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THE COLD WAR BEGINS<br />
THE G.I. BILL<br />Provided college for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as GIs)<br />Provided one ye...
THE G.I. BILL<br />VA Mortgages paid for nearly 5 million new homes, by making homes affordable with low interest rates an...
Truman and civil rights<br />One of the major acts made <br />by Truman was when he made an executive order<br />to end se...
ELECTION of 1948<br />Truman angered many Southern Democrats by supporting integration<br />Many people didn’t think he wo...
THE COLD WAR<br />The era of confrontation and competition between the U.S. and the Soviet Union when the threat of nuclea...
Differing Philosophies<br /><ul><li>Believed in democratic forms of government
Believed economic stability would keep peace in the word
Believed the free enterprise system was necessary for economic growth
Believed in a communistic forms of government
 Believed in workers revolting (striking) against business owners and taking control of government
 Wanted to control countries between Russia and Germany</li></li></ul><li>Soviets take over Eastern Europe<br />Soviet tro...
The Iron Curtain<br />Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary Bulgaria and East Germany became satellite nations of Sovie...
Peep under the Iron curtain<br />March 6, 1946<br /><ul><li> Who is “Joe”?
 What part of Europe is sealed off?
 What does the wall symbolize?</li></li></ul><li>Letter from U.S. diplomat George Kennan that led to the U.S. policy of co...
Truman Doctrine<br />U.S. foreign policy established by President Truman saying the U.S. would protect democracies through...
Truman Doctrine<br />It pledged that the United States would fight Communism worldwide<br />Truman Doctrine was an extensi...
Aid for Europe<br />Secretary of State George Marshall toured Western Europe; witnessed widespread homelessness and famine...
Marshall Plan<br />U.S. plan for rebuilding Western Europe, and repelling communismafter World War II<br />Plan pumped bil...
Marshall Plan aids Western Europe<br />The Marshall Plan proved to be a great success<br />Within 4 years, countries recei...
Eastern European countries were offered to take part in the Marshall Plan…<br />What is this cartoon trying to say?<br />…...
The Potsdam Conference<br />The Potsdam Conference was a meeting of the Allied leaders during World War II to decide what ...
Germany Divided<br />British<br />After World War II, Germany was divided into four zones, occupied by French, British, Am...
East and West <br />Germany formed<br />East Berlin<br />West Berlin<br />East Germany<br />West Germany<br />In June of 1...
In response, the Soviets cut off West Berlin from the rest of the world with a blockade. (video – 1:46)<br />Eventual site...
Berlin Airlift<br />President Truman decided to avoid the blockade by flying in food and other supplies to the needy peopl...
Berlin Airlift<br />The airlift continued for 11 months before Stalin finally lifted the blockade<br />The Berlin Airlift ...
Birth of NATO<br />North Atlantic Treaty Organization<br />Formed in 1949 to protect Western Europe from Soviet aggression...
The Warsaw Pact<br />Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary Bulgaria and East Germany became satellite nations of Soviet...
Coming Up…<br />The Korean War<br />McCarthyism<br />
The Cold War Heats Up<br />
Cold War spreads to Asia<br />Communists take over in China<br />Mao Zedong takes control of Chinese government from Chang...
The Korean War<br />The  Cold War gets HOT<br />Following World War II, the Allies divided Korea at the 38th parallel <br ...
The Korean War<br />A “Police Action” (1950-1953)<br />Kim Il-Sung<br />Leader of<br />North Korea<br />Syngman Rhee<br />...
The Korean War<br />The Cold War gets HOT<br />On June 25, 1950, North Korea invades South Korea<br />UN forces under Maca...
The Korean War<br />China enters the war<br />North Koreans pushed back to border with China<br />Chinese enter war on the...
The Korean War<br />War ends in a stalemate<br />An armistice was signed ending the war in July 1953<br />Korea was divide...
A New Red Scare<br />U.S. citizens in 1950s feared Communists wanted to take over the world. This fear was known as the Re...
A New Red Scare<br />House Un-American Activities Committee <br />Committee set up to investigate Communist activities in ...
The Hollywood Ten<br />People who were accused of being Communists were often “blacklisted”<br />A group of Hollywood acto...
McCarthyism<br />In 1952, U.S. Senator Joe McCarthy began holding Senate hearings<br />Numerous Americans accused of havin...
U-2 Incident<br />Col. Francis Gary Powers’ spy plane was shot down over Soviet airspace in 1960<br />Incident cools Sovie...
Russians launch Sputnik<br />The Russians have beaten America into space—they have the technological edge!<br />
Russians launch Sputnik<br />Impact of Sputnik<br />Congress establishes the National Aeronautics and  Space Agency (NASA)...
The Space Race Begins<br />In 1961, Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin blasted off into space, making the Soviet Union the fir...
The Space Race Begins<br />Kennedy’s challenge was met on July 20, 1969, when Neil Armstrong became the first human to ste...
Berlin Wall Built<br />Soviets wanted to keep Germans from moving out of East Germany into West Berlin, where they could b...
Ich bin ein Berliner!(1963)<br />President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them!<br />
Castro embraces Communism<br />(1959) <br />Cuban dictator Fidel Castro embraces Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev<br />
Bay of Pigs Debacle <br />(1961)<br />CIA-trained Cuban exiles led an attack at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba in an attempt to o...
Cuban Missile Crisis<br />U.S. and Russia came extremely close to nuclear war when Russians place nuclear missiles in Cuba...
Cuban Missile Crisis<br />United States places an embargo on incoming shipments to Cuba from the Soviet Union, U.S. goes t...
Cuban Missile Crisis<br />Kennedy threatens a U.S. invasion of Cuba unless Soviet missiles are removed; U.S. moves to DEFC...
Vietnam War: 1965-1973<br />
THE VIETNAM WAR<br />
Key figures in the Vietnam War<br />Ho Chi Minh<br />William Westmoreland <br />Lyndon B. Johnson<br />American commander ...
Key figures in the Vietnam War<br />Robert McNamara<br />Richard Nixon<br />Ngo Dinh Diem<br />U.S. Secretary of Defense d...
Vietnam in the ’50s<br />Following World War II, the French controlled southeast Asia (known as Indochina)<br />Ho Chi Min...
Domino Theory<br />The Domino Theory was the belief that if one country fell to communism, the other Southeast Asian natio...
This map from an American magazine published 14th November 1950 shows how much they feared the spread of Communism in the ...
South Vietnam problems<br />The people of South Vietnam hated South Vietnamese president Ngo Dinh Diem. He was corrupt and...
Gulf of Tonkin Incident <br />In August of 1964, Pres. Johnson announced that North Vietnam ships had fired on two America...
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution<br />After accusing N. Vietnam of attacking the U.S., Johnson asked Congress to give him the aut...
Operation Rolling Thunder<br />The U.S. bombing campaign conducted against the North Vietnam from 1965 until 1968<br />The...
Vietcong<br />Guerrilla army based in South Vietnam (also known as the NLF) that fought the U.S. and South Vietnamese gove...
Vietcong Advantages<br /><ul><li>They were familiar with the landscape (rivers, lakes, etc.)
They could find a safe haven in Cambodia, Laos or South Vietnam
They could often count on the support of the local population</li></li></ul><li>Ho Chi Minh Trail<br />Path that ran from ...
Tet OffensiveJanuary 30 – June 8, 1968<br />In early 1968, the Vietcong and the North Vietnamese launched a surprise attac...
Tet Offensive<br />While the Vietcong suffered heavy losses, it was a major political victory for the Vietcong<br />Tet wa...
Credibility Gap<br />Opposition to the Vietnam War grew in the United States in the late 1960s<br />Many Americans were su...
My Lai Massacre<br />March 16th, 1968<br />An American platoon had massacred more than 200 South Vietnamese civilians who ...
Election of 1968<br />Johnson refuses to run for re-election<br />After Johnson refused to run for re-election and Bobby K...
Election of 1968<br />Nixon becomes president!<br />
Draft Lottery Begins<br />Many Americans who were against the war believed the United States had an unfair draft system<br...
Kent State MassacreMay 4, 1970<br />In April of 1970, President Nixon announced that American troops had invaded Cambodia<...
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Unit 8 Powerpoint (The Cold War Begins)

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  1. 1. THE COLD WAR BEGINS<br />
  2. 2. THE G.I. BILL<br />Provided college for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as GIs)<br />Provided one year of unemployment compensation<br />Millions of GIs bought homes, attended college, started business venture, or found jobs<br />
  3. 3. THE G.I. BILL<br />VA Mortgages paid for nearly 5 million new homes, by making homes affordable with low interest rates and 30 year loans. <br />President Franklin Roosevelt signs the GI Bill in 1944<br />Between 1945 and 1954, the U.S. added 13 million new homes to its housing stock<br />
  4. 4. Truman and civil rights<br />One of the major acts made <br />by Truman was when he made an executive order<br />to end segregation in<br /> the armed forces<br />Truman also asked Congress to pass a civil rights bill that would make lynching a federal crime<br />
  5. 5. ELECTION of 1948<br />Truman angered many Southern Democrats by supporting integration<br />Many people didn’t think he would be re-elected<br />Thomas Dewey<br />Harry S Truman<br />Strom Thurmond<br />People were so sure that Truman would lose that one headline even incorrectly said that Dewey had won<br />Historians view the Election of 1948 as the greatest election upset in U.S.history<br />
  6. 6. THE COLD WAR<br />The era of confrontation and competition between the U.S. and the Soviet Union when the threat of nuclear war created constant world tension<br />United States<br /> Soviet Union<br />vs.<br />Democracy<br />Communism<br />
  7. 7. Differing Philosophies<br /><ul><li>Believed in democratic forms of government
  8. 8. Believed economic stability would keep peace in the word
  9. 9. Believed the free enterprise system was necessary for economic growth
  10. 10. Believed in a communistic forms of government
  11. 11. Believed in workers revolting (striking) against business owners and taking control of government
  12. 12. Wanted to control countries between Russia and Germany</li></li></ul><li>Soviets take over Eastern Europe<br />Soviet troops move into Germany near the end of World War II<br />As World War II ended, the Soviet army occupied the countries of Eastern Europe that Germany had conquered during the war<br />
  13. 13. The Iron Curtain<br />Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary Bulgaria and East Germany became satellite nations of Soviet Union<br />“An iron curtain has descended across the Continent” <br />– Prime Minister Winston Churchill<br />
  14. 14. Peep under the Iron curtain<br />March 6, 1946<br /><ul><li> Who is “Joe”?
  15. 15. What part of Europe is sealed off?
  16. 16. What does the wall symbolize?</li></li></ul><li>Letter from U.S. diplomat George Kennan that led to the U.S. policy of containment of communism.<br />Kennan said the Russians were concerned about invasions from the west and wanted a buffer zone <br />Russians wanted to spread communism world-wide<br />U.S. should use diplomatic, economic and military actions to keep communism contained<br />
  17. 17. Truman Doctrine<br />U.S. foreign policy established by President Truman saying the U.S. would protect democracies throughout the world<br />“It must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures” <br /> -- Harry Truman<br />
  18. 18. Truman Doctrine<br />It pledged that the United States would fight Communism worldwide<br />Truman Doctrine was an extension to the U.S. foreign policy set forth in the Monroe Doctrine (1823) and the Roosevelt Corollary (1904)<br /> American tanks provided by the Truman Doctrine roll through Turkey<br />
  19. 19. Aid for Europe<br />Secretary of State George Marshall toured Western Europe; witnessed widespread homelessness and famine.<br />Fearing Europeans would turn to communism as an answer to their economic problems, Marshall proposed the U.S. help to rebuild Europe, leading to…<br />Children in a London suburb, waiting outside the wreckage of what was their home<br />
  20. 20. Marshall Plan<br />U.S. plan for rebuilding Western Europe, and repelling communismafter World War II<br />Plan pumped billions of dollars into Western Europe for food and supplies<br />Plan made U.S. heroes to people of Western Europe<br />George C. Marshall<br />
  21. 21. Marshall Plan aids Western Europe<br />The Marshall Plan proved to be a great success<br />Within 4 years, countries receiving aid saw a 41% higher industrial production than on the eve of World War II<br />Countries were stabilized and exports were rising rapidly<br />Countries receiving aid under Marshall Plan<br />
  22. 22. Eastern European countries were offered to take part in the Marshall Plan…<br />What is this cartoon trying to say?<br />… but Stalin and other East European leaders refused financial help from the United States<br />
  23. 23. The Potsdam Conference<br />The Potsdam Conference was a meeting of the Allied leaders during World War II to decide what to do with Germany<br />
  24. 24. Germany Divided<br />British<br />After World War II, Germany was divided into four zones, occupied by French, British, American, and Soviet troops.<br />Soviet<br />French<br />Occupation zones after 1945. Berlin is the multinational area within the Soviet zone.<br />American<br />
  25. 25. East and West <br />Germany formed<br />East Berlin<br />West Berlin<br />East Germany<br />West Germany<br />In June of 1948, the French, British and American zones were joined into the nation of West Germany after the Soviets refused to end their occupation of Germany.<br />
  26. 26. In response, the Soviets cut off West Berlin from the rest of the world with a blockade. (video – 1:46)<br />Eventual site of the Berlin Wall<br />
  27. 27. Berlin Airlift<br />President Truman decided to avoid the blockade by flying in food and other supplies to the needy people of West Berlin<br />At times, over 5,000 tons of supplies arrived daily<br />
  28. 28. Berlin Airlift<br />The airlift continued for 11 months before Stalin finally lifted the blockade<br />The Berlin Airlift saved the people of West Berlin from falling under Soviet Union control<br />Soviet blockade of West Germany convinced many Americans that the Soviets were trying to conquer other nations<br />
  29. 29. Birth of NATO<br />North Atlantic Treaty Organization<br />Formed in 1949 to protect Western Europe from Soviet aggression<br />
  30. 30. The Warsaw Pact<br />Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary Bulgaria and East Germany became satellite nations of Soviet Union<br />The Warsaw Pact was the Soviet Union’s response to the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization<br />
  31. 31. Coming Up…<br />The Korean War<br />McCarthyism<br />
  32. 32. The Cold War Heats Up<br />
  33. 33. Cold War spreads to Asia<br />Communists take over in China<br />Mao Zedong takes control of Chinese government from Chang Kai-shek’s Nationalist Party<br />Half the world now appeared to be under Communist control<br />China<br />Korea<br />The country of Korea became the next battleground in the Cold War<br />
  34. 34. The Korean War<br />The Cold War gets HOT<br />Following World War II, the Allies divided Korea at the 38th parallel <br />Soviets controlled North Korea; U.S. sets up a democracy in South Korea <br />Both governments claimed to control all of Korea<br />
  35. 35. The Korean War<br />A “Police Action” (1950-1953)<br />Kim Il-Sung<br />Leader of<br />North Korea<br />Syngman Rhee<br />“Domino Theory”<br />President of<br />South Korea<br />If one country falls to communism, others around it will fall as well<br />
  36. 36. The Korean War<br />The Cold War gets HOT<br />On June 25, 1950, North Korea invades South Korea<br />UN forces under Macarthur come to the aid of South Korea<br />Communist forces push UN forces to brink of defeat<br />UN forces push North Koreans back to border of China<br />
  37. 37. The Korean War<br />China enters the war<br />North Koreans pushed back to border with China<br />Chinese enter war on the side of North Koreans<br />Macarthur calls for an invasion of China, wants to use the atomic bomb<br />Macarthur criticized Truman for wanting a “limited war” <br />An artillery officer directs UN troops as they drop white phosphorous on a Communist-held post in February 1951.<br />
  38. 38. The Korean War<br />War ends in a stalemate<br />An armistice was signed ending the war in July 1953<br />Korea was divided at the 38th parallel<br />Korean War marked an important turning point in the Cold War<br />U.S. began a major military build-up; began using military force to prevent spread of communism<br />
  39. 39. A New Red Scare<br />U.S. citizens in 1950s feared Communists wanted to take over the world. This fear was known as the Red Scare.<br />Spies like Julius and Ethel Rosenberg and Alger Hiss caused fear that our government was infiltrated by the Communists<br />
  40. 40. A New Red Scare<br />House Un-American Activities Committee <br />Committee set up to investigate Communist activities in the U.S.<br />HUAC searched for Soviet spies and Communist sympathizers. <br />“Are you now or have you ever been a Communist?”<br />House Un-American Committee meeting in 1948<br />
  41. 41. The Hollywood Ten<br />People who were accused of being Communists were often “blacklisted”<br />A group of Hollywood actors who were blacklisted for refusing to answer HUAC questions became known as the “Hollywood Ten”<br />If someone was blacklisted, it meant they were denied work or ostracized from society<br />Movie stars Lauren Bacall and Humphrey Bogart lead a protest during height of Hollywood Blacklist controversy<br />
  42. 42. McCarthyism<br />In 1952, U.S. Senator Joe McCarthy began holding Senate hearings<br />Numerous Americans accused of having ties to the Communist Party<br />McCarthy turned the hearings into witch-hunts, destroying numerous people’s reputations on rumor and weak evidence<br />
  43. 43. U-2 Incident<br />Col. Francis Gary Powers’ spy plane was shot down over Soviet airspace in 1960<br />Incident cools Soviet-U.S. relations<br />
  44. 44. Russians launch Sputnik<br />The Russians have beaten America into space—they have the technological edge!<br />
  45. 45. Russians launch Sputnik<br />Impact of Sputnik<br />Congress establishes the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) to conduct research in rocket and space technology<br />Congress also passed the National Defense Education Act, which provided money for education and training in science, math and foreign languages<br />
  46. 46. The Space Race Begins<br />In 1961, Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin blasted off into space, making the Soviet Union the first nation to launch a human into orbit<br />Kennedy said he wanted U.S. to land a man on the moon by the end of the 1960s<br />
  47. 47. The Space Race Begins<br />Kennedy’s challenge was met on July 20, 1969, when Neil Armstrong became the first human to step foot on the moon<br />“That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.” – Neil Armstrong<br />
  48. 48. Berlin Wall Built<br />Soviets wanted to keep Germans from moving out of East Germany into West Berlin, where they could become free<br />Berlin Wall became the symbol of Communist oppression around the world<br />
  49. 49. Ich bin ein Berliner!(1963)<br />President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them!<br />
  50. 50. Castro embraces Communism<br />(1959) <br />Cuban dictator Fidel Castro embraces Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev<br />
  51. 51. Bay of Pigs Debacle <br />(1961)<br />CIA-trained Cuban exiles led an attack at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba in an attempt to overthrow Castro<br />Invasion was a disaster and failed; was a huge foreign policy blunder for the United States<br />
  52. 52. Cuban Missile Crisis<br />U.S. and Russia came extremely close to nuclear war when Russians place nuclear missiles in Cuba in November of 1962<br />In response to U.S. missiles in Turkey, the Russians began building missile bases in Cuba<br />
  53. 53. Cuban Missile Crisis<br />United States places an embargo on incoming shipments to Cuba from the Soviet Union, U.S. goes to DEFCON-3<br />Soviet ships reach the quarantine line, but receive radio orders from Moscow to hold their positions<br />
  54. 54. Cuban Missile Crisis<br />Kennedy threatens a U.S. invasion of Cuba unless Soviet missiles are removed; U.S. moves to DEFCON-2<br />The Russians agreed to take their missiles out of Cuba if the U.S. removed theirs from Turkey<br />President John F. Kennedy thinking in the Oval Office during the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962<br />
  55. 55.
  56. 56. Vietnam War: 1965-1973<br />
  57. 57. THE VIETNAM WAR<br />
  58. 58. Key figures in the Vietnam War<br />Ho Chi Minh<br />William Westmoreland <br />Lyndon B. Johnson<br />American commander in South Vietnam who told people in the media that the United States was close to winning the war, even though it wasn’t<br />President of North Vietnam who led the efforts to defeat South Vietnam and support of the South Vietnamese Vietcong<br />President of the United States who was president during much of Vietnam War; greatly escalated the U.S. soldier involvement in the conflict<br />
  59. 59. Key figures in the Vietnam War<br />Robert McNamara<br />Richard Nixon<br />Ngo Dinh Diem<br />U.S. Secretary of Defense during the Vietnam War who made the American republic feel like we were winning the war <br />President of South Vietnam who whose corruption and harsh standards led numerous people to turn to the Vietcong <br />President of the United States during the latter part of the Vietnam War<br />
  60. 60. Vietnam in the ’50s<br />Following World War II, the French controlled southeast Asia (known as Indochina)<br />Ho Chi Minh led a revolt against the French to gain independence for Vietnam<br />By 1954, the French fell to the Vietminh and they withdrew from Indochina, leaving Vietnam a divided country<br />Southeast Asia (aka: French Indochina)<br />
  61. 61. Domino Theory<br />The Domino Theory was the belief that if one country fell to communism, the other Southeast Asian nations would eventually fall to communism as well<br />
  62. 62. This map from an American magazine published 14th November 1950 shows how much they feared the spread of Communism in the Far East.<br />
  63. 63. South Vietnam problems<br />The people of South Vietnam hated South Vietnamese president Ngo Dinh Diem. He was corrupt and did not govern in the best interest of the citizens.<br />Diem was disliked because he discriminated against the Buddhist population<br />Some Buddhist monks protested Diem’s rule by setting themselves on fire<br />A Buddhist monk commits suicide in protest to the harsh policies of the S. Vietnamese government<br />
  64. 64. Gulf of Tonkin Incident <br />In August of 1964, Pres. Johnson announced that North Vietnam ships had fired on two American destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin<br />USS Maddox<br />Johnson insisted that the North Vietnamese attack was unprovoked and responded by ordering American airplanes to attack North Vietnam<br />
  65. 65. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution<br />After accusing N. Vietnam of attacking the U.S., Johnson asked Congress to give him the authorization to use force to defend American forces<br />When, in August of 1964, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, Congress handed over war powers to the president <br />The President had the power to send U.S. troops into battle without a declaration of war<br />
  66. 66. Operation Rolling Thunder<br />The U.S. bombing campaign conducted against the North Vietnam from 1965 until 1968<br />The three-year assault was intended to get North Vietnam to stop supporting South Vietnamese guerrillas<br />Operation became most intense air/ground battle waged during the Cold War<br />
  67. 67. Vietcong<br />Guerrilla army based in South Vietnam (also known as the NLF) that fought the U.S. and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War<br />The Vietcong were South Vietnamese communists<br />who fought for Vietnamese unification on the side of the North Vietnamese<br />
  68. 68. Vietcong Advantages<br /><ul><li>They were familiar with the landscape (rivers, lakes, etc.)
  69. 69. They could find a safe haven in Cambodia, Laos or South Vietnam
  70. 70. They could often count on the support of the local population</li></li></ul><li>Ho Chi Minh Trail<br />Path that ran from North Vietnam to South Vietnam through Laos and Cambodia system providing manpower and materiel to the Vietcong<br />Red line indicates Ho Chi Minh Trail through Laos and Cambodia<br />A look at the Ho Chi Minh Trail from road level, with camouflaged convoy truck approaching. <br />
  71. 71. Tet OffensiveJanuary 30 – June 8, 1968<br />In early 1968, the Vietcong and the North Vietnamese launched a surprise attack throughout South Vietnam during the Tet, which is the Vietnamese New Year<br />
  72. 72. Tet Offensive<br />While the Vietcong suffered heavy losses, it was a major political victory for the Vietcong<br />Tet was the turning point in the war and showed that the U.S. was nowhere close to winning the war<br />The Tet Offensive in 1968 was a surprise attack by the Vietcong throughout South Vietnam <br />
  73. 73. Credibility Gap<br />Opposition to the Vietnam War grew in the United States in the late 1960s<br />Many Americans were suspicious of the government’s truthfulness about the war<br />William Westmoreland <br />Robert McNamara<br />Many Americans believed a credibility gap had developed (people lost trust in what the government was telling them)<br />
  74. 74. My Lai Massacre<br />March 16th, 1968<br />An American platoon had massacred more than 200 South Vietnamese civilians who they thought were members of the Vietcong in a village called My Lai<br />Most of the victims were old men, women and children<br />The My Lai massacre increased feelings among many Americans that the war was brutal and senseless<br />
  75. 75. Election of 1968<br />Johnson refuses to run for re-election<br />After Johnson refused to run for re-election and Bobby Kennedy was assassinated, the Democrats ended up choosing LBJ’s vice-president, Hubert Humphrey, as their presidential candidate<br />Republicans nominate former vice-president Richard Nixon, who lost to JFK in 1960<br />"I shall not seek, and I will not accept the nomination of my party for another term as your President." March 31, 1968<br />
  76. 76. Election of 1968<br />Nixon becomes president!<br />
  77. 77. Draft Lottery Begins<br />Many Americans who were against the war believed the United States had an unfair draft system<br />Minorities made up a large percentage of people drafted and most soldiers were under 21 years old<br />
  78. 78. Kent State MassacreMay 4, 1970<br />In April of 1970, President Nixon announced that American troops had invaded Cambodia<br />Anti-war protestors saw this as an escalation of the war, sparking violent protests on college campuses<br />At Kent State University in Ohio, protestors became violent. The Ohio National Guard was called in and fired upon the student demonstrators, killing four students<br />
  79. 79.
  80. 80.
  81. 81. 26th Amendment ratified<br />Anger over the draft led to debates about the voting age. Demonstrators help public rallies and marches.<br />The average age of a American soldier in Vietnam was 19. Because you had to be 21 to vote, many people called for changes in voting laws, saying that if you’re old enough to fight in war, you should be old enough to vote.<br />President Nixon signs the 26th Amendment guaranteeing the right to vote for people over 18.<br />In 1971, the 26th Amendment was ratified, lowered the legal voting age from 21 to 18<br />
  82. 82. Vietnamization<br />Vietnamization called for a gradual withdrawal of American troops as South Vietnamese took more control<br />Even though the U.S. had begun cutting back its involvement in the Vietnam War, the American home front remained divided and volatile as Nixon’s war policies stirred up new waves of protest<br />
  83. 83. U.S. pulls out of Vietnam<br />In January of 1973, North and South Vietnamese reach a cease-fire agreement;<br />By 1975, the United States withdraws all of its people from Vietnam<br />In late1975, North Vietnam violated the ceasefire and captured the South Vietnamese capital of Saigon. The war was over and the communists had won<br />
  84. 84. War Powers Act (1973)<br />Law was an attempt to set limits on the power of the president during wartime<br />Required the president to inform Congress of any commitment of troops with 48 hours<br />
  85. 85. The Pentagon Papers<br />In 1971, a former Defense Department worker leaked what were known as the Pentagon Papers to the New York Times<br />The documents showed how various administrations deceived Congress, the media, and the public about how the war was going<br />The government had not been honest with the American people<br />
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