Pepe de Murga
Nguyen Thi Thien An
Professor Geert Hofstede is a
Dutch social psychologist
recognised internationally for
having developed the first
empirical model of “dimensions“
of national culture.
Hofstede can be regarded as
one of the leading
representatives of intercultural
research and studies. The
findings of his research and his
theoretical ideas are used
worldwide in both psychology
and management studies.
Power Distance Index (PDI)
This dimension expresses the degree to which the
less powerful members of a society accept and
expect that power is distributed unequally.
Individualism – Collectivism
The map shows how the individualism is in different
Individualism shows the degree of interdependence
a society maintains among its members.
Hofstede Combined Cultural
Masculinity (PDI & MAS) Score
A high score (masculine) refers that the society will be driven by competition, achievement and success.
A low score (feminine) means that the dominant values in society are caring for others and quality of life. A
feminine society is one where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd is not
Uncertainty avoidance index (UAI)
The uncertainty avoidance dimension expresses the
degree to which the members of a society feel
uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity.
Pragmatic (flexible) vs.
The life is so complex. Impossible to understand
Adaptive to circumstances and accept
Perseverance in achieving results.
Need to explain everything as much as possible.
Great respect for personal traditions.
Indulgence vs. Restraint
Grade of freedom to grateful the natural drives relating to
enjoying life and having fun.
Society that suppress gratification regulating it by strict