Kiomars dabbagh use of photovoltaic modules in desert climates

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Kiomars dabbagh use of photovoltaic modules in desert climates

  1. 1. Use of Photovoltaic modules in desert climates. Existing cases and potential for new applications. The 2 nd Kuwait Electricity Conference & Exhibition Kiomars Dabbagh, Managing Director, SCHOTT Middle East FZE, Dubai
  2. 2. Schott Solar Trailer
  3. 3. <ul><li>Content </li></ul>-WHY DO WE NEED RENEWABLES/SOLAR? -SCHOTT SOLAR, YOUR RELIABLE AND EXPERIENCED PARTNER -OFF GRID PV APPLICATIONS -IMMEDIATE MARKET POTENTIAL IN THE GCC: PV DIESEL HYBRID SYSTEMS
  4. 4. Why do we need renewable energies ? <ul><li>Climate change and rapidly growing economies, particularly in developping countries, have greatly increased the need to use renewable energy resources </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance with the terms of the Kyoto Protocol mandate reducing reliance on fossil based fuels to produce electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Germany, amongst other countries, agreed on a binding target to increase the share of renewable energies in electricity generation to at least 12,5 % by 2010  this target was already met in the middle of 2007 !! </li></ul><ul><li>Various economies in the GCC region have already set their own RE targets, or are working on their strategies to set these. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>With Concentrated Solar Power (CSP), electricity demand of the entire world could be met using less than 4% of the area of the Sahara desert </li></ul><ul><li>CSP is particularly efficient in regions with high solar irradiation and therefore offers very good options for economic development in regions of the earth’s sunbelt </li></ul>Solar energy as a locally available and unlimited raw material <ul><li>The boxes outlined in red show the solar collector areas that would theoretically be sufficient to produce enough electrical energy in Concentrated Solar Power plants to meet the electricity demands of the world, Europe (EU-25) and MENA (Middle East & North Africa) </li></ul>source: www.desertec.org
  6. 6. Solar power has the biggest potential in renewable energy Changes in the worldwide energy mix through 2100, global primary consumption Source: Solarwirtschaft.de, WBGU 2003 Prognosis of the German advisory council on global environmental change Annual energy consumption [EJ/a] Other renewables Solarthermal (only thermal) Solar electricity (PV and solarthermal power stations) Wind Biomass Hydro Nuclear Gas Coal Oil
  7. 7. World Global Irradiation Distribution on a horizontal Surface [kWh/m²a] <ul><li>The daily global irradiation is measured by a network of meteorological stations all over the world </li></ul><ul><li>The red areas indicate excellent possibilities for the utilization of solar energy </li></ul><ul><li>In sunny areas like the Sahara, the typical yearly global irradiation on one square-meter is about 2200 kWh/m². This is twice the amount of energy compared to locations in Central Europe. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Content </li></ul>-WHY DO WE NEED RENEWABLES/SOLAR? -SCHOTT SOLAR, YOUR RELIABLE AND EXPERIENCED PARTNER -OFF GRID PV APPLICATIONS -IMMEDIATE MARKET POTENTIAL IN THE GCC: PV DIESEL HYBRID SYSTEMS
  9. 9. <ul><li>International technology company, founded 1884 in Jena (Germany), Owner Carl-Zeiss-Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>2.26 M Euros sales in 2008/09; 74% exported </li></ul><ul><li>Approx. 17,400 employees worldwide </li></ul>The SOLAR business unit of SCHOTT AG Optical Industries Home Tech Home Appliances Precision Materials Pharmaceutical Systems Advanced Materials Flat Glass Electronic Packaging Lighting and Imaging Solar Segments and business units of SCHOTT AG
  10. 10. <ul><li>Development of receivers (SCHOTT Rohrglas GmbH) </li></ul><ul><li>Founding of JV RWE SCHOTT Solar </li></ul>SCHOTT Solar – experience in the manufacturing of solar energy since 1958   % 2002 1983 <ul><li>Delivery of glass tubes (SCHOTT Rohrglas GmbH) </li></ul><ul><li>to the first solar thermal power plant </li></ul>1958 <ul><li>Development of solar cells for space travel at AEG </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of a production site for modules in the </li></ul><ul><li>Czech Republic </li></ul>2004 <ul><li>100% takeover of RWE SCHOTT Solar </li></ul>2005 <ul><li> Receiver series production begins </li></ul>2006 <ul><li> Founding of JV Wacker SCHOTT Solar </li></ul><ul><li> Establishment of thin-film module production in Jena </li></ul>2007 <ul><li> Development cooperation with ersol Thin Film GmbH </li></ul><ul><li> Foundation of new sites in Spain and the USA, expansion of existing sites </li></ul>2008 1980 <ul><li>Development of thin-film solar cells at MBB (a-Si) </li></ul>2009 <ul><li> Start of production of CSP receiver and </li></ul><ul><li> PV modules in the USA </li></ul>
  11. 11. SCHOTT Solar offers high quality components for solar power plants and photovoltaic applications * CSP: Concentrated Solar Power ** PV: Photovoltaik <ul><li>Solar receiver </li></ul><ul><li>Crystalline silicon module </li></ul><ul><li>Thin film module </li></ul>SCHOTT Solar AG Solar power plants (CSP*) Photovoltaics (PV**)
  12. 12. Product portfolio Crystalline and thin film standard modules SCHOTT InDaX ® 225 Target uses Industry, agriculture, large systems, off-grid Private consumers, agriculture, industry Industry, agriculture, large systems, off-grid Standard Premium Industrial Building integrated Private consumers Name SCHOTT MONO ® 180 SCHOTT ASI ® 100 SCHOTT POLY ® 230 SCHOTT POLY ® 300 SCHOTT Solar double glass modules: 30 years performance warranty => electrity production costs approx. only 3 €Cent/kWh after the financing period - at least 10 years.
  13. 13. SCHOTT PTR ® 70 Receiver The next generation with new absorber coating Product Features of the SCHOTT PTR ® 70 Receiver Vacuum insulation minimizes heat conduction losses Durable glass-to-metal seal material combination with matching coefficients of thermal expansion Anti-reflective coating of the glass tube ensures high transmittance and high abrasion resistance New absorber coating achieves emittance ≤ 10% and absorptance ≥ 95% Improved design of bellows increases the aperture length to more than 96%
  14. 14. ASI THRU ® Solar Cell Construction Sun 1 μ m
  15. 15. Business model of SCHOTT Solar – Supply chain of solar power generation Module Crystalline Cell Wafer Ingot Silicon Module Glass Steel Receiver Concentrator mirror Trough Installation Distribution System- integration BOS Collector Plant Solar field Electricity Generation Glass Concentrated Solar Power Photovoltaic a-Si Cell
  16. 16. <ul><li>Content: </li></ul>-WHY DO WE NEED RENEWABLES/SOLAR? -SCHOTT SOLAR, YOUR RELIABLE AND EXPERIENCED PARTNER -OFF GRID PV APPLICATIONS -IMMEDIATE MARKET POTENTIAL IN THE GCC: PV DIESEL HYBRID SYSTEMS
  17. 17. Railway Signaling Station Telecom Towers
  18. 18. Battery Charge Controller Solar Generator 48V DC 48V DC AC 230 V 50 Hz Telecom Station Battery Block Inverter / Distribution Panels Other Loads AC 230 V 50Hz Aircon Unit Air-conditioned zone A Typical set-up .... By SCHOTT By Partners and Solar System Integrators
  19. 19. General System Structure allowing remote operation management of the telecom sites: Telecommunication network ... via Intranet, DSL, GPRS/UMTS or VPN via analog, ISDN, GSM and Modem Internet 1.- site management 2.- user management 3.- alarm management 4.- security 5.- reporting 6.- online access Access via Internet Browser Database Notifications Data Visualisation BTS BTS BTS
  20. 20. <ul><li>Benefits of replacing Diesel Gensets with Solar: </li></ul><ul><li>Life span exceeding 20 years for the modules – most valuable component </li></ul><ul><li>No operating cost </li></ul><ul><li>Low maintenance cost  however maintenance very important to ensure proper operation of the system </li></ul><ul><li>Proven design, performance and reliability </li></ul>
  21. 21. High Weather Resistance and h igh mechanical stability is the basis for a long time durability The most important product features of SCHOTT Solar modules 1. Structures front glass: Less reflection, higher efficiency, lower output degradation 7. Non-extruded, torsion resistant aluminum profile frame: Water cannot freeze, while the design offers max structural integrity 6. High-performance adhesion used to permanently apply the laminate to the frame: continous mechanical stability 8. Thermally hardened glass: high mechanical stability 2. Frame profile flattened towards the glass: increased ability for self-cleaning and drainage 9. Cer-doped glass: increased UV resistance 3. Weather-resistant junction box 5. Optimized distance between frame and cell: low shading 4. Optimized cell distances: to protect against stress breakage and for long term stability
  22. 22. Similar applications, including harsh environments, with proven performance: <ul><li>EGAT – Mae Hong </li></ul><ul><li>Son (Thailand) 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>500kWp </li></ul><ul><li>1680 pcs ASE-300-DG-FT </li></ul><ul><li>Ground mounted installation </li></ul><ul><li>Inverter: 2x 250kVA Sunny Central </li></ul><ul><li>Battery: 560V / 1200 Ah </li></ul>Springer Ville, Arizona Desert, 2007 (L.M. Moore & H.N. Post, Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 2008; 16:249-259) 3.51 MWp STC rating 99.7 % availability (5-year average) 1707 kWhAC/kWp (3-year average) SCHOTT ASE 300 DG Modules!
  23. 23. <ul><li>Content </li></ul>-WHY DO WE NEED RENEWABLES/SOLAR? -SCHOTT SOLAR, YOUR RELIABLE AND EXPERIENCED PARTNER -OFF GRID PV APPLICATIONS -IMMEDIATE MARKET POTENTIAL IN THE GCC: PV DIESEL HYBRID SYSTEMS
  24. 24. <ul><li>- Growing interest in PV-Diesel Hybrid Systems (PVDH) </li></ul><ul><li>due to cost reduction by adding PV to Diesel generators </li></ul><ul><li>in small or large systems </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance costs in PVDH lowered. Depending on location. </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of liters diesel fuel can be saved per day </li></ul><ul><li>kWh costs can be reduced down to 0.25 €/kW or lower </li></ul><ul><li>under the following conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Realistic Fuel Price (>= 0.8 €/Liter) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Irradiation Level (>2,000 kWh/m²/year) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long Lifetimes of PV Components in harsh environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>as well as Long Financing Periods </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Rationales for PVDH <ul><li>Electricity Gen costs in DGens: 0.3-0.6 €/kWh </li></ul><ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><li>=> GTZ visit SENELEC Senegal </li></ul><ul><li>COWI Studies Oman on Rural Diesel gens </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis and Presentation PV Tarragona: Profitability of PVDH </li></ul><ul><li>Rural Electrification Master Plan, Ministry of Energy Kenya (decon) </li></ul><ul><li>Provided that: </li></ul><ul><li>1.) Irradiation >= 1,800 kWh/m²/year </li></ul><ul><li>2.) Diesel fuel price >= 0.75 €/liter </li></ul><ul><li>3.) World market prices modules of 2009/10 </li></ul><ul><li>4.) All solar electricity absorbed by mini-grid (no storage) </li></ul><ul><li>5.) Clear off-grid situation: No other solution for remote </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinics, schools, telecom, islands, mining areas (with small storage) </li></ul></ul>Rationale for considering PVDH
  26. 26. Major advantage of a PVDH system for electricity generation in the GCC region: Solar Electricity is available when consumption is at its peak: When A/Cs are in use.
  27. 27. Kits PVDH in suitable power regions (product portfolio UNDER CONSIDERATION) Assumptions: Irradiation 1.890 W/m² (Oman Al Khuwaima) Diesel fuel price: 1 €/liter Dgen cost (only machine): 0.3 €/VA (1 €/VA total) Installation: 0.31 €/Wp Demand kWh per day DGen size Size PV Solar coverage System cost € /Wp (1.80 €/Wp for module) € /kwh pure DGen (no PV) € /kWh this system 19,200 kWh 1.000 MVA 1,900 kWp 47 % 3.10 0.31 0.24 7,800 kWh 0.365 MVA 690 kWp 47 % 3.10 0.33 0.26 1,920 kWh 0.100 MVA 190 kWp 49 % 3.10 0.4 0.33 920 kWh 0.050 MVA 99 kWp 49 % 3.10 0.5 0.42 576 kWh 0.030 MVA 61 kWp 50 % 3.10 0.62 0.55
  28. 28. <ul><li>Mae Hong Son (Thailand): </li></ul><ul><li>500 kWp PV-Diesel Hybrid System </li></ul><ul><li>To save 199.000 liters </li></ul><ul><li>of diesel fuel annually </li></ul><ul><li>Batteries: 500 kWh </li></ul><ul><li>Including training of local operators </li></ul>Gansu Province (Central China): Remote rural villages illumination at night: 25 PV-diesel Hybridsystems ,140 kWp total Diesel Generators: 15 kVA Batteries: 48 – 120 kWh 90 % night use of solar electricity Including training of installers and future operators Examples for PV-Diesel Hybrid Systems 1/2 1,800 kWh per day 9 to 30 kWh per day
  29. 29. <ul><li>Kilimahewa (Benedictinian Mission, Rural Tanzania): </li></ul><ul><li>28 kWp PV switched to diesel generator </li></ul><ul><li>Saving 10.000 liters diesel fuel every year </li></ul><ul><li>Support and installation </li></ul><ul><li>by local electricians </li></ul><ul><li>Battery 237.7 kWh </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel 31.5 kVA </li></ul>Examples for PV-Diesel Hybrid Systems 2/2 <ul><li>SUNTAINER (for Rural Clinic Tanzania): </li></ul><ul><li>4.8 kWp PV @ diesel generator 5 kVA </li></ul><ul><li>Battery: 300 Ah/120 Volt (36 kWh) </li></ul>10 - 20 kWh per day 115 kWh per day
  30. 30. An example of Solar Market Overview in Saudi Arabia E.g. Locations of DGen‘s Source: Electr. & Co-Gen. Regulation Authority (ECRA) , Dr. A.M. Al-Ibrahim
  31. 31. There is a lack of regulation in place to assist with the development of a RE/Solar market in the GCC region. The growing demand for electricity and the lack of a grid system or shortages in many areas = solar opportunities. We can wait for regulators to create the environment needed for growth .... or seize opportunities that surround us by adopting a creative approach. The choice is ours!
  32. 32. THANK YOU!

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