your consciousness.
  29. 29. PerceptionMuch of what you think happened or what you think youheard is based on misperception.
  30. 30. Perception• Mother and daughter• Innocence Project • Eyewitness misidentification is the single greatest cause of wrongful convictions, playing a role in more than 75% of convictions overturned through DNA testing. • Exonerated 258 wrongfully convicted men (as of Aug 2010)• Crab Nebula supernova • In 1054 a star in the region of what is now know as the Crab Nebula exploded. For several days it was the 3rd brightest object in the sky, bright enough to be seen in daytime. • The supernova was observed and recorded by Chinese, Japanese, and Arab astronomers and by native Americans. There are few and very obscure recorded European observations.
  31. 31. Process of perception1. Observation2. Interpretation3. Evaluation or judgement
  32. 32. That man is runningPerception: Observation
  33. 33. He must be late...Perception: Interpretation?
  34. 34. Those foreigners are always in a hurry!Perception: Judgement
  35. 35. Exercise: MisperceptionsThink of one of your own misperceptions or amisperception that you witnessed. It may have been theresult of your own personal or cultural programming or theresult of your assumptions about a situation, relationship, orthe circumstances.
  36. 36. Software of the mind
  37. 37. Definitions of cultureCulture is like the color of your eyes: You cannot hide it and can change it onlywith difficulty, and although you yourself cannot see it, it is always visible toothers when you interact with them.Culture Any knowledge passed from one generation to the next, notnecessarily with respect to human beings.Culture is a collective phenomenon shared with people within the same socialenvironment.Culture is learned, it is not innate.Culture is different from personality but the border between culture andpersonality is fuzzy.
  38. 38. Levels of mental programmingSpecific to Individual Personality Inherited and Learned Specific to Group Culture Learned Universal Human Nature Inherited
  39. 39. Definitions of cultureCulture The attitudes and behavior characteristics of a particular social group(from the Latin cultura stemming from colere “to cultivate”). Oxford AmericanDictionaryCulture is the way in which a group of people solves problems and reconcilesdilemmas. Trompenaars and Hampden-TurnerCulture is the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes themembers of one group or category of people from others. Hofstede andHofstedeCulture means the total body of tradition borne by a society and transmittedfrom generation to generation. It ... refers to the norms, values, standards bywhich people act, and it includes the ways distinctive in each society of orderingthe world and rendering it intelligible. Culture is...a set of mechanisms forsurvival, but it provides us also with a definition of reality. It is the matrix intowhich we are born, it is the anvil upon which our persons and destinies areforged. Murphy
  40. 40. Cultural expectationsCultures similar Cultures different Behaviors and values
  41. 41. Culture stereotypes Ability to put things in conceptual categories is fundamental to perception.Advantages of stereotypes Disadvantages of stereotypesPrediction of cultural behaviors Stereotypical behavior does not match real behaviorIlluminates intent Expected intent disguises real intentHelps one avoid giving offense
  42. 42. Exercise: Cultural stereotypesThink of a cultural stereotype from your own or fromanother culture. Think of advantages, disadvantages, anddangers of the stereotype.
  43. 43. ment, while an average of greater than 4.5 reflects a true CQ strength. grew. Confid of a particul Rate the extent to which you agree with each statement, using the scale: A person 1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = neutral, 4 = agree, 5 = strongly agree. ble of under cultures will meet with h Before I interact with people from a new culture, I ask contrast, a p myself what I hope to achieve. upon confro If I encounter something unexpected while working in a failure, reen new culture, I use this experience to figure out new ways motivated, h to approach other cultures in the future. pend on obt I plan how I’m going to relate to people from a different conventiona culture before I meet them. Hyong MExercise: + When I come into a new cultural situation, I can immediately sense whether something is going well or something is wrong. cially mixed when he hea velopment tComplete the from the sa Total ÷4= Cognitive CQ engineering, did not go sm ample, objeccultural tempt to ad It’s easy for me to change my body language (for bags because example, eye contact or posture) to suit people from excessively. T a different culture. so public thaintelligence I can alter my expression when a cultural encounter requires it. vene. Althou felt chastene Copyright © 2004 Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved. I modify my speech style (for example, accent or tone) harder to gaiquestionnaire to suit people from a different culture. by convincin + I easily change the way I act when a cross-cultural bags could m though he h encounter seems to require it. tional teams teams had g Total ÷4= Physical CQ vere. He com disagreemen able to help I have confidence that I can deal well with people from ferences, so I a different culture. I am certain that I can befriend people whose cultural How Head backgrounds are different from mine. Together At the end o I can adapt to the lifestyle of a different culture with acquired UK relative ease. ment. At the a decorous, + I am confident that I can deal with a cultural situation that’s unfamiliar. pany known of an earlier Total ÷4= Emotional/ was informa motivational CQ trepreneuria harvard business review • october 2004
  44. 44. Cultural models• Hofstede’s 5 Dimensions of Culture• Richard Lewis’s Cultural Categories• Tropenaar’s 6 Cultural Dimensions• Others ...
  45. 45. Hofstede’s 5 dimensions of culture • Model was first based on survey data from 100,000 employees in 50 IBM subsidiaries around the world (~1980). • Value survey modules (VSM) have been administered by others with similar results. • Each dimension has opposite extremes. Based on research andpublications by Geert and Gert Jan Hofstede
  46. 46. Geert Hofstede’s 5 dimensions of culture • Power distance • Masculine / feminine • Individualism / collectivism • Uncertainty avoidance • Long-term / short-term orientation
  47. 47. Some more equal than others: Power distancePower distance is the extent to which the less powerfulmembers of an organization within a country expect andaccept that power is distributed unequally.
  48. 48. Small power distance Large power distance Inequalities among people should be minimized Inequalities among people are expected and desiredHierarchy in organizations means an inequality of roles, Hierarchy in organizations reflects existential inequality established for convenience between higher and lower levels Managers rely on their own experience and on Managers rely on superiors and on formal rules subordinates Subordinates expect to be consulted Subordinates expect to be told what to do Privileges and status symbols are frowned upon Privileges and status symbols are normal and popular Manual work has the same status as office work White-collar jobs are valued more than blue-collar jobs There are fewer supervisory personnel There are more supervisory personnel Parents treat children as equals Parents teach children obedience Teachers are experts who transfer impersonal truths Teachers are gurus who transfer personal wisdom
  49. 49. Small power Large power distance distanceEmployee Director Employee Director
  50. 50. Power distance cultural differencesSmall Power Distance Large Power Distance
  51. 51. Exercise: The emperor’s new clothesYou are a software engineer with 10 years experience. Forthe last 2 years, you have been part of a 5 person team ofequally experienced engineers at the Lee Corporation.One day during a team meeting, the team leader asks theteam to develop an unneeded module, one not described inthe project specifications. What do you do? [2]
  52. 52. Exercise: MarsTech IncYou are the CEO of a new technology companyheadquartered on Mars. The company will initially haveabout 100 employees: 25 each from Denmark and NewZealand (low power distance cultures) and 25 each fromIndia and China (high power distance cultures). Design anorganizational culture which optimizes productivity,personal, and professional growth for all employees. [2]
  53. 53. I, we and they: Individualism and collectivismIn individualistic cultures ties between individuals areloose, everyone is expected to look after himself orherself.In collectivistic cultures people from birth onward areintegrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, whichthroughout people’s lifetimes continue to protect them inexchange for unquestioning loyalty.
  54. 54. Collectivist Individualist Purpose of education is learning how to do Purpose of education is learning how to learnEmployees are members of in-groups who will pursue their Employees are “economic men” who will pursue in-group’s interest employer’s interest if it coincides with their interest Employer-employee relationship is basically moral, like a Employer-employee relationship is a contract between family link parties on the labor market Relationship prevails over task Task prevails over relationship High-context communication prevails Low-context communication prevails On personality tests, people score more introvert On personality tests, people score more extrovert Harmony should be maintained and direct confrontations Speaking one’s mind is a characteristic of an honest avoided person Interdependent self Independent self Occupational mobility is lower Occupational mobility is higher
  55. 55. Perception of relationships COLLECTIVISTIC CULTURES more perceivedingroup intercultural distance outgroup P P less perceived ingroup outgroup intercultural distance INDIVIDUALISTIC CULTURES
  56. 56. Individual / collective cultural differencesMore individualism More collectivism
  57. 57. Exercise: Who is responsible?A new employee joins an experienced production team.The employee receives the usual training (same trainingthat all production teams receive) and passes a proficiencyexam. During her/his 1st week on the production line, s/hemakes a mistake that cause several days of production tobe recalled. Who is responsible? [2]
  58. 58. Exercise: Who earns the bonus?Should a bonus be paid to the best individual performer in ahigh performing group or should it be paid to the entiregroup even though some members of the group are belowaverage performers? [2]
  59. 59. He and she, masculine and feminine, tough and tenderA culture is masculine (tough) when emotional genderroles are clearly distinct; men are supposed to beassertive, tough, and focused on material success,whereas women are supposed to be more modest,tender, and concerned with the quality of life.A culture is feminine (tender) when emotional genderroles overlap: both men and women are allowed to bemodest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life.
  60. 60. Masculine FeminineChallenge, earnings, recognition, and advancement are Relationships and quality of life are important important Men should be assertive, ambitious, and tough Both men and women should be modest Women are supposed to be tender and take care of Both men and women can be tender and focus on relationships relationshipsBrides need to be chaste and industrious, grooms don’t Bridegrooms and brides are held to the same standards People live in order to work People work in order to live Resolution of conflicts by letting the strongest win Resolution of conflicts by compromise and negotiationThere is a lower share of working women in professional There is a higher share of working women in professional jobs jobs Students underrate their own performance; ego-Students overrate their own performance; ego-boosting effacement Women shop for food, men for cars Women and men shop for food and cars
  61. 61. Exercise: Who decides?Marriage customs differ from culture to culture, sometimessignificantly. Broadly speaking, the two most commontypes of marriage are parent- or family-arranged marriagesand romantic marriages where each partner chooses forhim/herself. Within your groups discuss the advantages/disadvantages of the assigned marriage custom. Then withanother group (odds with evens), create a new marriagecustom taking the best from both types of marriages. • Odds to favor arranged marriages • Evens to favor romantic marriages [2 x 2]
  62. 62. Masculine / feminine cultural differencesMore masculine More feminine
  63. 63. What is different is dangerous: Uncertainty avoidanceUncertainty avoidance is the extent to which themembers of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous orunknown situations, often expressed through nervousstress (anxiety) and in a need for predictability.
  64. 64. Weak uncertainty avoidance Strong uncertainty avoidance More changes of employer, shorter service Fewer changes of employer, longer service There is an emotional need for rules, even if these will notThere should be no more rules than necessary work There is an emotional need to be busy and an inner urge Hard-working only when needed to work hard There is tolerance for ambiguity and chaos There is need for precision and formalization Focus on decision process Focus on decision content Low stress and low anxiety High stress and high anxiety What is different is curious What is different is dangerous Top managers are concerned with strategy Top managers are concerned with daily operations Teachers may say “I don’t know” Teachers are supposed to have all the answers
  65. 65. Exercise: Risk seekers / Risk averse Australia • Brazil • China • Denmark • Finland • France • Germany Great Britain • India • Ireland • Japan • New Zealand • Norway Pakistan • Singapore • Switzerland • Thailand • USAFrom the list above, choose 2 cultures that are likely tofoster individuals that will readily take risks and 2 culturesthat are likely to foster individuals that are risk averse.Justify your choices. [2]
  66. 66. Exercise: Risk seekers / Risk averseThe year is 2050. A company headquartered on Mars hassent you a very attractive employment offer. The offerrequires a minimum commitment of 5 years on Mars. Underwhat conditions (if any) would you accept employment?Fact for this Exercise: More than 21,000 people have emigrated to Mars andabout one hundred children have been born on Mars.
  67. 67. Uncertainty avoidance cultural differencesStrong uncertainty avoidance Weak uncertainty avoidance
  68. 68. Yesterday, now, or later: Long- and short-term orientationCultures with long-term orientation foster virtues orientedtoward future rewards, in particular, perseverance and thrift.Cultures with short-term orientation foster virtues relatedto the past and present, in particular, respect for traditionand fulfilling social obligations.
  69. 69. Long-term orientation Short-term orientation Perseverance, sustained efforts toward slow results Efforts should produce quick results Respect for circumstances Respect for traditions Concern with personal adaptiveness Concern with personal stability Willingness to subordinate oneself for a purpose Concern with social and status obligations Leisure time is not important Leisure time is important Focus is on market position Focus is on bottom lineMain work values include learning, honesty, adaptiveness, Main work values include freedom, rights, achievement, accountability, and self-discipline and thinking for oneself Investment in lifelong, personal networks Personal loyalties vary with business needs Marriage is a pragmatic arrangement Marriage is a moral arrangement
  70. 70. Exercise: Cultures with long-term and short-term orientations Australia • Brazil • China • Denmark • Finland • France • Germany Great Britain • India • Ireland • Japan • New Zealand • Norway Pakistan • Singapore • Switzerland • Turkey • USAFrom the list above, choose 1 culture with long-termorientation and choose 1 culture with short-term orientation.Justify your choice. [2]
  71. 71. Long-term / Short-term orientationLong-term orientation Short-term orientation
  72. 72. Exercise: What will you do?A distant, wealthy relative recently died. In his will he leftyou USD $10,000. There are no conditions on theinheritance except that you must invest or spend the moneyas follows: Invest the money in the XYZ hedge fund* orspend the money on a holiday in Hawaii. What would youdo and why?*The hedge fund is 10 years old and has had an average historical annual returnthat barely exceeds inflation.
  73. 73. Richard Lewis’s cultural categories• Based on Lewis’s experience as linguist (speaks 12 languages) and as cross-cultural trainer for companies in 60+ countries• Based on Lewis’s study of organisational behaviour• Founded Berlitz schools in East Asia, Portugal, Finland, and lived several years in Japan as advisor and tutor to the Japanese imperial family• Knighted by President of Finland in 1997 for his service to the country
  74. 74. Richard Lewis’s cultural categories Linear-active cultures tend to be task-oriented, highly organized planners who complete action-chains by doing one thing at a time, preferably in accordance with a linear agenda. Multi-active cultures are loquacious, impulsive, like to do many things at the same time, and attach great importance to feelings, relationships and people-orientation. Reactive cultures rarely initiate action or discussion, preferring first to listen to and establish the other’s position, then react to it and formulate their own. Reactive cultures listen before they leap.Adapted from Richard D Lewis
  75. 75. Cultural types modelFigure copyright Richard D Lewis
  76. 76. Culture category statistics Linear-active 600,000,000 Multi-active 3,300,000,000 Reactive 1,700,000,000 Hybrid (multi-active and 290,000,000 reactive) Total (approx.) 6,000,000,000Adapted from Richard D Lewis
  77. 77. Common cultural traits Linear-active Multi-active Reactive introvert extrovert introvert patient impatient patient quiet talkative silent minds own business inquisitive respectful likes privacy gregarious good listener plans ahead methodically plans grand outline only looks at general principles does one thing at a time does several things at once reacts works fixed hours works any hours flexible hours punctual not punctual punctual dominated by timetables and timetable unpredictable reacts to partner’s timetable schedules compartmentalizes projects lets one project influence another sees whole picture sticks to plans changes plans makes slight changes sticks to facts juggles facts statements are promises gets information from statistics, gets first-hand (oral) information uses both first-hand and researched reference books, database, internet information job-oriented people-oriented people-orientedTable copyright Richard D Lewis
  78. 78. Common cultural traits Linear-active Multi-active Reactive unemotional emotional quietly caring works within department gets around all departments considers all departments follows correct procedures pulls strings networks accepts favors reluctantly seeks favors protects face of other delegates to competent colleagues delegates to relations delegates to reliable people completes action chains complete human transactions reacts to partner likes fixed agendas interrelates everything thoughtful brief on telephone talks for hours summarizes well uses memoranda rarely writes memos plans slowly respects officialdom seeks out (top) key person ultra-honest dislikes losing face has ready excuses must not lose face confronts with logic confronts emotionally avoids confrontation limited body language unrestricted body language subtle body language rarely interrupts interrupts frequently doesn’t interrupt separates social / professional interweaves social / professional connects social and professionalTable copyright Richard D Lewis
  79. 79. Exercise: What will you do?You must fly to a business meeting in another country. Youask your good friend to drive you to the airport. Whilstdriving to the airport, your friend hits and seriously injures apedestrian. S/he drives on without stopping. Later thepolice catch her/him and expect you to testify in court.What can your friend expect you to say?
  80. 80. Culture and emotions
  81. 81. Culture and emotions • “Humans are reaction machines.” • “When you are angry, you will make the best speech you will ever regret.”William Ury , co-founder of Harvards Program on Negotiation and SeniorFellow of the Harvard Negotiation Project.
  82. 82. Culture and emotions• “Universal” emotions such as anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise are common to all cultures.• Individualistic cultures tend to direct attention to inner states and feelings (such as positive or negative affects).• Collectivistic cultures tend to direct attention to outer sources (adhering to social norms or fulfilling one’s duties).• Suh et al. found that the correlation between life satisfaction and the prevalence of positive affect is higher in individualistic cultures, whereas in collectivistic cultures affect and adhering to norms are equally important for life satisfaction.
  83. 83. What is this man feeling?Anger • Disgust • Neutral • Fear • Joy • Surprise • Sadness
  84. 84. What is this man feeling?Anger • Disgust • Neutral • Fear • Joy • Surprise • Sadness
  85. 85. What is this man feeling?Anger • Disgust • Neutral • Fear • Joy • Surprise • Sadness
  86. 86. What is this man feeling?Anger • Disgust • Neutral • Fear • Joy • Surprise • Sadness
  87. 87. What is this man feeling?Anger • Disgust • Neutral • Fear • Joy • Surprise • Sadness
  88. 88. What is this man feeling?Anger • Disgust • Neutral • Fear • Joy • Surprise • Sadness
  89. 89. What is this man feeling?Anger • Disgust • Neutral • Fear • Joy • Surprise • Sadness
  90. 90. What is this man feeling?Anger Disgust Neutral Fear Joy Surprise Sadness
  91. 91. Culture and emotionsShame is an automatic involuntary response to a personalfailure attributed to the self. The failure is relative tosomeone else’s expectations. Shame is a social emotionthat involves self-consciousness.
  92. 92. Exercise: Personal failureAt the beginning of the year, you promise or are assigned aquota of X (dollars, lines of code, whatever). At the end ofthe year you have produced only X/2. Your supervisor isnot pleased. What is your reaction to your failure?
  93. 93. Culture and emotionsA study examined the effects of shame on salespersons in Holland (anindividualistic culture) and the Philippines (a collectivistic culture). They foundthat bad experiences with clients led to similar shame emotions in both cultures.However, the responses to this shame were opposite: shame caused Dutchsalespersons to withdraw and to perform poorer on their job, apparentlybecause they directed most of their mental resources inwards, to defend theself.Filipino salespersons felt shame all the same; however, the shame caused themto put more efforts in building relationship and thus to perform better on the job.Moreover, Filipino salespersons demonstrated more Organizational CitizenshipBehaviors (OCB) after experiencing shame. The reason for this is that incollectivistic cultures shame signals that social harmony has been hamperedand that the individual should act to rebuild it.
  94. 94. Exercise: MacDonald’s mulesFarmer MacDonald died. His will leaves 17 mules to hisdaughters: His daughter Xiaoping gets 1/2 of the seventeenmules, his daughter Mary 1/3, and daughter Susheela 1/9of the mules. Without killing or cutting any of the mules,find a way to equitably meet the terms of old MacDonald’swill. [2]
  95. 95. Basic communication
  96. 96. How do you communicate?• Communication is at most 30% verbal!• Remainder - 70% or more - is comprised of gestures, facial expressions, tone of voice, posture, odors, ...• Telephone communication removes gestures, facial expressions, posture, odors, etc. Only words and tone of voice remain.• Written communication - email, letters, etc - removes all modes of communication save for words.
  97. 97. Simple principles • Be impeccable with your word • Don’t take anything personally • Don’t make assumptions • Always do your best • Be mindfulAdapted from The Four Agreements by don Miguel Ruiz
  98. 98. Be impeccable with your word• Take responsibility for your words and actions.• Respect others and yourself.• Be aware of your intent.• Consider the effect that your words will have on those who hear them.• Do not lie to yourself or to others.• Do not gossip.
  99. 99. Don’t take anything personally• To take stuff personally is expression of selfishness: You assume that everything is about you.• Nothing others do is because of you: It is because of the others’ programming.• Act, don’t react: When you take stuff personally, you feel offended by others’ words and your reaction is to defend your beliefs thus creating conflict.
  100. 100. Don’t make assumptions• Human has need to explain and understand everything. It doesn’t matter if the explanation is correct -- the explanation by itself makes us feel safe.• Problem with assumptions is that we believe they are the truth.• Do not assume that your partner (business or personal) knows what you think and therefore you don’t have to say what you want.• Do not assume that others think the way we think, feel the way we feel, and judge the way we judge.• Stop making assumptions: Have courage to ask questions!• Make sure communication is clear. Even then don’t assume you know everything about a situation.• Communicate “This is what I want. That is what you want.”
  101. 101. Always do your best• Do no more or less than your best.• Reasonable balance.• Your best changes one moment to next moment.• Don’t beat yourself up when you fail to do your best.
  102. 102. Be mindful• Mindfulness is being in touch with and aware of the present moment, as well as taking a non-evaluative and non-judgmental approach to it.• Mindfulness is paying attention in a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment, and non-judgmentally.• Mindfulness is a kind of non-elaborative, nonjudgmental, present-centered awareness in which each thought, feeling, or sensation that arises is acknowledged and accepted as it is.• When the mind is not mindful and attentive, it follows its habitual patterns of liking, disliking, rejecting, pursuing, projecting, and being for and against things. Clear attentiveness is awareness that is free from the process of reacting, without adding or subtracting anything from the experience.
  103. 103. Cross-cultural proficiency• Develop awareness of your own mental software and cultural assumptions.• Refine your perception of others’ mental software and cultural background.• Increase your knowledge of other cultures, countries, and languages.• Acquire skills in interacting with people from other cultures: Practice!• Be mindful!
  104. 104. Basic communication principlesSimple Keep It Simple Stupid (KISS principle)Repeat Say it twice in different waysListen Repeat what you hearRespect Respect yourself and others
  105. 105. More communication principles• When we speak to others in a language that is not our own, we often unconsciously transfer elements from our own language into the other.• When someone speaks your language, you tend to assume that they also share your thoughts and assumptions.• Unless you understand very well proverbs from a language that is not your own, don’t use them.• Humor does not translate well!• Conversational taboos usually include religion and politics as well as questions about health, age, weight, income.• Effective verbal communication is expected to be explicit, direct, and unambiguous. Say what you mean as precisely and straightforwardly as possible.• Some western cultures view a person who is being indirect as tricky, deceptive, and of questionable integrity. At best indirect communication is viewed as a waste of time.• Some eastern cultures view a person who is being direct as rude and of questionable honor. At best direct communication is viewed as impolite.
  106. 106. Organizing information• Particularistic thinkers tend to feel that a personal relationship is more important than obeying rules or laws.• Universal thinkers tend to obey rules and laws; relationships are less important than duty to company, society, and authority in general.• Abstract thinkers tend to be universal thinkers.
  107. 107. Organizing information• Open-minded people seek out (more) information before making a decision• Close-minded people see only a narrow range of possibilities and ignore the rest• Most cultures produce close-minded people!
  108. 108. Exercise: Close-minded or not?Do you agree with the statement that most culturesproduce close-minded people? Why?
  109. 109. Processing information• Associative thinkers process information using personal experience. Educational systems that teach by rote learning tend to produce associative thinkers.• Abstract thinkers process information by extrapolating data and considering hypothetical situations. Educational systems that teach by problem-solving tend to produce abstract thinkers.• No country has more than its share of smart or dull people!
  110. 110. Exercise: Invent a gestureInvent a gesture that a driver can use to apologize forunintentionally cutting off another driver. The gesture mustbe usable in any country. [2]
  111. 111. Selected Bibliography• Benedict, Ruth. Patterns of culture. Houghton Mifflin Company. 1934..• CultureGrams World Edition 2007 <various countries>. Proquest Information and Learning Company. http://www.culturegrams.com• Dafoulas, Georgios and Linda Macaulay. Investigating cultural differences in virtual software teams. The Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries. 2001.• Hayakawa, S.I. et al. Language and Thought in Action. 5th edition. Harcourt. 1991.• Hofstede, Geert and Gert Jan Hofstede. Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. Mc-Graw Hill. 2005.• Hofstede, Gert Jan, Paul B Pedersen, and Geert Hofstede. Exploring culture: Exercises, stories, and synthetic cultures. Intercultural Press. 2002.• Lewis, Richard D. When cultures collide: Leading across cultures. 3rd edition. Nicholas Brealey International. 2006.• Morrison, Terri and Wayne A Conaway. Kiss, bow, or shake hands. 2nd edition. Adams Media. 2006.• Ruiz, Miguel. The four agreements: A practical guide to personal freedom. Amber- Allen Publishing Inc. 1997.• Thomas, David C and Kerr Inkson. Cultural Intelligence: Living and Working Globally. 2nd edition. Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc. 2009.• Trompenaars, Fons and Charles Hampden-Turner. Riding the waves of culture: Understanding diversity in global business. 2nd edition. Mc-Graw Hill. 1998.
  112. 112. Where there is light in the soul,心善人品美 There is beauty in the person. Where there is beauty in the person,人美家庭和 There is harmony in the home.家和国势荣 Where there is harmony in the home,国荣天下安 There is honor in the nation. Where there is honor in the nation, There is peace in the world. Frederick Zarndt Coronado CA 92118 USA +1.801.361.3204 frederick@frederickzarndt.com