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  1. 1. POPULISM <ul><li>Essential Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Why and how did the Populist Party form? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the Panic of 1893? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the debate about the gold standard? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was William Jennings Bryan? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the legacy of Populism? </li></ul>
  2. 2. FARMERS AND THE RAILROADS <ul><li>Farmers began to enter a cycle (1880s) </li></ul><ul><li>Prices were falling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers had to mortgage their farms to buy more land to produce more crops to sell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Railroads took advantage of farmers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charged high prices for shipping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked with middlemen which allowed them to control prices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Farmers organized to create reform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Farmer’s Alliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attempted to organize farmers to combat the railroads </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. POPULIST MOVEMENT BEGINS <ul><li>Farmers' Alliance was unable to achieve its wider goals </li></ul><ul><li>But Alliance members did learn something: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They needed to develop a political agenda/platform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To enact the reform they wanted they needed to enter national politics </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. THE POPULIST PARTY <ul><li>In the 1890s the Democrats and Republicans refused to take up the reforms advocated by the Farmers Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>Populist Party was formed by members of the &quot;Alliance&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The party flourished among farmers in the South and Great Plains </li></ul><ul><li>Promoted a free silver platform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Received support in the Mountain states (silver mining was heavy) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First political party in the United States to include women </li></ul>
  5. 5. PARTY PLATFORM <ul><li>Populist Party platform: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolition of banks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graduated income tax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct election of U.S. Senators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil service reform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work day of 8 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government control of the railroads, telegraphs, and telephones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposed the gold standard </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. PANIC OF 1893 <ul><li>Philadelphia and Reading Railroads went bankrupt </li></ul><ul><li>The dollar was no longer trusted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People started only accepting payment in gold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People panicked and traded paper money for gold </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The stock market crashed! </li></ul><ul><li>More than 15,000 businesses and 500 banks collapsed </li></ul><ul><li>Panic turned into depression as 3 million people lost their jobs </li></ul>
  7. 7. GOLD STANDARD VS. SILVER STANDARD <ul><li>Many people viewed paper money as worthless </li></ul><ul><li>The two major political parties argued on which metal to base the nations monetary system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold or Silver? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What does that mean? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixing the price of the dollar to a certain amount of gold or silver </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Others favored bimetallism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basing the U.S. monetary system on both gold & silver </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. ELECTION OF 1896 <ul><li>By 1896 the Democratic Party had taken up many of the Populist Party's causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Took votes and supporters away from the Populist party </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Populists supported the democratic candidate for president, William Jennings Bryan </li></ul><ul><li>He backed the Populist opposition to the gold standard in his “Cross of Gold” speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocated Bimetallism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bryan lost to William McKinley by a margin of 600,000 votes </li></ul>
  9. 9. LEGACY OF POPULISM <ul><li>Many Populist voters supported Bryan in 1900 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The party instead nominated a ticket of Wharton Barker and Ignatius L. Donnelly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The party ceased to exist </li></ul><ul><li>The Populist movement left two powerful legacies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The message that the average citizen could organize and have political impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An agenda of reforms </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. A PARABLE ON POPULISM <ul><li>Parable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A allegorical story designed to illustrate or teach some truth, principle, or lesson </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wizard of Oz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written by L. Frank Baum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scholars have interpreted the story as an allegory or metaphor for the political, economic, and social events of America of the 1890s </li></ul><ul><li>Baum never said that the story was an allegory for politics </li></ul><ul><li>But he never denied it </li></ul>
  11. 11. A PARABLE ON POPULISM Yellow Brick Road Scarecrow Cowardly Lion Tin Man Dorothy’s Slippers Dorothy Wizard Winged Monkeys Wicked Witch of the East Wicked Witch of the West Good Witch of the North Munchkins Emerald City Tornado Gold Standard Farmers William Jennings Bryan Industrialization Silver Standard “ Plain People” Politicians Indians in the West Bankers with nothing for Farmers Nature (Nature vs. Farmers) Businesses of the North Middle and Lower Classes Washington, D.C. Idea of Change Items in the Film What do they symbolize?
  12. 12. YOUR ASSIGNMENT <ul><li>After viewing The Wizard of Oz you will write a 2-3 page paper on the history of Populism as well as discuss your interpretations of the populist message and symbols in the film </li></ul><ul><li>Your paper will discuss the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background information on Populism (platform of the party, debate surrounding the gold standard vs. silver standard, Panic of 1893, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How The Wizard of Oz was a political statement of the Populist movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, explain how the Yellow Brick Road symbolized the Gold Standard, the Wizard…Politicians, the Winged Monkeys…the Indians in the West, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>