Group A Arsalan Rehman Asim Rafique M.Faraz Zafar Safdar Mahmood (CR) Mukarram Rabbani Nasir javed
Surveying Instruments HOW WE USE INSTRUMENT DURING SURVEYING
Surveying Instrument Instruments used in surveying operations to measure vertical angles, horizontal angles, and distance.
Tripod A surveyor's tripod is a device used to support any one of a number of surveying instruments, such as theodolite, total stations ,levels or transits.
Level staff A level staff, also called levelling rod, is a graduated wooden or aluminum rod, the use of which permits the determination of differences in elevation In the photograph on the right, both a metric (left) and imperial (right) levelling rod are seen. This is a two-sided aluminum rod, coated white with markings in contrasting colours. The imperial side has a bright yellow background.
Total Station :- A total station is an electronic/optical instrument used in modern surveying To read distances from the instrument to a particular point.
Clinometer An instrument used by surveyors in order to measure an angle of inclination or elevation
Uses of Clinometers Indicating pitch and roll of vehicles, sail boats, and aircraft. Monitoring boom angle of cranes and material handlers. Measuring the "look angle" of a satellite antenna towards a satellite. Measuring movements in walls and/or the ground in civil engineering projects Measuring the angle of drilling in well-logging applications. Rollover warning, to alert equipment operator of possible tip over condition Determining the angle of the earth's magnetic field in respect to the horizontal plane. Measuring steepness of a ski slope. (<10o for beginners, 10o-20o "green", 15o-25o "blue", 25o-35o "black", 35o-45o "double black")
Compass A compass is a navigational survey instrument used for determining the “directions” which is relative to the Earth's magnetic pole
A compass can be used to calculate “heading” used with a “sextant” to calculate latitude” and with a “marine chronometer” to calculate “longitude”
DEVOLPMENT ERATH QUAKE SCENCE PLANS DIRECTION VEHICALS
ELEMENTS The Space Segment The User Segment The Control Segment
Principle of Gps Measurement of distance between satellite and receiver Wgs84
Use of Gps in now a days Military use Every day's life
Theodolite Most important application is measuring horizontal and vertical angles Horizontal distances and determine elevations
How to use A theodolite must be mounted on a level tripod or stand from where the user can observe. The observer can take a reading by looking through the telescope and adjusting the vertical crosshairs to match the extreme left of the survey target.