Photovoltaic Installations


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Most people are familiar with the phenomenom solar energy in its quality of generating electrical power. Solar electricity may be applied in multiple tools serving a variety of functions. Well-known examples are the pocket calculators powered by a PV-cells and off-grid street lighting and emergency telephones along the highway powered by one or more PV-modules.

Solar energy became known to the ordinary people in the fifties and sixties of last century due to space programs of the Americans, Russians and to a lesser extent other European countries. Satelites and space capsules were installed with solar cells for power supply of its electrical systems. From that time the application of PV moved slowly from extraterrestrial use to terrestrial application. First and also most widespread applied are the off-grid domestic and non-domestic PV systems. Off-grid domestic PV-systems are installed in households and villages not connected to the utility grid. Usually, a means to store electricity is used, most commonly in combination with a lead-acid battery. Off-grid non-domestic PV serves a variety of applications such as water pumping, remote communications, safety and protection devices etc, at locations without the presence of public grid.

Following off-grid PV application, also as a result of the growing attention for renewable energy, from early eighties of last century a tendency could be observed to connect PV systems also to the public grid. Also the field of application moved from undeveloped and rural areas to well developed urban areas equipped with finely meshed public grid..

This webinar gives an overview on PV-systems connected to the public grid.

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Photovoltaic Installations

  1. 1. Experience you can trust.Leonardo ENERGY Webinar:Photovoltaic InstallationsTon van der Wekken9 May 2007
  2. 2. Contents• Photovoltaic (PV) principle• Market development• Building integrated PV (BIPV)• Examples BIPV• PV technology• Cost breakdown• Example: 5 kWp system• Future trends
  3. 3. Photovoltaic principle: Electricalenergy from solar irradiation
  4. 4. Photovoltaic principle: Gridconnection
  5. 5. Worldwide capacity of installed PV,off-grid and grid-connectedCumulative installed PV power by application area050010001500200025003000350040001992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005YearCumulativeinstalledcapacity[MW]Grid-connectedOff-grid
  6. 6. Leading European countriesin PVCumulative installed PVEuropean Country 2003 2004 2005[MWp] [MWp] [MWp]Austria 16.8 21.1 24.0France 21.1 26.0 33.0Germany 431 794 1429Italy 26.0 30.7 37.5Netherlands 45.9 49.1 50.8UK 5.9 8.2 10.9Spain 27.0 37.0 57.4Switzerland 21.0 23.1 27.1
  7. 7. Building Integrated Photovoltaics(BIPV): Pros and Cons• Pros BIPV- No or limited permitting procedures- Showing awareness of inhabitants/owners- Generating and use coincide in time and place- Multifunctional application often feasible- High technical potential• Cons BIPV- Systems are relatively small- Without incentives not cost effective- Additional contract for reimbursement feed-in- At budget cut: PV drops out first
  8. 8. Ground based PV system
  9. 9. Ground Based PV compared totraditional power plants• Pros ground based PV– Neither air nor noise pollution;– No greenhouse gases;– No visual nuisance.• Cons ground based PV– A hectare per MWp installed;– High costs per MWp;– Permitting procedures comparable to otherpower plants
  10. 10. Residental houses,PV installed on sloped roof
  11. 11. Multifunctional:Roof from semi-transparant PV
  12. 12. Multifunctional:PV integrated in sound barrier
  13. 13. Multifunctional:PV integrated in sun blind
  14. 14. PV-Technology:some facts• Installed PV power defined as Watt-peak (Wp,kWp and MWp)• Central and Northern Europe: maximum irradiation1000 W/m2• Southern Europe: max. irradiation 1700 W/m2• Optimal orientation: South• Optimal tilt angle PV modules: 35 - 38°
  15. 15. PV-Technology:cell materials and efficienciesCell material Cell efficiency[%]System efficiency[%]Yearly yield[kWh/m2]Mono-crystalline (m-Si) 17 13.5 85 - 90Poly-crystalline (p-Si) 15 12 80 - 85Thin film (a-Si) 8 6.5 50 - 60
  16. 16. PV-Technology:electrical scheme
  17. 17. PV-Technology:Maximum Power Point Tracking(MPPT)
  18. 18. Cost breakdown PV system-From 15 to 5 €/Wp in a decade-PV component Costs[€/Wp]Modules 4.0 – 4.5Inverter 0.5 – 1.0Balance of System (BOS) 1.0TOTAL 5.5 – 6.5
  19. 19. 5-kWp roof integrated PV systemOrientation Sloped roof, oriented south to south-westSupport structure In the roof tile plane upon the roof battensModule support profiles (aluminium) mounted on the roof battensBrackets to clamp the modules on the support profilesModule data Gross dimensions 0.8 x 1.6 meters, Al frameMaximum power 150 Wp72 multi-crystalline Si-cells measuring 12.5 x 12.5 cmModule efficiency 13%Junction box including bypass diodes at the backSystem layout 32 modules (lay-out 4x8)Gross area 6.4 x 6.4 m (41 m2)Installed power 4800 Wp4 parallel strings, 8 modules per string connected in series2 inverters of 2500 W, 2 strings per inverterPerformance 3500 kWh per yearElectrical connection PVsystemTwo separate electrical connections of 2500 WTwo different meterings, one for use by the house equipment and theother for feed-in by the PV-system.Lifetime Modules and support structure 30 yearsWatertightness of materials 20 to 25 yearsInverters 10 to 15 yearsFinancial data Turnkey investment € 30,000Simple Pay Out Time (SPOT) 43 years at € 0,20 /kWh, an average consumer tariff17 years at € 0,50 /kWh high feed in tariff (based on incentives)
  20. 20. Future developments• Cost reduction by economics of scale• Thin film cells– Shortage of crystalline Si boosts thin film– Materials are amorphous silicon (a-Si), copperindium diselenide (CIS), cadmium telluride(CdTe)• Concentrator cells (CPV)– Efficiency >20%– Use of mirrors and sun tracking system• Speral solar technology- Minute silicon beads on Al foil- Less Si material needed
  21. 21. Experience you can trust.Thank you for your attention!Any questions?