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  1. 1. INTERNSHIP (JUNE-JULY-AUGUST 2016) Submitted By- Lovit Sawhney Solar Power Generation JAKSON ENGG. LTD. Empowering People
  2. 2. DIFFERENT TYPES OF “SOLAR”  Light energy Photovoltaic (PV) Electricity produced directly from light  Heat energy Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) • Water Heating • Solar Water Heating (SWH or Solar Thermal) Hot water for domestic use (DHW)
  3. 3. TYPES OF SOLAR CELLS  Crystalline Silicon (Mono)  Crystalline Silicon (Poly)
  5. 5. SOLAR CELLS & THE PV EFFECT  Usually produced with semiconductor grade silicon  P/N junction results in .5 volts per cell  Sunlight knocks available electrons loose for potential electrical current  Wire grid provides path for current
  6. 6. PV TERMINOLOGY Cell Module Array Cover Glass Contact Grid Metal Backing Auto Reflective Coating Silicon layers Layers of a Solar Cell
  7. 7. GRID-TIED AND OFF-GRID SYSTEM  Advantages  Low: Easy to install (less components)  Grid can supply power  Disadvantages  No power when grid goes down Grid- Tied System Off- Grid System
  8. 8. INTERNATIONAL CERTIFICATION BODIES IEC: International Electro-technical Commission UL: Underwriter Laboratories Inc. IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers CEN: European Committee for Standardization
  9. 9. IMPORTANT TERMS  VOC : Open Circuit Voltage  ISC : Short Circuit Current  VMP : Voltage at Maximum Power  IMP : Current at Maximum Power  MPPT: Maximum Power Point Tracker  PMax : Maximum Power Power= Watt (AC) Power= Wattp (DC)
  10. 10. MODULE (RFID) A module representation in the wiring diagram
  11. 11. E.G., MODULE (CANADIAN SOLAR) CERTIFICATES  IEC 61215: Module’s mechanical stability and compliance with electrical parameters  IEC 61730: Module meet the requirements for electrical and mechanical operating safety during it entire expected service life.  IEC 61701: Salt Mist Corrosion Test Accelerated corrosion test to the coated PV modules to predict its suitability in use as a protective finish.  IEC 62716: Ammonia Corrosion Test In farms. Ammonia leads to ageing of PV modules. Degradation leads to lower energy yield and therefore, a lower return rate for the operator.  IEC 62804 : Potential Induced Degradation Test(PID) PID test helps in the mounting of the modules. This test is done due to the contact with the ground.
  12. 12. HEAT EFFECT
  13. 13. CRYSTALLINE PV PRODUCT VS. THIN-FILM PV PRODUCT o Firm, like crystals o Longest track record, over 50 years o Most common, over 85% of the market o Highest efficiencies: avg. 15%, up to 22% o Requires about 100 sf. per kilowatt oCan be applied on many different materials oLongevity still to be proven oProduction growing at high rate oLower efficiencies: avg. 7%, up to 15% oHas potential for big cost reduction oRequires about 200 sf. per kilowatt
  14. 14. SITE SELECTION – TILT ANGLE  Tilt = Angle at which the collectors are mounted relative to 0º (flat horizontal surface)
  15. 15. (2) SOLAR SITE & MOUNTING
  16. 16. MOUNTING SYSTEMS Roof Mounted System Metal Roof (Corrugated Iron) Tiled Roof Hanger Bolts Building Integrated Non- Penetrating Clamp Mount Ballast Mount Raked Systems Ground Mounted System Small Fixed Modular Systems Fixed, Pile Driven Tracking Systems
  17. 17. INVERTERS DC AC Inverter Function: An electronic device used to convert direct current (DC) electricity into alternating current (AC) electricity
  18. 18. INVERTERS ...…CONTINUED  Isolated Inverter Inverters which have at least a simple separation between input and output circuits.  Non Isolated Inverter Inverters which does not have at least a simple separation between input and output circuits. IEC 62548 symbols (Design Requirements)
  20. 20. E.G., ABB CENTRAL INVERTER PVS800 100-1000 KW Certificates  IEC 61683: Power Conditioners (Procedure for measuring efficiency)  IEC 62109-1: Safety for use in PV power systems Part-1 General requirements  IEC 62109-2: Part-2 Particular requirements  IEC 60068-2: Environmental Systems  IEC 61000: Electromagnetic Compatiblity  EN-50178: Electrical Safety  IEC 62166/UL 1741/IEEE 1547: Islanding of Grid  IEC 62093: Reliability Test
  22. 22. STRINGING (100 KW SOLAR POWER PLANT) Using ‘Canadian Solar’ modules (300 W) and ‘Delta RPI M20A’ and ‘Delta RPI M30A’ Inverters.Total no. of Modules= 100000/300 = 333.33 ≈ 334 RPI M20A can have 4 inputs, where as RPI M30A can have 6 inputs. Therefore, there will be 20 inputs as we will use 2 RPI M20 A and 2 RPI M30A inverters. Also 334/20= 16.7, which implies that no. of modules in a string per input will be 16 or 17. RPI M30A RPI M30A RPI M20A RPI M20A 29.7 kW 20.4 kW 20.4 kW 29.7 kW 100.2 kW 17 X 3 16 X 3 17 X 4 17 X 4 16 X 3 17 X 3
  23. 23. Single Line Diagram- NOFC, Ghaziabad (100 kW)
  24. 24. CUF VS. PR  Capacity Utilization Factor(CUF)= Energy Measured(kWh)/(365* 24*installed capacity of the plant)  Performance Ratio(PR) for a period of time= Energy measured(kWh)/(Irradiance (kWh/m2) on the panel x Active area of PV module(m2) x PV module efficiency)
  25. 25. NET METERING The utility grid is a two-way street! Electricity can be “sent back” to the grid by the customer.
  26. 26. REMOTE MONITORING  Extra hardware sends inverter data to internet  Inverter company or 3rd party hosts website  Customer can view system from home or remotely  Current and historical data can be displayed
  27. 27. SOME EXAMPLES OF E- MONITORING  Delta Irradiance Power (1)
  28. 28.  Advanced Energy  Trinity Touch Irradiance Energy (2)
  29. 29. PRESENT PV SCENARIO IN INDIA  In terms of overall installed PV capacity, India comes fourth after Japan, Germany and U.S. (With Installed capacity of 110 MW)  In the area of Photovoltaics India today is the second largest manufacturer in the world of PV panels based on crystalline solar cells. (Industrial production in this area has reached a level of 11 MW per year which is about 10% of the world’s total PV production)  A major drive has also been initiated by the Government to export Indian PV products, systems, technologies and services (Solar Photovoltaic plant and equipment has been exported to countries in the Middle East and Africa)
  30. 30. A STEP TOWARDS ACHIEVING THE VISION The Delhi Government has decided to make use of solar power compulsory for lighting up hoardings and for street lighting
  31. 31. “ By the year 2030, India should achieve Energy Independence through solar power and other forms of renewable energy ” Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam President of India Independence Day Speech, 2005 GLOBAL SCENARIO Solar Electric Energy demand has grown consistently by 20-25% per annum over the past 20 years (from 26 MW back in 1980 to 127MW in 1997) At present solar photovoltaic is not the prime contributor to the electrical capacities but the pace at which advancement of PV technology and with the rising demand of cleaner source of energy it is expected by 2030 solar PV will have a leading role in electricity generation Research is underway for new fabrication techniques, like those used for microchips. Alternative materials like cadmium sulfide and gallium arsenide ,thin-film cells are in development
  33. 33. FIELD TRIPS  Jakson Engg Ltd. (Terrace)  Jakson Manufacturing Plant
  34. 34. JAKSON ENGG. LTD. (TERRACE) (1) Total no. of 250 W modules= 98 Total no. of 255 W modules= 62 Total Power of the plant= 40.31 kW
  35. 35. Module Mounting Structure (MMS) Connectors (DC Solar Cable) AC Distribution Board Earthing Strip (2) Array (String of modules) Module
  36. 36. (3) Inverter Shed Inverter Cable Tray (For Rooftop, and also used in Trenches in Control Room ) PVC Condute (Protection of wires) Column Rafter Module Connecting Clamp WMD (Weather Monitoring Device Radiation Sensor PCC/RCC Foundation
  37. 37. JAKSON MANUFACTURING PLANT  DG Sets (1) Jakson: Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) (Jakson only assembles the equipments) Cummins & Stamford: Diesel Engine
  38. 38.  Panels (2)
  39. 39.  Machine Shop (3) • Automatic Machines • Two Punching machines • Three Wending Machines
  40. 40.  Fabrication (4) • MIG Welding • Power Coating • Power Curing Oven • Oil Surface Removal • Chemical Wash • Phosphating • Passivation • Water Drying Oven • Compartment Boot (Automatic Painting) • Final Oven
  41. 41.  Solar (5) Dimension: 156 x 156 mm 200 W Thickness: 200 µm Sheet: EVA (Ethyl Vinyl Acetate) • Laser Cutting • Tabbing and Stringing • Bussing and Layering • Test for Bubbles and Dust • EL (Electro Luminous) Tester • Automatic Lamination Machine • Sun Simulator (IV Curve to test the Output current and Output Voltage
  42. 42.  Roll Forming (6)
  43. 43.  Junk Yard (7)