Most people are familiar with the phenomenom solar energy in its quality of generating electrical power. Solar electricity may be applied in multiple tools serving a variety of functions. Well-known examples are the pocket calculators powered by a PV-cells and off-grid street lighting and emergency telephones along the highway powered by one or more PV-modules.
Solar energy became known to the ordinary people in the fifties and sixties of last century due to space programs of the Americans, Russians and to a lesser extent other European countries. Satelites and space capsules were installed with solar cells for power supply of its electrical systems. From that time the application of PV moved slowly from extraterrestrial use to terrestrial application. First and also most widespread applied are the off-grid domestic and non-domestic PV systems. Off-grid domestic PV-systems are installed in households and villages not connected to the utility grid. Usually, a means to store electricity is used, most commonly in combination with a lead-acid battery. Off-grid non-domestic PV serves a variety of applications such as water pumping, remote communications, safety and protection devices etc, at locations without the presence of public grid.
Following off-grid PV application, also as a result of the growing attention for renewable energy, from early eighties of last century a tendency could be observed to connect PV systems also to the public grid. Also the field of application moved from undeveloped and rural areas to well developed urban areas equipped with finely meshed public grid..
This webinar gives an overview on PV-systems connected to the public grid.