Leonardo ENERGY Webinar:
  Photovoltaic Installations

     Ton van der Wekken

         9 May 2007


                    ...
Contents
•   Photovoltaic (PV) principle
•   Market development
•   Building integrated PV (BIPV)
•   Examples BIPV
•   PV...
Photovoltaic principle: Electrical
 energy from solar irradiation
Photovoltaic principle: Grid
       connection
Worldwide capacity of installed PV,
   off-grid and grid-connected
4000

                                                 ...
Leading European countries
                    in PV

                            Cumulative installed PV
European Country...
Building Integrated Photovoltaics
        (BIPV): Pros and Cons

• Pros BIPV
  -  No or limited permitting procedures
  - ...
Ground based PV system
Ground Based PV compared to
traditional power plants

• Pros ground based PV
  – Neither air nor noise pollution;
  – No g...
Residental houses,
PV installed on sloped roof
Multifunctional:
Roof from semi-transparant PV
Multifunctional:
PV integrated in sound barrier
Multifunctional:
PV integrated in sun blind
PV-Technology:
                 some facts


• Installed PV power defined as Watt-peak (Wp,
  kWp and MWp)

• Central and ...
PV-Technology:
           cell materials and efficiencies
Cell material             Cell efficiency   System efficiency   ...
PV-Technology:
electrical scheme
PV-Technology:
Maximum Power Point Tracking
         (MPPT)
Cost breakdown PV system
  -From 15 to 5 €/Wp in a decade-
PV component               Costs
                           [€/...
5-kWp roof integrated PV system
  Orientation                  Sloped roof, oriented south to south-west
  Support structu...
Future developments

• Cost reduction by economics of scale
• Thin film cells
  – Shortage of crystalline Si boosts thin f...
Thank you for your attention!



      Any questions?



                        Experience you can trust.
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Paineis Solares InstalaçAo

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sobre painéis solares e a sua instalação

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Paineis Solares InstalaçAo

  1. 1. Leonardo ENERGY Webinar: Photovoltaic Installations Ton van der Wekken 9 May 2007 Experience you can trust.
  2. 2. Contents • Photovoltaic (PV) principle • Market development • Building integrated PV (BIPV) • Examples BIPV • PV technology • Cost breakdown • Example: 5 kWp system • Future trends
  3. 3. Photovoltaic principle: Electrical energy from solar irradiation
  4. 4. Photovoltaic principle: Grid connection
  5. 5. Worldwide capacity of installed PV, off-grid and grid-connected 4000 Cumulative installed PV power by application area 3500 Cumulative installed capacity [MW] 3000 Grid-connected 2500 Off-grid 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Year
  6. 6. Leading European countries in PV Cumulative installed PV European Country 2003 2004 2005 [MWp] [MWp] [MWp] Austria 16.8 21.1 24.0 France 21.1 26.0 33.0 Germany 431 794 1429 Italy 26.0 30.7 37.5 Netherlands 45.9 49.1 50.8 UK 5.9 8.2 10.9 Spain 27.0 37.0 57.4 Switzerland 21.0 23.1 27.1
  7. 7. Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV): Pros and Cons • Pros BIPV - No or limited permitting procedures - Showing awareness of inhabitants/owners - Generating and use coincide in time and place - Multifunctional application often feasible - High technical potential • Cons BIPV - Systems are relatively small - Without incentives not cost effective - Additional contract for reimbursement feed-in - At budget cut: PV drops out first
  8. 8. Ground based PV system
  9. 9. Ground Based PV compared to traditional power plants • Pros ground based PV – Neither air nor noise pollution; – No greenhouse gases; – No visual nuisance. • Cons ground based PV – A hectare per MWp installed; – High costs per MWp; – Permitting procedures comparable to other power plants
  10. 10. Residental houses, PV installed on sloped roof
  11. 11. Multifunctional: Roof from semi-transparant PV
  12. 12. Multifunctional: PV integrated in sound barrier
  13. 13. Multifunctional: PV integrated in sun blind
  14. 14. PV-Technology: some facts • Installed PV power defined as Watt-peak (Wp, kWp and MWp) • Central and Northern Europe: maximum irradiation 1000 W/m2 • Southern Europe: max. irradiation 1700 W/m2 • Optimal orientation: South • Optimal tilt angle PV modules: 35 - 38°
  15. 15. PV-Technology: cell materials and efficiencies Cell material Cell efficiency System efficiency Yearly yield [kWh/m2] [%] [%] Mono-crystalline (m-Si) 17 13.5 85 - 90 Poly-crystalline (p-Si) 15 12 80 - 85 Thin film (a-Si) 8 6.5 50 - 60
  16. 16. PV-Technology: electrical scheme
  17. 17. PV-Technology: Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)
  18. 18. Cost breakdown PV system -From 15 to 5 €/Wp in a decade- PV component Costs [€/Wp] Modules 4.0 – 4.5 Inverter 0.5 – 1.0 Balance of System (BOS) 1.0 TOTAL 5.5 – 6.5
  19. 19. 5-kWp roof integrated PV system Orientation Sloped roof, oriented south to south-west Support structure In the roof tile plane upon the roof battens Module support profiles (aluminium) mounted on the roof battens Brackets to clamp the modules on the support profiles Module data Gross dimensions 0.8 x 1.6 meters, Al frame Maximum power 150 Wp 72 multi-crystalline Si-cells measuring 12.5 x 12.5 cm Module efficiency 13% Junction box including bypass diodes at the back System layout 32 modules (lay-out 4x8) 2 Gross area 6.4 x 6.4 m (41 m ) Installed power 4800 Wp 4 parallel strings, 8 modules per string connected in series 2 inverters of 2500 W, 2 strings per inverter Performance 3500 kWh per year Electrical connection PV Two separate electrical connections of 2500 W system Two different meterings, one for use by the house equipment and the other for feed-in by the PV-system. Lifetime Modules and support structure 30 years Watertightness of materials 20 to 25 years Inverters 10 to 15 years Financial data Turnkey investment € 30,000 Simple Pay Out Time (SPOT) 43 years at € 0,20 /kWh, an average consumer tariff 17 years at € 0,50 /kWh high feed in tariff (based on incentives)
  20. 20. Future developments • Cost reduction by economics of scale • Thin film cells – Shortage of crystalline Si boosts thin film – Materials are amorphous silicon (a-Si), copper indium diselenide (CIS), cadmium telluride (CdTe) • Concentrator cells (CPV) – Efficiency >20% – Use of mirrors and sun tracking system • Speral solar technology - Minute silicon beads on Al foil - Less Si material needed
  21. 21. Thank you for your attention! Any questions? Experience you can trust.
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