_________________________________ __________Name Period UNIT 1 STUDY GUIDE The Gilded AgeSection 1: The Gilded Age1. The period from 1865-1900 that was marked by the belief that things looked better on the outside than they really were on the inside was known as the __________________________.2. Name FOUR characteristics of the Gilded Age that made America appear “gilded”: a. __________________________________________________________________________ b. __________________________________________________________________________ c. __________________________________________________________________________ d. __________________________________________________________________________3. The person who coined the term “Gilded Age” was the American novelist _____________________________.4. The belief that no matter where someone comes from, they could rise in society and go as far as their talent and commitments take them is known as _________________________________.5. What was the story line of most Horatio Alger novels? _____________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________6. The belief that things that cannot adapt to the environment in which they live will eventually die out, while those that do adapt thrive and live on became known as _________________________________.7. What was the catchphrase of the philosophy of Social Darwinism? ___________________________________8. The belief that some things were out of a person’s control and that some people failed simply because they were caught in circumstances they could not control was known as ___________________________.9. The philosophy which said that wealthy people who profited from society owed it something in return was the principle known as ________________________.10. Rich people like Andrew Carnegie practiced _____________________ which was a person using their wealth to further social progress by making large contributions to things such as charities.11. Reform efforts gave rise to what three organizations during the late 1800s: a. ___________________________ b. ___________________________ c. ____________________________12. The houses set up by Christians who were trying to improve conditions for the poor were known as _____________________________.
13. Explain how the following organizations helped to contribute to the poor in the late 1800s a. Salvation Army: _____________________________________________________________________ b. YMCA: _____________________________________________________________________14. The Christian reformer who started settlement houses in poor neighborhoods that spread throughout the United States was ______________________. The most famous one she started was Hull House in Chicago.15. The teaching of immigrant children in public schools to integrate them into American culture was known as ___________________________.16. Why did attending public schools sometimes create problems for immigrant children? ____________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________17. Why did many African Americans have to start their own schools? ___________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________18. The African American leader who started the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama to give African Americans equal educational opportunities was ____________________________.19. Give two ways that industrialization affected many Urban Americans in the late 1800s: a. __________________________________________________________________________ b. __________________________________________________________________________20. Give FOUR types of entertainment that were popular during the late 1800s: a. ___________________ b. ___________________ c. _____________________ d. __________________21. The places in big cities during the late 1800s that served as an important role for male workers and served as political centers were ______________________.22. The two sports that were the most popular in the United States in the late 1800s were ____________________ and ________________________.23. The type of entertainment during the late 1800s that included animal acts, acrobats and dancers was known as _________________________.24. One of the very first amusement parks in the U.S. was ______________________________ in New York City.25. The music that became popular in fast-paced cities was known as ________________________.26. One of the most important African-American ragtime composers was _______________________.
Section 2: Political Reforms27. By the late 1800s, numerous politicians worked to get rid of ____________________, which is giving government jobs out to people who aren’t worthy in exchange for their help getting elected.28. Republicans who were in favor of making government reforms to help the poor and the needy were called _________________ while those Republicans who did not to want changes were called _________________.29. What president was assassinated in 1881 by a patronage seeker? ___________________________________30. The law passed by Congress that brought an end to patronage (the spoils system) and led to the creation of the Civil Service Commission was the ____________________________________________.31. Under the Pendleton Act, people now had to ___________________________ to qualify for a government job.32. Give THREE characteristics of many Republicans in the late 1800s: a. __________________________________________________________________________ b. __________________________________________________________________________ c. __________________________________________________________________________33. Give THREE characteristics of many Democrats in the late 1800s: a. __________________________________________________________________________ b. __________________________________________________________________________ c. __________________________________________________________________________34. Republicans who wanted reforms and therefore supported Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland for president in the Election of 1884 were called ____________________________________.35. Give FOUR problems that Grover Cleveland faced as President from 1885-1889: a. __________________________________________________________________________ b. __________________________________________________________________________ c. __________________________________________________________________________ d. __________________________________________________________________________36. The Supreme Court case that ruled that only the federal government could regulate interstate commerce (trade between states) was the case of ________________________________________________.37. In response to the Supreme Courts ruling in the case of Wabash v. Illinois, the U.S. Congress created the __________________________________________________.
38. What was the purpose of the Interstate Commerce Commission? ____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________39. The McKinney Tariff resulted in a ____________________________________________, which contributed to an economic depression in the United States in 1893.40. To curb the power of trusts, Congress passed the __________________________________________ of 1890.41. Why wasn’t the Sherman Antitrust Act effective at first? ____________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________42. Business responded to the Sherman Antitrust Act by ______________________________________________.43. Informal political groups that were designed by politicians to keep power by providing voters – most often immigrants – with life’s necessities in exchange for their votes were called ____________________________.44. The people who ran the big-city political machines were known as ____________________________. They were either elected officials or the person with the power behind and elected official.45. The rise of political machines and party bosses led to a rise in ____________________ within the local governments as party bosses would commit fraud or graft.46. The most famous of the big-city political bosses was ________________________________ who was the boss of the ____________________________ political machine in New York City.Section 3: Populism47. Give FOUR problems farmers faced in the late 1800s: a. __________________________________________________________________________ b. __________________________________________________________________________ c. __________________________________________________________________________ d. __________________________________________________________________________48. New technology helped farmer produce more crops, which caused prices to ___________________________.49. The first national farm organization was the Patrons of Husbandry, which was better known as ____________ .50. The movement to increase the farmers’ political power which worked to pass laws in the farmers’ interest was known as _________________________.
51. In the presidential election of 1896, Republicans supported a gold standard and candidate ________________ Democrats nominated the great orator _________________________, who was a supporter of unlimited silver.Section 4: Segregation Begins52. In 1879, thousands of African Americans migrated to the West. These migrating blacks became known as ______________________________.53. One of the main rights that was taken away from blacks in the South by loopholes in the nation’s laws was the right to ___________________.54. Give THREE ways that southern governments denied African Americans their right to vote: a. __________________________________________________________________________ b. __________________________________________________________________________ c. __________________________________________________________________________55. Segregation in the South was enforced by laws designed to prevent African Americans from exercising their equal rights which were known as _____________________ laws.56. The Supreme Court case that legalized segregation was the case of _________________________________.57. Plessy v. Ferguson was the Supreme Court case that legalized segregation and established the principle of “_______________________________________.”58. The unlawful killing of a person accused of a crime at the hands of a mob without a trial – usually by hanging them from a tree – is known as a __________________________.59. The African American writer from Memphis, who started a campaign against lynchings and who pushed courts to bring those accused of lynchings to justice, was __________________________.60. The African American, who believed the way to stop discrimination was for African American’s to concentrate on economic goals rather than political goals, was ____________________________.61. The African American who challenged government ideas and believed that the only way African Americans would achieve full equality was to get a good education was ___________________________.62. The organization created in 1909 that worked to improve living conditions for African Americans was the _______________________________________________________________, better known as the NAACP.
Section 5: Indian policies63. Most people who moved west were ___________________ who raised cattle or farmed the land or were ___________________ looking for gold or silver.64. What form of transportation had the greatest impact on westward expansion in the late 1800s? ________________________________65. Movement to the west by Americans in the years following the Civil War led to a rise in conflicts with ______________________________.66. The law pass in 1862 that provided a legal method for settlers to buy property in the West and helped to lead to settlement of the Great Plains was the _____________________________________.67. Most Native Americans were nomads who lived hunting _______________________, which provided the Native Americans with food and clothing.68. Why did the U.S. government approve a policy of mass killing buffalo on the Great Plains in the late 1800s? ________________________________________________________________________________________69. Name THREE famous massacres that Native Americans were victims of in the late 1800s: a. ___________________________ b. ___________________________ c. ____________________________70. What American military leader was ambushed and killed at the Battle of Little Bi Horn? ___________________71. Which Indian Chief led the Nez Perce tribe in defiance of the U.S. government? _________________________72. The government body created by federal government in 1867 in an effort tot step in and settle disputes between U.S. settlers and Native Americans was known as the _____________________________________.73. Give THREE ways that Native Americans were forced to assimilate into American culture: a. ___________________________ b. ___________________________ c. ____________________________74. The law passed in an attempt to assimilate the Native Americans into American society was the ____________ _______________, which was an attempt to break up Indian reservations into small plots of land.