Source: Film: Tokyo By Night – Hugh Mitton; Music: An Ending (Ascent) - Brian Eno https://vimeo.com/71232023!
A quick question...
How do you feel?
Qui t e Relaxed
OR
Qui t e i r ri t ated
Source: cc licensed ( BY NC ND ) flickr photo by Fenneke: http://flickr.com/photos/fennie/3480930064/; !
Sound: http://www.a...
Another quick question...
How do you feel Now?
Qui t e Relaxed
OR
Qui t e i r ri t ated
Desi g ni n g behavi o ur
Students in Motion 4 February 2014
Charlie Mulholland
My background
Phi l osophy
Marketi n g
Desi g n research
Teachi n g (User centred desi g n & desi g n ethi c s)
Bri t i s ...
“…the sole end for which mankind are warranted, individually
or collectively, in interfering with the liberty of action of...
So Why do bl@#dy designers Restrict my freedom?
A third quick question...
Do you thi n k that Mi c rosoft had the ri g ht to affect my
choi c es and behavi o ur by redesi...
The answer...

Source: cc licensed ( BY ) flickr photo by Leon Brocard: http://flickr.com/photos/acme/2527889568/!
Design is about making choices for others

Source: cc licensed ( BY ND ) flickr photo by Simon Greening: http://flickr.com/p...
And designed artefacts affect our choices & behaviour
as people

Source: cc licensed ( BY ) flickr photo by Jason Weaver: h...
Sometimes this is not problematic

Source: cc licensed ( BY NC ND ) flickr photo by Jake Kitchener: http://flickr.com/photos...
But sometimes it is (even if it is an unintended
consequence )

Source: cc licensed ( BY SA ) flickr photo by Salim Fadhley...
And sometimes this influence is problematic and
deliberate

Source: http://wiki.darkpatterns.org/File_Facebook2-470x510.pn...
Okay, but how does thi s help us?
Three questions:
how can we deli b erately desi g n behavi o ur?
How can we do thi s i n an ethi c al way?
How do we fi n ...
how can we deli b erately desi g n
behavi o ur?
Deliberately designing behaviour: Three approaches
“Persuasion is the process of trying to ‘move’ one or more
people - by using credible [geloofwaardig] information,
evidenc...
Persuasion is not

Force!

Manipulation!

Coercion!

Propaganda!
A model of persuasion (Aristotle)

Proof that the persuader is
•  Credible
•  Honest
•  Acting from good will
•  Competent...
Persuasion

Source: http://footprint.wwf.org.uk/
Persuasion

Source: Bread and Beyond http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q5Icgm83nG8!
Nudges

Source: University of Chicago http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xoA8N6nJMRs!
Nudges

Source: cc licensed ( BY NC SA ) flickr photo by David Telford: http://flickr.com/photos/dbtelford/4205841483/!
Nudges

Source: cc licensed ( BY SA ) flickr photo by mahalie stackpole: http://flickr.com/photos/mahalie/346744961/!
Nudges

Source: Piano stairs - TheFunTheory.com, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lXh2n0aPyw!
Nudges

Source: http://wiki.darkpatterns.org/File_Facebook2-470x510.png!
“Scripts…are the products of ‘inscriptions’ by designers.
Designers anticipate how users will interact with the
product th...
Scripts

Source: cc licensed ( BY NC SA ) flickr photo by Ben Arent: http://flickr.com/photos/benarent/1306252855/!
Scripts

Source: http://id.hva.nl
How can we ensure we do thi s i n an
ethi c al manner?
Freedom of choice varies by approach to designing
behaviour

Script!

Low / none!

Nudge!
User choice!
(Autonomy)!

Persua...
Sometimes we do not need or want to choose

Source: cc licensed, Lionel Allorge, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Carrefo...
How to influence?
Designers want to give the user:
little or no
choice

The user would like:

little or no
choice

:)

som...
Another quick question...
How do you fi n d out what choi c es the user wants?
Talk to the user
Watch the user
Both
Thank you for li s teni n g and getti n g
i n volved
Twitter: @charliem5
Slideshare: charliem5
Useful resources
Design with intent toolkit http://requisitevariety.co.uk/design-with-intent-toolkit/
Nudge: Improving Dec...
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Students in motion 040214 designing behaviour

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Presentation given to first students at the HvA School of Design & Communication

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Students in motion 040214 designing behaviour

  1. 1. Source: Film: Tokyo By Night – Hugh Mitton; Music: An Ending (Ascent) - Brian Eno https://vimeo.com/71232023!
  2. 2. A quick question... How do you feel? Qui t e Relaxed OR Qui t e i r ri t ated
  3. 3. Source: cc licensed ( BY NC ND ) flickr photo by Fenneke: http://flickr.com/photos/fennie/3480930064/; ! Sound: http://www.audiocheck.net/audiotests_mosquito.php!
  4. 4. Another quick question... How do you feel Now? Qui t e Relaxed OR Qui t e i r ri t ated
  5. 5. Desi g ni n g behavi o ur Students in Motion 4 February 2014 Charlie Mulholland
  6. 6. My background Phi l osophy Marketi n g Desi g n research Teachi n g (User centred desi g n & desi g n ethi c s) Bri t i s h
  7. 7. “…the sole end for which mankind are warranted, individually or collectively, in interfering with the liberty of action of any of their number, is self-protection. That the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilised community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others. His own good, either physical or moral, is not a sufficient warrant.” Source: John Stuart Mill, On Liberty p. 18!
  8. 8. So Why do bl@#dy designers Restrict my freedom?
  9. 9. A third quick question... Do you thi n k that Mi c rosoft had the ri g ht to affect my choi c es and behavi o ur by redesi g ni n g MS Excel 2008 for Mac? Yes OR No
  10. 10. The answer... Source: cc licensed ( BY ) flickr photo by Leon Brocard: http://flickr.com/photos/acme/2527889568/!
  11. 11. Design is about making choices for others Source: cc licensed ( BY ND ) flickr photo by Simon Greening: http://flickr.com/photos/tasty_goldfish/3339640903/!
  12. 12. And designed artefacts affect our choices & behaviour as people Source: cc licensed ( BY ) flickr photo by Jason Weaver: http://flickr.com/photos/indyplanets/3926147797/!
  13. 13. Sometimes this is not problematic Source: cc licensed ( BY NC ND ) flickr photo by Jake Kitchener: http://flickr.com/photos/kitch/3288387680/!
  14. 14. But sometimes it is (even if it is an unintended consequence ) Source: cc licensed ( BY SA ) flickr photo by Salim Fadhley: http://flickr.com/photos/salimfadhley/96770312/!
  15. 15. And sometimes this influence is problematic and deliberate Source: http://wiki.darkpatterns.org/File_Facebook2-470x510.png!
  16. 16. Okay, but how does thi s help us?
  17. 17. Three questions: how can we deli b erately desi g n behavi o ur? How can we do thi s i n an ethi c al way? How do we fi n d what i s acceptable?
  18. 18. how can we deli b erately desi g n behavi o ur?
  19. 19. Deliberately designing behaviour: Three approaches
  20. 20. “Persuasion is the process of trying to ‘move’ one or more people - by using credible [geloofwaardig] information, evidence [bewijsmateriaal], reasoning [het redeneren] and emotional appeals - to a new or changed belief, attitude, value, or behaviour.” Source: (Rogers, W. (2007). Persuasion: Messages, Receivers, And Contexts. Rowman & Littlefield Pub Incorporated., p. 5)!
  21. 21. Persuasion is not Force! Manipulation! Coercion! Propaganda!
  22. 22. A model of persuasion (Aristotle) Proof that the persuader is •  Credible •  Honest •  Acting from good will •  Competent Emotional arguments to persuade •  Aimed at encouraging a favourable attitude in the receiver •  Should be appropriate Rational arguments to persuade •  Facts •  Figures •  Logical proof •  Alternative views
  23. 23. Persuasion Source: http://footprint.wwf.org.uk/
  24. 24. Persuasion Source: Bread and Beyond http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q5Icgm83nG8!
  25. 25. Nudges Source: University of Chicago http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xoA8N6nJMRs!
  26. 26. Nudges Source: cc licensed ( BY NC SA ) flickr photo by David Telford: http://flickr.com/photos/dbtelford/4205841483/!
  27. 27. Nudges Source: cc licensed ( BY SA ) flickr photo by mahalie stackpole: http://flickr.com/photos/mahalie/346744961/!
  28. 28. Nudges Source: Piano stairs - TheFunTheory.com, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lXh2n0aPyw!
  29. 29. Nudges Source: http://wiki.darkpatterns.org/File_Facebook2-470x510.png!
  30. 30. “Scripts…are the products of ‘inscriptions’ by designers. Designers anticipate how users will interact with the product they are designing and, implicitly or explicitly, build pre-scriptions for use…Latour describes this inscription process in terms of “delegation”: designers delegate specific responsibilities to artefacts, such as the responsibility to make sure nobody drives too fast, which is delegated to a speed bump..” Source: Verbeek, P.-P. (2006). Materializing Morality. Science, Technology & Human Values, 31(3), 362!
  31. 31. Scripts Source: cc licensed ( BY NC SA ) flickr photo by Ben Arent: http://flickr.com/photos/benarent/1306252855/!
  32. 32. Scripts Source: http://id.hva.nl
  33. 33. How can we ensure we do thi s i n an ethi c al manner?
  34. 34. Freedom of choice varies by approach to designing behaviour Script! Low / none! Nudge! User choice! (Autonomy)! Persuasion! High / total!
  35. 35. Sometimes we do not need or want to choose Source: cc licensed, Lionel Allorge, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Carrefour_Market_Voisins-le-Bretonneux_2012_09.jpg !
  36. 36. How to influence? Designers want to give the user: little or no choice The user would like: little or no choice :) some choice :( freedom of choice :( some choice freedom of choice :( :) :)
  37. 37. Another quick question... How do you fi n d out what choi c es the user wants? Talk to the user Watch the user Both
  38. 38. Thank you for li s teni n g and getti n g i n volved Twitter: @charliem5 Slideshare: charliem5
  39. 39. Useful resources Design with intent toolkit http://requisitevariety.co.uk/design-with-intent-toolkit/ Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness . Richard H Thaler & Cass R. Sunstein Predictably Irrational, Revised and Expanded Edition: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions Dan Ariely Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do , B. J. Fogg Seductive Interaction Design Stephen P. Anderson 100 Things Every Designer Needs to Know About People Susan M. Weinschenk Dark Patterns http://www.darkpatterns.org
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