AssertivenessRequires every culture to find a solution, pertains to the cultural preference for : Dominance and forcefulness Nurturance and social supportDescribes the extent to which people value and prefer: Tough aggressiveness Tender non-aggressiveness
High-context culturesValue strength, success andtaking the initiative•Competition is good, winning isdesirable and rewards should goto those who are victorious.•People are encouragedto be competitive, visible andsuccessful•Representative cultures:Germany and Hong Kong
Low-contextculturesValue modesty, tenderness,warm relationships andcooperation• Competition is bad, a win-loseorientation is unacceptable andrewards should be shared amongall.• Nurturance and social supportare important, a sense of solidarity.• Friendliness is much moreimportant than brilliance• Typical cultures: Kuwait andThailand
Performanceorientation 1.Definition The degree to which a culture encourages and rewards people for their accomplishments
2.The ways people are regarded as superior to others1. Because of who they are: the “correct” family background, age, gender, birth order, school.2.Based on personal achievements: the amount of education, success in business, physical strength, occupation…
High performance- oriented cultures(In Canada and Singapore)Status is based on what aperson has accomplished.•Schooling and education arecritical to one’s success•People are expected todemonstrate some initiative inwork-related tasks andexpectations are high.
Low performance-oriented cultures Low performance-(In Colombia and Guatemala) oriented culturesStatus is based on who youare.Attending the “right” school isimportant, as are familyconnections, seniority, loyaltyand tradition.
3.People‘s preferred relationship to the natural and spirit worldAs Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck suggested:Some cultures view nature as something to be conquered and controlled.Others view themselves as subjected to nature.
High performance - oriented cultures• Assert their dominance overnature and try to shape theworld to fit their needs•Getting the job done is far moreimportant than maintainingeffective relationships•What really matters is the task-related results that show whatsomeone has accomplished•People value competitiveness,assertiveness and achievement.
Low performance-oriented cultures•People feel more controlledby nature and want to livein harmony with the naturaland spiritual environment.•Maintaining effectiverelationships is moreimportant than is gettingthe job done.•What matters most arecooperation, integrity andloyalty.
4.Edward Hall’s conceptHigh performance - oriented cultures Low performance-oriented culturesTend to be low-context Tend to be high-context•Prefer to use messages that are •Use high-context messages moreclear, explicit and direct often•Have a monochronic approach to •Their intent is to avoid directtime. confrontations and maintainTime is valuable and limited, events harmony in their relationshipsare sequential and punctuality ispreferred.
Future orientationDefinition: the extent to which a culture plans for forthcoming eventsIt describes the degree to which cultures advocate long-term planningDeferred gratification or the deeply felt satisfaction that comes from experiencing the simple pleasures of the present moment
Cultures are high in future Cultures are low in future orientation orientation (Iran, Hong Kong) (Portugal, Venezuela)•Believe that current pleasures are •Like to live “in the moment” andless important than future benefits. are less constrained by doubts about the past or concerns about=> Believe in planning, self-control the futureand activities that have a delayedimpact =>Prefer to enjoy fully the experiences currently under way.•Want to save money and otherresources •Are more likely to spend now rather than save for later=>Believe in strategic planning,value economic success => View material and spiritual achievements as opposing goals and prefer the latter.