Diagnosis and
Classification of
Psychological Problems
“We are not human beings on a spiritual journey.
We are spiritual beings on a human journey.”
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
Who am I?
Why am I in this world?
What is going to happen to me & my family?
How can I save the situation?
How can I atone...
Brain-Based Learning
-Neurons
Neurons -- carry electrical charges
and make chemical connections to
other neurons
Cell Body...
Human Brain
100 billion neurons -
each connected to other neurons by projections known as:
Axons: way neurons pass on info...
Each neuron has 1 axon and as many as 100,000
dendrites.
Synapses -- tiny gaps between axons and dendrites
(with chemical ...
Newborn – (100 billion brain cells) 50 trillion
connections
8 months - 1,000 trillion connections
10 years – 500 trillion ...
8 months - 1,000 trillion connections
10 years – 500 trillion connections
•A massive die-off occurs as half of
the connect...
Development
CORTEX
80% of the human brain – cortex has regions
specialized for particular functions that make
us human:
•a...
Neurons that Fire together
Wire together.
Input to the brain shapes the way we
experience the next input.
We are constantl...
Are Men’s and Women’s
Brains Different?
Men
 Have bigger brains.
 Have eyes which are more
sensitive to bright light.
 ...
The Mentally
Well
Individual
Fig. 4-3, p. 84
Establishes and
maintains close
relationships
Carries out
responsibilities
Pe...
What is a Mental Disorder?
A behavioral or
psychological syndrome
associated with distress
or disability with a
significan...
Mental illness is a profound crisis of
personal meaning.
Definitions of Abnormal
Behavior
 Conformity to norms: Statistical
 Infrequency or Violation of Social
 Norms
 Subject...
Conformity to norms: Statistical
Infrequency or Violation of
Social Norms
 A person’s behavior is abnormal if it is
 sta...
Assessment of Abnormal
Behavior
 Assessment = The systematic evaluation and
 measurement of psychological, biological, a...
Subjective distress
 A behavior or symptoms are abnormal if
 they causes the person distress?
Disability or dysfunction
 A behavior is abnormal if it creates
some degree of social (interpersonal) or
occupational pro...
Disability or dysfunction
 Advantages
 Requires little
 inference
 These type of
 problems often
 prompt treatment
...
Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual-IV-TR
 …The most widely accepted definition
 used in DSM-IV-TR describes
 behavioral,...
DSM-IV-TR
 Current diagnostic system
 Multiaxial:
 Axis I: Clinical Disorders
 Developmental Dis.(not
 mental retarda...
Objective psychological tests
Format
Standardized
MMPI-2, BDI,
WAIS-III
Reliable
Behavioral Observations
 In MSE, but in other assessments as
well
 Behavioral orientation
Neuropsychological (NP) Testing
and Neurological Exams
 NP testing:
 Test many areas of functioning
 Locate affected br...
Islamabad presentation psychosocial areas
Islamabad presentation psychosocial areas
Islamabad presentation psychosocial areas
Islamabad presentation psychosocial areas
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Islamabad presentation psychosocial areas

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Islamabad presentation psychosocial areas

  1. 1. Diagnosis and Classification of Psychological Problems
  2. 2. “We are not human beings on a spiritual journey. We are spiritual beings on a human journey.” Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
  3. 3. Who am I? Why am I in this world? What is going to happen to me & my family? How can I save the situation? How can I atone for my mistakes and sins? Boisen,A. The Exploration of the Inner World
  4. 4. Brain-Based Learning -Neurons Neurons -- carry electrical charges and make chemical connections to other neurons Cell Body -- contains the nucleus Axons -- long fibers (extending from the cell body) that transmit messages Dendrites -- short fibers (surrounding the cell body) that receive messages Synapses -- tiny gaps between axons and dendrites (with chemical bridges) that transmit messages www.educ.drake.edu/romig/cogito/brain_and_mind.html
  5. 5. Human Brain 100 billion neurons - each connected to other neurons by projections known as: Axons: way neurons pass on information (teach) and Dendrites: way neurons get information (learn)
  6. 6. Each neuron has 1 axon and as many as 100,000 dendrites. Synapses -- tiny gaps between axons and dendrites (with chemical bridges) that transmit messages. Learning and development occurs in the brain through the process of strengthening and weakening theses connections. 100 trillion constantly changing connections.
  7. 7. Newborn – (100 billion brain cells) 50 trillion connections 8 months - 1,000 trillion connections 10 years – 500 trillion connections •After birth a wild spurt of growth occurs as the brain races to make connections. •At times synapses are forming in a new brain at an incredible rate of three billion per second. The Race to Make Connections
  8. 8. 8 months - 1,000 trillion connections 10 years – 500 trillion connections •A massive die-off occurs as half of the connections disappear by puberty. •The death of connections is caused by a lack of interaction with the outside world. •Connections that are not strengthened by stimulation from the environment die off. Environment Shapes Connections in Brain
  9. 9. Development CORTEX 80% of the human brain – cortex has regions specialized for particular functions that make us human: •associating words with objects •forming relationships and reflecting on them
  10. 10. Neurons that Fire together Wire together. Input to the brain shapes the way we experience the next input. We are constantly priming our perceptions, matching the world to what we expect to sense and thus making it what we perceive it to be. A User’s Guide to the Brain – John Ratey M.D.
  11. 11. Are Men’s and Women’s Brains Different? Men  Have bigger brains.  Have eyes which are more sensitive to bright light.  Retain ability to see well at long distances longer in life.  Loses brain tissue more rapidly than women. Women  Use more neurons.  Hears a broader range of sounds.  Hearing remains sharper, longer.  Responds more intensely to emotions. The Bottom Line Neither gender’s brain is “better”.
  12. 12. The Mentally Well Individual Fig. 4-3, p. 84 Establishes and maintains close relationships Carries out responsibilities Perceives reality as it is Feels a sense of fulfillment in daily living Accepts own limitations and possibilities Values himself/ herself Pursues work that suits talents and training
  13. 13. What is a Mental Disorder? A behavioral or psychological syndrome associated with distress or disability with a significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or loss of freedom.
  14. 14. Mental illness is a profound crisis of personal meaning.
  15. 15. Definitions of Abnormal Behavior  Conformity to norms: Statistical  Infrequency or Violation of Social  Norms  Subjective distress  Disability or dysfunction
  16. 16. Conformity to norms: Statistical Infrequency or Violation of Social Norms  A person’s behavior is abnormal if it is  statistically infrequent (deviates  significantly from the average is above  the “cutoff point”  A person’s behavior is abnormal if it is  very unusual
  17. 17. Assessment of Abnormal Behavior  Assessment = The systematic evaluation and  measurement of psychological, biological, and social  factors in an individual presenting with a possible  psychological disorder  Diagnosis = The process of determining whether  the presenting problem(s) fit the criteria for a  particular mental disorder
  18. 18. Subjective distress  A behavior or symptoms are abnormal if  they causes the person distress?
  19. 19. Disability or dysfunction  A behavior is abnormal if it creates some degree of social (interpersonal) or occupational problems
  20. 20. Disability or dysfunction  Advantages  Requires little  inference  These type of  problems often  prompt treatment  seeking  Disadvantages  Difficulty  establishing  standards for  occupational or  social dysfunction
  21. 21. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV-TR  …The most widely accepted definition  used in DSM-IV-TR describes  behavioral, emotional or cognitive  dysfunctions that are unexpected in  their cultural context and associated  with personal distress or substantial  impairment in functioning.
  22. 22. DSM-IV-TR  Current diagnostic system  Multiaxial:  Axis I: Clinical Disorders  Developmental Dis.(not  mental retardation  Axis II: Personality Disorders  Mental Retardation  Axis III: General Medical  Conditions  Axis IV: Contributing Problems  Axis V: Rating of Functioning
  23. 23. Objective psychological tests Format Standardized MMPI-2, BDI, WAIS-III Reliable
  24. 24. Behavioral Observations  In MSE, but in other assessments as well  Behavioral orientation
  25. 25. Neuropsychological (NP) Testing and Neurological Exams  NP testing:  Test many areas of functioning  Locate affected brain areas  Advantage  Neurological exams:  CAT, MRI  PET

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