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imec ecoTips Bizzclub over duurzame energie, zonnecellen, batterijtechnologie en nog meer

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Jef Poortmans van imec gaf op 6 juni een presentatie aan de ecoTips Bizzclub. Over imec zelf, energieprojecten.

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imec ecoTips Bizzclub over duurzame energie, zonnecellen, batterijtechnologie en nog meer

  1. 1. PUBLIC VISIT ECOTIPS BUSINESS CLUB: SMART ENERGY 06-06-2017 JEF POORTMANS
  2. 2. World-leading research in nano- electronics Combining scientific knowledge with innovation power through global partnerships in ICT, healthcare and energy Toward industry-relevant technology solutions for a better life in a sustainable society With international top talent in an unique high-tech environment MISSION
  3. 3.  Founded in 1984 in Leuven, Belgium  Independent non-for-profit organization  ~600M€ revenue in 2016  Collaboration with ~600 companies and ~200 universities  >1 B€ infrastructure  ~3400 people working at imec & iMinds  ~500 residents and ~70 nationalities  ~1000 peer-reviewed publications per year  ~125 patents filed per year 200MM CMOS LINE CLEANROOM UNDER CONSTRUCTION BATTERY LAB SILICON SOLAR CELL LINE THIN FILM LINE 300MM CMOS LINE NERF LAB
  4. 4. REVENUE 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2016: ~500M€
  5. 5. REVENUE 2016: ~500M€ government support | 16% funded programs | 11% (EU, ESA, …) 72% | industry
  6. 6. 1 2 2 4 1 2 250 7 9 1 6 107 6 1 1 5 1 2 2 1 5 1 1 115 1 53 12 1 2 101 3 5 2 10 4 96 76 5 3 1 5 7 1 3 184 5 1 1 4 1 5 2 7 22 111315 1 3 8 3 1 2 3025 3 2 35 2 13 1 3 3439 6 Algeria Armenia Australia Belgium Bulgarian Canada Colombia Côted'Ivoire Cyprus Denmark Egyptian Finland Georgia Greece Hungary Indonesia Iraq Israel Japan Lithuania Malaysia Moldova Netherlands Nicaraguan NorthKorea Pakistan Philippines Portugal RussianFed. Serbia/Mon… Slovakia SouthAfrica Spain Switzerland Tunisia Uganda United… Vietnam 1250 75 DIFFERENT NATIONALITIES
  7. 7. USA SAN FRANCISCO BELGIUM - HQ LEUVEN THE NETHERLANDS EINDHOVEN INDIA BANGALORE TAIWAN HSINCHU CHINA SHANGHAI JAPAN TOKYO JAPAN OSAKA USA ORLANDO
  8. 8. SEMICONDUCTOR & SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES CORE CMOS PATTERNING TECHNOLOGY LOGIC TECHNOLOGY MEMORY TECHNOLOGY INTERCONNECT TECHNOLOGY 3D INTEGRATION OPTICAL I/O SENSOR TECHNOLOGY FLEXIBLE TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION DOMAINS SMART HEALTH SMART MOBILITY SMART CITIES SMART INDUSTRIES SMART ENERGY NETWORKING DIGITAL PRIVACY & SECURITY SOFTWARE & DATA MANAGEMENT SKILLS DIGITALTECHNOLOGY PLATFORMS
  9. 9. OUTLINE Energy & imec • PV@imec • Storage@imec • PowerDevices@imec EnergyVille & imec 9
  10. 10. ENABLINGTHE INTERNET OF POWER ... Generation Storage Distribution Dispatching Internet of Data Central Ubiquitous generation of information Central Ubiquitous storage devices Central Extreme Interconnectivity Data flow known and controllable Strongly fluctuating Internet of Power Central large-scale power plants Decentralized production – prosumers Balancing Distributed storage One-directional flow through transmission and distribution grid Bi-directional flow of energy Stable base load Highly fluctuating resources (solar, wind) Related imec-activity PV-technology Solid-state batteries Efficient convertors based on GaN Energy yield prediction
  11. 11. OUTLINE Energy & imec • PV@imec • Storage@imec • PowerDevices@imec EnergyVille & imec 11
  12. 12. PV-MODULE PRICES Source: Fraunhofer ISE (2014)
  13. 13. DOES IT END HERE? Fraunhofer ISE, 2014 Residential electricity price PV electricity price
  14. 14. PV: REDUCTION OF COST/KWh Further reduction LCOE: Reduction of cost (further scaling,standardization) Increasing performance to reduce BOS Increasing lifetime Increasing energy yield Levelized cost of electricity = Investment cost Maintenance cost + Years of operation Annual energy output x Cost for energy storage (balancing)+ Courtesy ofW. BSW,Germany
  15. 15. LEADING ULTIMATELYTO … www.agora-energiewende.org
  16. 16. CONFIDENTIAL MISSION OF IMEC PV PROGRAM IS TO DEVELOP HIGH PERFORMANCE CELL & (SMART) PV MODULE TECHNOLOGIES OPTIMIZED FOR MAXIMUM ENERGYYIELD TO PAVE A CLEAR PATH TOWARDS RELIABLE AND LOW COST OF PV GENERATED ELECTRICITY.
  17. 17. HISTORICAL EVOLUTION MARKET SHARES 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% % C o n t r i b u t i o n Cz Px Si Ribbon Si a-SI CdTe CIGS Courtesy of Paula Mints Monocrystalline Si Multicrystalline Si a-Si:H CdTe/CIGS
  18. 18. IMEC SOLAR CELLTECHNOLOGY ROADMAP 19 COMBINING THE BEST OF 2WORLDS 20 % - 10 % - 30 % - Cost(€/Wp) on module level 1.5 1 0.75 < 0.5 Efficiency target High band-gap TF-PV top cell Crystalline Si-PV Bottom cell
  19. 19. IMEC SOLAR CELLTECHNOLOGY ROADMAP 20 COMBINING THE BEST OF 2WORLDS 20 % - 10 % - 30 % - Cost(€/Wp) on module level 1.5 1 0.75 < 0.5 Efficiency target
  20. 20. 1000m² STATE OF THE ART Si SOLAR FACILITIES 21 PRE-PILOT LINEWITH INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT (“S-LINE”)
  21. 21. ACTIVITIES IN S-LINE Focus of process development on n-type Cz-Si substrates Stabilized processes available also for p-type Si Also newer types of substrates are tested e.g. epitaxial Si-wafers supplied by Crystal Solar Development of new/cost-effective process steps New passivation layers (including new types of layers for passivated contacts) New methods for local doping (laser doping, epitaxial growth) New metallization schemes Simplified cleaning schemes (cost-effective/lower amount of chemicals) Implemented and tested in 6 inch Cz-Si wafer platforms Obtain statistically relevant results by processing on sufficiently large batches of wafers Supported by: Continuous SPC-tests to keep equipment under control Cost-of-Ownership calculations 22 DEVELOPMENT OF HIGHLY PERFORMING CELL TECHNOLOGIES
  22. 22. EXCELLENT RESULTS 23 I-PERX PLATFORM All developments on industrial 6 inch n-Cz-Si, with ~ 5 Ωcm and 3 busbar design h= 22.5% h= 22.5% h= 21.6%
  23. 23. M.A. Green et. al. 1993: Respond ideally to direct and diffuse light from the sky, horizon and ground reflections. The more diffused light the highest ratio back/front Extended daily operation during summer 20% annual energy gain with typical meadow albedo’s A.Aberle et. al. 1996; Bifacial cells with bi-faciality of 98% P. Verlinden et al 1997 Boost the overall efficiency in solar airplanes as it collects light reflected from the earth and clouds Absorbs less IR and operate at lower average temperature Bi-facial cells and modules – an old story
  24. 24. OUR PRESENT FOCUS: BIFACIAL CELLS&MODULES Light can enter from both sides  high energy yield Compatible with glass-glass modules / best reliability (0.2-03% degradation/year) Compatible with east-west orientation = flatter generation profile over the day Compatible with vertical modules (soiling in dry enviroments) Low Cost-Of-Ownership Market share increase of bifacial cells (ITRPV) ENERGYYIELDVERSUS EFFICIENCY
  25. 25. 29 LATEST I-V RESULTS OF BIFACIAL CELLS Results of batch of 44 bifacial nPERT cells Plating was performed on a batch of 25 wafers simultaneously on both sides (=cassette co- plating) Measured with GridTOUCH system (wire shading removed from measurement) Measurement based on ISE CalLab calibrated reference cell 239 cm2, ~ 5 Ωcm, 180 µm Average I-V data (front STC illum.) GridTOUCH @ imec (lowly reflective chuck) Jsc (mA/cm2) Voc (mV) FF (%) Eta (%) Average 40.4 691.2 80.3 22.4 St. Deviation 0.1 1.6 0.6 0.2 Best cell 40.5 694.2 81.1 22.8
  26. 26. IMEC SOLAR CELLTECHNOLOGY ROADMAP 30 COMBINING THE BEST OF 2WORLDS 20 % - 10 % - 30 % - Cost(€/Wp) on module level 1.5 1 0.75 < 0.5 Efficiency target
  27. 27. COMBINING FORCES FOR THIN-FILM PV 31 SOLLIANCE R&D partners: ECN,TNO, imec, FZ Jülich,TU/e 250FTE >6000m2 Labs Open research lines for CIGS and Perovskites Focuses on (alternatives for) CIGS, and hybrid-organic photovoltaics (HOPV)  Development of short-term solutions and mid- and long-term R&D  Develop and improve generic technology solutions, deposition techniques, processing, and laser technologies
  28. 28. EXCELLENT RESULTS 32 OPV-CELLS AND MODULES From OPV-cells: to OPV- modules:  Certified polymer cells > 9%  Polymer module = 7.2%  Polymer tandem ≈ 9.1% (10.6%)  Polymer triple junction = 9.6%  Small molecule tandems = 9.2% Hadipour et al.,Adv. Energy Mater., 1, 930 (2011) externally certified PCE 7.8% on 1cm2 device
  29. 29. THE NEW KID ON THE BLOCK: PEROVSKITES Crystal structure similar to calcium titanate (CaTiO3) Perovskites for PV application are of nature Organic cation – central metal cation – halide anions Strong absorbing and ambipolar charge carrier transporters Very thin (300nm) active layers Easily solution processed Soluble halide precursors Low-cost, low-temperature (<150°c) coating processes  generic formula:ABX3  commonly: methylammonium - lead - halide, e.g. MALIC
  30. 30. PVVALUE CHAIN Materials PV-cell PV-module PV-system PV-system integration Equipment Equipment Covered by present imec R&D-activities Si-material Chemicals Metallization pastes … Total Kaneka PVT Schott Solar Solland Solar … Meco Rena Tempress Solaytec …
  31. 31. PVVALUE CHAIN Materials PV-cell PV-module PV-system PV-system integration Equipment Equipment Covered by present imec R&D-activities Si-material Chemicals Metallization pastes … Total Kaneka PVT Schott Solar Solland Solar … How create value in this part of the value chain? Meco Rena Tempress Solaytec …
  32. 32. PV-MODULES
  33. 33. WHY EXTENDTO PV-MODULES? More validation on module level required High performance compromised on module level when encapsulation/glass are not well adapted Energy yield optimization needs to be done on module level Traditional module certification is not matched to advanced high- performance Si cells New certification protocols require understanding of ageing phenomena inside the module Applications like BIPV require capability of dedicated module design and production
  34. 34. ENERGYYIELD MODELLING ACTIVITIES 68 IT IS ALL ABOUT THE KWh...  Energy yield modelling activities  Simulation of distributed effects in module (e.g. thermal gradients and transients from wind and wind velocity changes)  Limit computation time by scenario development  Reliable energy yield predictions of short- and longterm energy yield  First Si-modules, then extension toTF-technologies  Validation of model by indoor and outdoor measurements 293.6 295.4 293.6 293.2297.0 322.3 297.0 293.2 295.4 293.6 293.2 y x z 293.6
  35. 35. OUTLINE Energy & imec • PV@imec • Storage@imec • PowerDevices@imec EnergyVille & imec 88
  36. 36. MICRO-TECHNOLOGY IN THE ELECTRODES Separator + liquid electrolyte aluminum copper • 50 vol. % of LiMOx in cathode layer • Carbon anode - + ~100mm Particle-based Li-ion battery electrode fabricated with micron-sized powder 20mm 5mm
  37. 37. NANOPARTICLES Area-enhancement of nanoparticles increase the rate performance of cells Switch to nanoparticles is hindered by enhanced surface reactivity of nanoparticles: Negative effects of material dissolution and increase passivation layer LTO is chemically stable and also has not volume expansion Typical cathode materials (LCO, LMO, NCA) suffer from fast degradation Solutions to the chemical instability issue: Coating of the nanoparticles to block contact with liquid electrolyte solution Use “solid-electrolytes” which do not give such chemical interaction Solid-state electrolytes will also lead to safer and reliable batteries
  38. 38. THE KEY ENABLER IS ... SOLID-STATE ELECTROLYTE CONDUCTIVITY The ion conductivity of the SE determines the solid-state battery device architecture 10-7 - 10-6 S/cm 10-5 - 10-4 S/cm 10-3 - 10-2 S/cm Glass electrolyteSolid-Electrolyte Ion-Conductivity Material development Composite electrolyte Next Gen. Composite electrolyte Thin-film battery Composite film battery Particle composite battery Solid electrolyte TF Anode TF Cathode TF current collector current collector <1mm <2.5mm <2.5mm Solid electrolyte TF Conductive anode Composite cathode current collector current collector <1mm <20mm <2.5mm <5mm >70mm >70mm Composite electrodes are needed for electrodes >2.5um in thickness: active material + ionic conductor (electrolyte) + electronic conductor Thin-film electrodes and electrolyte Device development Distance between electrodes limited to 1 micron range Distance between electrodes limited to 10 micron range Distance between electrodes limited to 100 micron range
  39. 39. DESIGN OF SOLID NANOCOMPOSITE ELECTROLYTESWITH ENGINEERED ION CONDUCTIVITY We make solid electrolytes in which we replace the limited bulk ion conductivity by enhanced “surface” conductivity in the bulk How: by creation of nanocomposite materials with large interface between compositions by further engineering the ion conductivity using conductivity promotors Fast interface diffusion!
  40. 40. BATTERY LABS AND DRY ROOM Imec-Leuven: Battery lab for material development and testing with battery assembly in coin cells Imec-Genk (new site) sheet-to-sheet upscaling of processes up to large (1Ah) pouch cells Imec-Eindhoven: battery lab for assembly and battery modules
  41. 41. OUTLINE Energy & imec • PV@imec • Storage@imec • PowerDevices@imec EnergyVille & imec 96
  42. 42. DISPATCHING LOCALLY GENERATED AND STORED ENERGY Bidirectional energy flow on the grid DC-nanogrid@home (PV-modules, batteries) A lot of energy is lost in the conversion 97 MASSIVE NEED FOR EFFICIENT CONVERTORS
  43. 43. HOW REDUCE THE LOSSES IN CONVERTORS? 98 HIGH-Eg SEMICONDUCTORS ... BUT WHICH ONE? 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 Eg (eV) mn (103 cm2/V s) nsat(107 cm/s)Ebr (MV/cm) IntrinsicTemp (C) Si SiC GaN EG(eV) µn (103cm2/Vs) vsat (107cm/s)Ebr (MV/cms) Tintr (C) Si SiC GaN Eg (eV) 1.1 3.2 3.4 mn (cm2/V s) 1350 600 900 (Bulk) 1500 (2DEG) sat (107 cm/s) 1 2 2.5 Ebr (MV/cm) 0.3 3 3.3 Tintrinsic (C) 300 800 1300 Gallium Nitride High voltage High power High frequency Efficient light emission
  44. 44. OUTLINE Energy & imec • PV@imec • Storage@imec • PowerDevices@imec EnergyVille & imec 107
  45. 45. Research into sustainable energy and smart energy systems
  46. 46. © EnergyVille 10914/06/2017 Flemish energy research partnership by KU Leuven Electa Building Physics Mechanics imec Photovoltaic Research Solid-state batteries Power devices Energy yield forecasting VITO Energy Technology Sustainable Cities UHasselt Materials Reliability
  47. 47. © EnergyVille 11014/06/2017 Energyville Vision The concurrent spectacular technology innovation and cost reduction of both ICT and distributed energy resources creates a unique opportunity for the transition towards a sustainable energy system. This decentralized multi-energy system will be characterized by a dominance of electricity as energy vector strongly coupled with other carriers as for instance thermal energy. The deployment of this energy system in a highly complex urban context, ensuring security of supply, resilience and sustainability will be the cornerstone of the whole energy future.
  48. 48. Soft HardHard Soft Expertise Material Component Subsystem Nanogrid Microgrid Energy highways Materials for PV, Batteries and power transistors Multicarrier & Energy Markets Material Component Subsystem Nanogrid Microgrid Energy highways Multicarrier & Energy Markets PV-cell/module technology Battery cells Power electronic circuits (convertors, ...) Battery cell combined with BMS BIPV-modules Building electrical modelling DC-nanogrids HEMS Renovation Smart thermal storage Smart substation controllers T-storage tanks T-activated buildings Shallow geothermie Material development for higher density storage Building thermal modelling Thermal nanogrids Web tool HEMS Energy conversion technology Heat  Electricity Electricity  Heat District electrical modelling & network design City design with optimal Broadband district heating and cooling network Fault detection&management T-modelling&network design integration of RES (IDEAS) HVDC dynamics/real-time system simulation Device interoperability Operator interaction (DSO-DSO, DSO-TSO, ...) Decision support grid operators Multi-energy Decision support Energy monitoring & policies Energy scenarios&Market design Trading & managing of flexibility & interoperability imec Imec (former iMinds) Storage-integrated components Heat exchange/aggressive context
  49. 49. © EnergyVille 11314/06/2017 Embedded in an eco-system
  50. 50. © EnergyVille
  51. 51. © EnergyVille 12214/06/2017 The Story Continues: EnergyVille 2 Facilities: 4,900m² floor space 2,000m² lab space 2,900m² offices Planning: April 2016: building permit August 2016: start of construction December 2017: construction finished April 2018: installation finished
  52. 52. KEY MESSAGES imec works on the key components to enable the Internet of Power PV: Large emphasis on PV-performance to enable further LCOE-reduction  stronger emphasis on energy yield then on pure efficiency under standard conditions Storage: Towards safer and more performing batteries by Solid-State Batteries GaN-on-Si:More efficient and faster switching power devices Cooperation within EnergyVille allows to demonstrate key components/devices on system level ENABLING THE INTERNET OF POWER
  53. 53. PUBLIC

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